Introduction to Issues 3-4. By Paige G. Andrew and Mary Lynette Larsgaard, Guest Editors
PROBLEM AREAS IN THE DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGING OF SHEET MAPS. by Ken
Rockwell, Map Cataloger, Marriott Library, University of Utah
ABSTRACT. This article discusses areas of the bibliographic record where differences from cataloging monographs are commonly encountered in the descriptive cataloging of flat or folded sheet maps. Major fields in the bibliographic record are treated, such as title proper, main entry, and scale, pointing out common misunderstandings and errors which those unfamiliar with cataloging maps may experience. Hints, guidelines, illustrations, and examples for the resolution of these problems are given.
THE CATALOGING OF GLOBES. By Scott R. McEathron, Map Catalog
Librarian and Liaison for Natural Resources at the University of Connecticut Libraries.
ABSTRACT. Globes are a unique cartographic format with special characteristics that need to be considered when providing bibliographic description and access. This article describes the challenges and characteristics of cataloging globes. It provides practical assistance in applying specific USMARC fields for globes. Special consideration is given to those fields that are unique to cataloging globes including: physical description areas, title, and subject access.
CATALOGING THE CONTEMPORARY PRINTED ATLAS. By Paige G.
Andrew, Maps Cataloger and the Selector for the discipline of Geography at the
Pennsylvania State University Libraries.
ABSTRACT. Creating a bibliographic description for a contemporary atlas is perhaps more easily understood if one first gives consideration to what an atlas is. It is important to know that this article deals with cartographic atlases as opposed to atlases that focus on, e.g., the anatomy of human or other bodies, or of other types such as those about minerals. Of primary consideration is that cartographic atlases are first and foremost a means of displaying graphic information about the Earth's or other celestial body's surface and/or subsurface, with the physical nature of the item following in relevance when describing the item in hand. Following an overview of what defines an atlas this paper will serve to give the cataloger who has little or no experience with this format of cartographic information guidelines towards which fields are critical to its proper description and, therefore, its accuracy of retrieval.
CATALOGING EARLY PRINTED MAPS. By Nancy A. Kandoian. Map Cataloger,The New York Public Library. ABSTRACT. In the context of machine readable cataloging for national bibliographic databases, this paper describes the cataloging of monographic early printed maps whether published separately or extracted from other publications. It deals with description and access to capture the essence of a rare or "antique" map to create a useful surrogate. The step-by-step approach, rather than breaking new ground, integrates rules and guidance from multiple sources, both cataloging tools and supplementary materials, in a narrative fashion, with reference to the sources, their specific rules, and stated policies. Reference is made throughout the text to ten sample catalog records, with MARC tagging, that are appended to the article.
CATALOGING EARLY ATLASES: A REFERENCE SOURCE, by Lisa
Romero and Nancy Romero. Lisa is Acting Communications Librarian and Associate
Professor, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and Nancy is Rare Book and Special
Collections Cataloger and Assistant Professor, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
ABSTRACT. The cataloging of early atlases presents a multitude of challenges to catalogers. This is true primarily because an atlas is a collection of maps in "book" form but also because the item is an early or "rare" item. This article attempts to provide the cataloger with the necessary guidance for cataloging early atlases by reviewing the relevant cataloging sources, discussing the issues relevant to early atlas cataloging, and providing examples of early atlas cataloging. The article is intended to serve as a "reference source" for those individuals who will be cataloging early atlases.
MAP CATALOGING AND CLASSIFICATION: THE BASIC WHO, WHAT, AND WHERE. By
Harry O. Davis and James S. Chervinko
ABSTRACT. This study explores map cataloging in academic and research libraries, analyzed by four size ranges of map collections. Topics include the locus of map cataloging, the involvement of professionals, paraprofessionals, and students in map cataloging, and perceived adequacy of staffing. Additional topics include the extent and level of MARC records in map catalogs and bibliographic utilities, and classification systems used for map cataloging. Finally, there is an examination of the predominant attributes of map cataloging and the adequacy and quality of current statistics to allow for understanding and improvement of map cataloging.
A SURVEY TECHNIQUE FOR MAP COLLECTION RETROSPECTIVE CONVERSION PROJECTS. By Paige G. Andrew, Maps Cataloger and the Selector for the discipline
of Geography at the Pennsylvania State University Libraries. ABSTRACT. Although much has
been written about the need for, methodologies, costs, and other aspects of retrospective
conversion little exists in the literature regarding retrospective conversion of
cartographic materials, and map collections specifically. Reference is usually made to the
need to survey the collection for conversion, but the author was unable to locate a
description of a random sampling technique that explains how it is applied and what the
This article introduces the use of a random sampling technique with a major university map collection. The University of Georgias Maps Collection was surveyed to ascertain how much of the existing maps card catalog needed to be converted to an electronic form for use in the local online public access catalog. In addition, the samples pulled from the survey were searched against the OCLC union catalog to determine the proportions of records that could be found in OCLC and loaded into the Georgia Libraries Information Network (GALIN), the online catalog, with no cataloging intervention versus the degree to which the maps cataloger would have to either adjust existing records available or create original records for the online catalog.
RETROSPECTIVE CONVERSION AND CATALOGING OF A MAJOR ACADEMIC MAP
COLLECTION: THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON STORY. By Kathryn Womble,
Head, Map Collection and Cartographic Information Services, University of
ABSTRACT. This article is intended to provide information to the person faced with an uncataloged map collection. The article will discuss how various projects to catalog and classify a large existing map collection were completed at the University of Washington Libraries (UW). Project planning, standards, personnel issues and costs will be discussed. Information will be presented about outsourcing map cataloging, utilizing MARCIVE/U.S. Government Printing Office cataloging records and completing a shelflist conversion project. This article deals with the cataloging and classification of print maps and aerial photographs; atlases and electronic mapping products were not included in these projects.
ENHANCING IN OCLCs MAPS FORMAT: A PARTICIPANT'S VIEW. By
Arlyn Sherwood, Illinois State Library
ABSTRACT. This article explores one of OCLCs cooperative quality control efforts, the Enhance Program, specifically in the Maps Format. Various aspects of participation in the program, such as the application process, reasons for participation, training, typical experiences, types of changes made to records, and the benefits of participation are discussed. One catalogers twelve-year experience with Maps Format records forms the basis for a list of the most common changes made to map records in the Enhance Program. The list is offered in the hope of further improving the quality of map cataloging in the creation of OCLC records.
CATALOGING CARTOGRAPHIC MATERIALS ON CD-ROMS. By Mary Lynette Larsgaard
ABSTRACT. CD-ROMs are the most frequently seen varieties of digital geospatial data in map libraries. This article is an overview of how to catalog these CD-ROMs. It is to be used in concert with the Welch and Williams article which immediately precedes it.
NAVIGATING THE G SCHEDULE. By Susan Moore
ABSTRACT. The author explores the development and use of the Library of Congress Classification G schedule. The organization of the schedule is discussed, as is the application of the schedule to the creation of class numbers. Some weakness of the schedule area also discussed.
CATALOGUING MAP SERIALS AND SERIES. By Velma Parker
ABSTRACT. This article defines and outlines the characteristics of map series, map sets, map serials, maps in multiple editions and multi-sheet single maps. Brief instructions on sources of information and general methodology used in gathering information prior to creating the entry are presented. The different methods which may be used for cataloguing series and serials are explored. There is also a brief section on cataloguing bi- and multi-lingual works in a bilingual environment. For each relevant area of description, instructions and examples are given to illustrate problems. Sections on analysis (including multi-level cataloguing)
MARC TAGS FOR CATALOGING CARTOGRAPHIC MATERIALS. By Velma Parker
ABSTRACT. This is a table of those MARC fields most frequently used when cataloging cartographic materials. The table is gives fields both for monographs and for serials.
MAPS WITH/IN PRINTED PUBLICATIONS: DESCRIPTION AND ACCESS. By Dorothy F. Prescott
ABSTRACT. This article identifies the types of publications containing maps and the need for access to maps contained in them. The emphasis is on older maps; the comments are apposite for cataloging of current maps. The needs of map users are discussed, identifying the points of access that are critical to successful map retrieval. Main entry for maps is discussed. Various categories of associated map and book items are identified, and suggestions made, with USMARC examples, as to how these maps might be treated by the cataloger.
METADATA, AN INTRODUCTION.. By Jan Smits.
ABSTRACT. With the transition from cartographic materials to spatial information the nature and amount of access data for the library field is changing. Besides bibliographic data there exists now a range of metadata, each kind for specific purposes within specific user fields. To define their relation to each other they have been put into a diagram. Through the Resource Description Framework these should all be available through a common interface for Internet-searching. To prevent confusion spatial metadata is defined. Spatial metadata introduces new elements to descriptions with new application possibilities.
SPATIAL METADATA, AN INTERNATIONAL SURVEY ON CLEARINGHOUSES AND INFRASTRUCTURES. By
ABSTRACT. Consistency and interoperability are objectives when creating standards for spatial metadata. Besides FGDC-metadata standards some other international standards are in use or will be in use soon. The use of these standards forms the basis for geospatial data infrastructures (GDI) and clearinghouses. Though most GDI's and clearinghouses are in the planning stage the contours of regional and a global geospatial data infrastructure (GGDI) are slowly emerging. Maps should be part of the interfaces, which provide access to the GDI's and clearinghouses.
CATALOGUING CARTOGRAPHIC MATERIALS IN ARCHIVES. By Hugo L.P. Stibbe
ABSTRACT. After a brief review of the history of the development of cataloguing rules for cartographic materials, both within the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules community and internationally, the author discusses the differences of the cataloguing of this material in archives compared with that in libraries. He states that the cataloguing of this material in archives relates to how the material was created or produced in the context how it was used. Archival cataloguing (or archival description as archivists prefer to call the process) emphasizes methodology over the material itself. The paper attempts to give a short overview of the methodologies, their development and application. It uses diagrams and an example to illustrate the archival methodolgy and concludes that cataloguing records and archival description records produced by these methods may co-exist on the same database but that current computer systems developed for library applications have, in general, not developed the capability to display open hierarchically structured linked multilevel descriptions such as required by the archival methodology of multilevel description.
CATALOGUING GEOLOGIC SECTIONS. By Christopher J. Thiry
ABSTRACT. In some existing cataloging records, there is evidence of considerable confusion in cataloging graphic representations of geologic measurements. The cataloging of geologic sections differs from the cataloging of maps in six areas: leader fields in a USMARC-formatted record; 0xx fields in a USMARC-formatted record; Scale; Physical description; Notes; and Subject headings. This paper will explain the use and importance of geologic sections, clarify why they should be cataloged in the USMARC Map Format, explain why they are called "sections," define what is meant by "geologic section," prescribe the rules for cataloging, and demonstrate the proper procedure for cataloging a geologic section.
CATALOGUING DIGITAL CARTOGRAPHIC MATERIALS. By Grace Welch and Frank Williams.
ABSTRACT. Cartographic materials in digital format are now a reality in modern map libraries. Libraries have been reluctant to catalogue this type of material because of the lack of cataloguing rules and the highly technical nature of the information. This paper provides a status report on cataloguing rules for electronic cartographic materials, with particular emphasis on the new fields that have been created in USMARC to accommodate the special requirements for this material. For each part of the bibliographic description, both what current cataloguing rules allow and what is being recommended as part of the revision to Cartographic Materials: A Manual of Interpretation for AACR2 is presented. The paper also looks at what is required to get started and identifies resource tools.
SUBJECT ANALYSIS FOR CARTOGRAPHIC MATERIALS. By Katherine H. Weimer.
ABSTRACT. Cartographic materials portray subject matter, focussed on geographical area, with themes and cartographic forms as other facets of interest to users. Subject headings provide access to geographic areas and subject matter, both of which are significant to reference work and organization of map collections. This article focuses on the Library of Congress subject headings system, and its method of application for cartographic materials. Specific formats - including atlases, views, globes, charts and digital maps - and typical problem areas - such as geographic names, coastlines, boundary maps, ancillary maps, facsimiles, topographic quadrangles, and maps accompanying books - are discussed.