Introduction. by John J Riemer
What Makes a Standard? By Sally McCallum (Library of
SUMMARY. The author describes the characteristics of de jure standards developed by the formal standards organizations, ISO, ANSI, and NISO, and formal industry groups, and defacto standards developed by informal, self-selected groups and companies. A comparison with the process used to develop Internet standards is made. Three key standards for the Library community are examined against this background: those that form the basis for encoding bibliographic data (MARC), electronic documents (SGML-based), and for ordering and purchasing bibliographic items (EDIFACT-based).
IFLA and International Standards in the Area of Bibliographic Control. By
Robert P. Holley (Library and Information Science Program, Wayne State
SUMMARY. The Division of Bibliographic Control of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) has taken an active role in standard setting to foster universal bibliographic control (UBC). UBC is built upon the assumption that a national cataloging agency will catalog national imprints and then share the records nationally and internationally. Standards in support of UBC include the International Standard Bibliographic Descriptions, UNIMARC, authority lists, and miscellaneous guidelines. The IFLA standard setting process requires consensus building and compromise among the various traditions of bibliographic control. The increasing importance of library networks and the internationalization of bibliographic control may reduce the importance of IFLA as a standard setting body.
Internationalizing the Rules in AACR: Adopting and Translating AACR for Use in
Non-Anglo-American and Non-English-Speaking Cataloging Environments. By
Barbara Stern ( Los Angeles County Law Library)
INTRODUCTION. Many English-speaking and non-English-speaking countries have adopted the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd Edition after both its 1978 publication and its 1988 revision. Indeed, it has been translated into fourteen languages. This study examines some of the reasons why AACR has been internationally adopted and some of the problems encountered by various countries attempting to adapt it to a non-Anglo-American environment or translate it for a non-English-speaking environment. We examine whether AACR can be revised into a universal code or whether it must coexist with one or more other codes. We then examine the experiences of various countries that have adopted AACR2.
The Evolution of LCRIs - From De Facto Standard to? By Kay Guiles,
Robert Ewald, and Barbara Tillett (Library of Congress)
SUMMARY. This paper describes the evolution of Library of Congress Rule Interpretations (LCRIs) from what initially was internal documentation prepared for the use of descriptive catalogers at the Library of Congress to their status as a defacto national cataloging standard today and explores the role they may play in the cataloging of the future.
The Development of the MARC Format. By Karen M. Spicher (College of
Library and Information Services, University of Maryland. Ms. Spicher was selected as a
1995 Junior Fellow by the Library of Congress Manuscript Division)
SUMMARY. Use of machine-readable cataloging data requires a commitment to the standardization of data elements and record formats. Early machine-readable formats were initiated by several research libraries to serve the needs of particular university systems. In developing MARC, the Library of Congress drew on the experiences of these libraries in establishing a standard acceptable to the research library community for the interchange of bibliographic data. This article discusses early machine-readable formats influencing MARC, the origins of the MARC Pilot Project, and design factors influencing the evolution of the format through MARC II. Research was based on primary sources documenting the early history of MARC, including unpublished documents in the Library of Congress Archives.
The Core Bibliographic Record and the Program for Cooperative Cataloging. By
Sarah E. Thomas (Library of Congress)
SUMMARY. The Program for Cooperative Cataloging seeks to increase the availability of unique records created in a decentralized fashion by a network of libraries according to mutually acceptable standards. A critical element in achieving its mission is the core bibliographic record, a cataloging record that embodies the principles of usefulness, cost-effectiveness, and dynamism. The PCC intends that Program records, full or core, represent acceptable bibliographic control such that record "tweaking" at the local level is minimized. Emphasis is on essential description and on the development of trust in others' bibliographic records, obviating the need for expensive revision and leveraging scarce cataloging resources for grappling with an expanding universe of challenges.
Meta-Information Structures for Networked Information Resources. By Casey
Palowitch (University of Pittsburgh) and Lisa Horowitz (University of
SUMMARY. This article develops a model of meta-information architectures (header, local index, and directory) and presents three current or proposed meta-information structures for networked in-formation resources with applicability to organization and access in libraries and networked information environments. Special emphasis is given to the Text Encoding Initiative's TEI Header and Independent Header as a model for meta-information for academic and library needs. Recommendation is made for the specification of a generalized SGML meta-information header based on the principles of the TEI Independent Header, to address the needs of cataloging, automatic processing, and serving of networked information resources.
Standards for Name and Series Authority Records. By Judith A. Kuhagen
(Library of Congress)
SUMMARY. This article discusses the data content standards of authority work reflected in name and series authority records in the national authority file. It looks at how the standards have affected the content of the file and how the file's evolution from LC's local authority file to a national resource authority file has affected the standards. Difficult management issues are noted.
The author thanks her division chief, Barbara B. Tillett, and her colleagues Robert Ewald, Kay Guiles, and Diane Hums for their advice and assistance in the writing of this paper.
Standards and Rules for Subject Access. By Nancy J. Williamson
(Professor Emeritus, Faculty of Information Studies, University of Toronto)
SUMMARY. Standardization of subject access to bibliographic information systems is an important factor in national and international networking, cooperation, and exchange of bibliographic data. Standards, guidelines, and rules are needed to ensure consistency and quality in the design, development and application of indexing languages to documents and their citations. This paper defines the terms "standards" and "guidelines" as they apply to subject analysis used in library catalogs and bibliographic databases. It identifies and discusses the most important national and international "standards" that influence subject access to bibliographic data. Included are the tools of subject cataloging which have become standards in their own right, as well as formally prepared and approved guidelines. Each "standard" or "guideline" is described in terms of its origins, characteristics, and control and its importance in the design of bibliographic retrieval systems. Emphasis is given to the importance of the relationship between alphabetic and systematic access.
Automating the Library of Congress Classification Scheme: Implementation of the USMARC
Format for Classification Data. By Rebecca S. Guenther (Library of Congress)
SUMMARY. Potential uses for classification data in machine readable form and reasons for the development of a standard, the USMARC Format for Classification Data, which allows for classification data to interact with other USMARC bibliographic and authority data are discussed. The development, structure, content, and use of the standard is reviewed with implementation decisions for the Library of Congress Classification scheme noted. The author examines the implementation of USMARC classification at LC, the conversion of the schedules, and the functionality of the software being used. Problems in the effort are explored, and enhancements desired for the online classification system are considered.
Recent Research on the Sequential Bibliographic Relationship and Its Implications for
Standards and the Library Catalog: An Examination of Serials. By Gregory H.
Leazer (Department of Library & Information Science, University of California, Los
SUMMARY. Recent work on bibliographic relationships is evaluated. Tillet's taxonomy of bibliographic relationships and Smiraglia's taxonomy of the derivative bibliographic relationship provide the context for a discussion of recent research and standards work. Research on the sequential relationship drawn from work conducted on serials is evaluated, and the implications of that research is applied to catalog system design. Leazer's and Gorman's conceptual designs are evaluated, and are used in a critique of the USMARC format for bibliographic description.