Cataloging & Classification Quarterly
Volume 32 Number 1, 2001
EDITORIAL / by Ruth C. Carter
Carolynne Myall, Interviews Editor
An Interview with Karen Drabenstott
by Robert P. Holley
ABSTRACT: In an interview with Robert P. Holley, Karen M. Drabenstott provides a history of a professional career that has focused on subject access to information. Since her early work with Pauline Cochrane, she has strongly supported enhanced bibliographic records as a way to improve user access in the online catalog. Her Dewey Decimal Classification Online project showed that the classification offers increased subject retrieval. Her current projects include improved strategies for Web searching and multimedia literacy including subject access.
KEYWORDS. Karen M. Drabenstott, online searching, subject access, classification, multimedia, OCLC
Lyn Condron, Cecilia Piccolo Tittemore
Report on the Library of Congress Conference on Bibliographic Control for the New Millennium: Confronting the Challenges of Networked Resources and the Web, Held Nov. 15-17, 2000, in Washington, DC
by Ann M. Sandberg-Fox
Authority Control Simply Does Not Work
F H Ayres
ABSTRACT: Demonstrates through case studies how authority control simply does not work. Shows how the case studies were carried out using BOPAC2 which provides facility for downloading large files and a greater range of displays than normal OPACs. Stresses that authority control is important not only to library catalogues but also to information on the Internet. Because it is so important and because it is so expensive priority action is needed to rectify the situation. Suggests a number of ways in which this might be done.
Keywords: Authority control, OPACs, BOPAC2, Internet, Bibliographic control, Cross references
Standardization, Objectivity, and User Focus: A Meta-Analysis of Subject Access Critiques.
Hope A. Olson
ABSTRACT: Critiques of subject access standards in LIS literature have addressed biases of gender, sexuality, race, age, ability, ethnicity, language and religion as limits to the representation of diversity and to effective library service for diverse populations. The current study identifies and analyzes this literature as a basis for ameliorating systemic bias and to gather the existing literature for wider accessibility. The study analyzes five quantitative variables: standards discussed, categories of problems, marginalized groups and topics discussed, date, and basis of conclusions (research or experience). Textual analysis reveals that basic tenets of subject access - user-focused cataloguing, objectivity, and standardization - are problematized in the literature and may be the best starting point for future research. In practice, librarians can work to counteract systemic problems in the careful and equitable application of standards and their adaptation to local contexts.
Keywords: classification, subject headings, bias, subject access
Analytical Cataloging of Full-Text Journal Databases at a Middle East University
ABSTRACT: With the availability of full-text journals in CD-ROM and aggregator databases, libraries need to provide bibliographic and online access to these titles through the OPAC. The article reviews the experience of the King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Library in providing analytical cataloging to the journal-title level of full-text CD-ROM databases, including Business Periodicals Ondisc (BPO), IEEE/IEE Electronic Library (IEL), Applied Science & Technology Plus (AS&TP), and Readers' Guide Abstracts (RGA).
KEYWORDS. Analytical Cataloging, Full-Text Journals, CD-ROM Databases, Electronic Journals, KFUPM
Music Subject Cataloging and Form/Genre Implementation at the Library of Congress
ABSTRACT: Form and genre data describing what library materials are, as distinct from topical data for what they are about, has now been specifically provided for in the MARC authority and bibliographic formats. While the Library of Congress Subject Headings list (LCSH) has always had vocabulary for forms and genres, now, at the request of the library community, the Library of Congress (LC) has begun planning to implement the separate treatment of form and genre data in its subject cataloging. Creation of subdivision authority records, including those for form subdivisions, is the first step. Since the 1940s, the controlled vocabulary for subject cataloging in the field of music has been LCSH, where there are thousands of form and genre headings for musical works. Thus, in attempting to answer the many questions that arise as LC faces form/genre implementation, music provides a particularly suitable discipline through which to explore the options. Questions touch on conceptual issues, content of authority records, topical uses of form headings, how to deal with the varied syntax of LC subject headings, syndetic structure, vocabulary choices, and how best to exploit the complexities of MARC coding. Yet to be addressed are OPAC displays, as user interfaces are largely beyond the scope of the cataloging considerations under discussion.
KEY WORDS: LCSH; music subject cataloging; MARC format; form/genre implementation, Library of Congress
Linguistics and Information Processing: Provision of Syntactic and Semantic Consistency in the Language of Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) Pertaining to Literature and Librarianship: A Comparative Analysis
Josephine I. Iwe
ABSTRACT: The syntactic and semantic consistency of the subject headings of Library of Congress is a matter of concern to cataloguers who must use appropriate terminologies to describe library materials undergoing processing. This paper look at the structure of these headings by analyzing comparatively the syntactic types that make up the structures as listed in Literature and Librarianship on pages 3075 to 3085 and 3114 to 3117 respectively. Their semantic implications are also highlighted. Consistency and specificity are terms often used in criticizing LCSH. This paper examines the application of these two concepts on the structures believing that a thorough understanding of the syntactic types would help the cataloguer to determine the most appropriate and specific heading to use.
Keywords. LCSH, linguistics, subject headings, semantics
Management by Action: How We're Embracing New Cataloging Work at Tufts
ABSTRACT: Preparing for new cataloging such as metadata beyond MARC and thesauri beyond LCSH, is an exciting and daunting challenge for university libraries. Advancing technologies, as well as a growing demand for quality information with rapid access is fueling the need for technical services departments to restructure their work to accommodate the evolving world of information management. Catalogers who have been following the same procedures and practices for many years may find this change particularly difficult. Team leaders are often faced with breaking through skepticism and resistance to this new work in order to enable necessary progress. We found that discussions and gradual introduction of new directions is important to acceptance by team members. However, just as important is the implementation of an action plan to ensure that progress is ongoing. Reengineering Acquisitions and Cataloging into Current Processes and Information Management Initiatives, along with forming several focus groups to investigate and evaluate cataloging work, is proving successful for embracing new cataloging at Tufts University.
KEYWORDS: management, supervising, catalogers, professionals, teams, restructuring, reengineering, technical services, cataloging, acquisitions
Sandra K. Roe, News Editor
"Bibliographic Control: a Collaborative Activity"
This issue of Cataloging & Classification Quarterly continues existing features and columns including the News Column and the CCQ Interviews, provides a report on the Library of Congress Conference on Bibliographic Control, an opinion piece on authority control, and introduces a new column called ERC for Electronic Resources Cataloging. Lyn Condron and Cecilia Piccolo Tittemore are column editors for ERC and in their initial offering they discuss their plans for the column and also seek your input.
The interview with Karen Drabenstott provides insight into how she became interested in library and information science and focuses on her career concern of subject access to information and her support for enhanced bibliographic records.
The Library of Congress Conference on Bibliographic Control for the New Millenium tackled the challenges of networked resources and the web. Descriptive, subject and authority control issues all gained attention and discussion in the three day session. The opinion piece included in this issue provokes thought by questioning the very value of authority control. As editor, I believe it is important to confront key issues facing bibliographic control and through publication stimulate additional discussion and investigation.
Subject access is itself the focus of attention in three additional articles. Two authors report on a meta-analysis of subject access critiques while form and genre implementation at the Library of Congress is considered in the context of music subject cataloging. An author from Nigeria examines syntactic and semantic consistency in the language of Library of Congress Subject Heading using literature and librarianship for analysis. Once again it is clear how interdependent the world's libraries are in attempts to standarize cataloging and share cataloging tools. The online availability of these resources can only help improve cataloging consistency across countries.
A final new article reviews the experience of Saudi Arabia's King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Library in its provision of analytical cataloging of full-text journal databases. Finally, one article that appeared in CCQ 30(2/3) is reprinted, this time with the full complement of figures. Ordinarily an errata statement would appear. However, in this case the material inaccurately omitted is sufficiently substantive to merit reprinting the article in its entirety. The news column completes the issue.
Several trends are obvious in this issue: bibliographic control, broadly defined, is continuously evolving: subject access is every day more important: long standing assumptions can merit challenge; and, there are no geographic limits to those with a stake in the future of bibliographic control.
Cataloging and other aspects of the organization of information often see advances after opening discussion to participants of diverse specialization and geographic origin. The give and take of offering position papers that are then debated and refined is accepted widely as a means of achieving the most satisfactory approach to take to bibliographic control issues. Many international forums exist to deliberate and posit positions that are given further feedback within the appropriate groups in individual nations. As Thomas Jefferson once observed, "the wise know too well their weakness to assume infallibility; and he who knows most, knows best how little he knows."i On a similar theme Henry David Thoreau pointed out, "A man is wise with the wisdom of his time only, and ignorant with its ignorance."ii What Jefferson and Thoreau both understood is that there is no perfect final answer and that we are products of our time and should be judged in the context of our times. Consequently, it is natural that bibliographic control evolves as time passes. It encounters new challenges in uniting users with their desired information as the methods of information distribution change. New media, new formats, more diversity in users, changes in sharing data, all are part of our evolving universe of which bibliographic control is one subset. The desire to improve bibliographic control and the many iterative processes involved in agreeing on rules and standards are one aspect of acknowledging that the collective wisdom is often better than an individuals. At the same time individuals may take leadership in espousing a position or new thesis to be tested.
Similarly the process of peer review followed by Cataloging & Classification Quarterly and many other professional journals is designed to give an author the benefit of the wisdom of experienced individuals in the field. With few exceptions authors are grateful for the comments they receive and the opportunity to improve their work before it is published. I know that I have always appreciated the comments I have gotten in the review process and my final product has been improved because of the reviewers' expertise. Whether on the mini-level of reviews of individual manuscripts or the macro-level of the development of international standards in bibliographic control we benefit from collaboration, consultation, and review. Electronic communication has facilitated these processes but not changed their essence. We advance more wisely if not more rapidly through collaboration than we do singly and we anticipate the future to our best abilities while bound by the times in which we live.
-- Ruth C. Carter
Sandy Roe, News Editor
Welcome to the news column. Its purpose is to disseminate information on any aspect of cataloging and classification that may be of interest to the cataloging community. This column is not just intended for news items, but serves to document discussions of interest as well as news concerning you, your research efforts, and your organization. Please send any pertinent materials, notes, minutes, or reports to: Sandy Roe; Memorial Library; Minnesota State University, Mankato; Mankato, MN 56001-8419 (email: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org; phone: 507-389-2155). News columns will typically be available at the CCQ website (http://catalogingandclassificationquarterly.com/ccqissue.html) linked from their corresponding volume and issue numbers prior to their appearance in print.
We would appreciate receiving items having to do with:
Research and Opinion
* Abstracts or reports of on-going or unpublished research
* Bibliographies of materials available on specific subjects
* Analysis or description of new technologies
* Call for papers
* Comments or opinions on the art of cataloging
* Notes, minutes, or summaries of meetings, etc. of interest to catalogers
* Publication announcements
* Description of grants
* Description of projects
* Announcements of changes in personnel
* Announcements of honors, offices, etc.
RESEARCH & OPINION
A Bibliography of Current Issues in Authority Control (covering January 1999 to July 2000)
Alvarez, Pedro and Antonio Pulgarin-Guerrero. "Measuring information through topical subheadings of the MEDLINE database: a case study." Journal of Information Science, vol. 25 no. 5 (1999): 395-402.
Ayers, F. H. "Time for Change: A New Approach to Cataloguing Concepts." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, vol. 28 no. 2 (1999): 3-16.
Barret, H. "Authority/thesaurus at Department of Health Library." Catalogue and Index, no. 131 (1999): 6-9.
Beall, Jeffrey. "Indexing Form and Genre Terms in a Large Academic OPAC: the Harvard Experience." Cataloging &Classification Quarterly, vol. 28 no. 2 (1999): 65-71.
Bolick, His-chu. "Problems in the establishment of nonunique Chinese personal headings with special reference to NACO guidelines and vendor-supplied authority control at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill." Library Resources and Technical Services, vol. 43 no. 2 (1999): 95-105.
CannCasciato, Daniel. "Retrospective Application of Subject Headings, Part 1." Library Philosophy and Practice, 2 (1) http://www.uidaho.edu/~mbolin/lppv2n1.htm, 1999.
CannCasciato, Daniel. "Retrospective Application of Subject Headings, Part 2, a Case Study at the Central Washington University Library." Library Philosophy and Practice, 2 (2) http://www.uidaho.edu/~mbolin/lppv2n2.htm, 2000.
Cataloging & Classification Quarterly vol. 29 no. 1/2 (2000) Special Issue: "The LCSH Century: One Hundred Years with the Library of Congress Subject Headings."
Drabenstott, Karen Markey. "Interpreting the findings of 'A study of library users and their understanding of subject headings'." Technicalities vol. 19 no. 4 (1999): 1+
Drabenstott, Karen Markey, Schelle Simcox, and Eileen G. Fenton. "Do patrons understand Library of Congress subject headings? A survey of librarians and users in three Michigan public libraries." Technicalities vol. 19 no.1 (1999): 1+
Drabenstott, Karen Markey, Schelle Simcox, and Eileen G. Fenton. "End-user understanding of subject headings in library catalogs." Library Resources and Technical Services vol. 43 no. 3 (1999): 140-60.
Drabenstott, Karen Markey, Schelle Simcox, and Marie Williams. "Do librarians understand the subject headings in library catalogs?" Reference and User Services Quarterly, vol. 38 no. 4 (1999): 369-87.
Giappiconi, Thierry. "Public online access and management of documentary resources - a new role for authority files from national bibliographic agencies in local catalogs: the experience of the Fresnes Public Library, presented at the 1998 IFLA Conference." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, vol. 26 no. 4 (1999): 33-42.
Hearn, Stephen Scott. "Metadata structures and authority control." Technicalities, vol. 19 no. 6 (1999): 7-9.
Hemmasi, Harriette and David Miller, Mary Charles Lasater; edited by Arlene G. Taylor. "Access to Form Data in Online Catalogs." ALCTS Newsletter Online, 10 (4) http://www.ala.org/alcts/alcts_news/v10n4/formdat2.html, 1999.
Hoffman, Herbert H. "Non-standard chronological subdivisions in United States history": Technicalities, vol. 19 no. 1 (1999): 5.
Holm, Liv A. "Authority control in an international context in the new environment, presented at the IFLA UBCIM seminar, Vilnius, Lithuania, June 1998." International Cataloguing and Bibliographic Control, vol. 28 no. 1 (1999): 11-13.
Kuhagen, Judith. "Model C, monographic series and international standards." Serials Review, vol. 25 no. 1 (1999): 101-4.
Kulczak, Deborah E. "Name authority work for OCLC copy cataloging: is it worth the effort? A study at the University of Arkansas." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, vol. 28 no. 1(1999): 69-81.
Lubetzky, Seymour. "On the use of form headings in an alphabetical catalog, with discussion." The Library Quarterly, vol. 69 no. 2 (1999): 222-36.
Rockey, Suzanne M. "A controlled vocabulary in a changing world: debating the future of LCSH." Mississippi Libraries, vol. 63 no. 2 (1999): 37-9.
Smith, Marilyn June and Pauline Atherton Cochrane. "Creating better subject access with multiple vocabularies: upgrading the subject heading list for the Alzheimer's Association." Library Resources and Technical Services, vol. 43 no. 1 (1999): 53-8.
Snyman, M. M. M. and Marietjie Jansen Van Rensburg. "Reengineering name authority control." The Electronic Library, vol. 17 no. 5 (1999): 313-22.
Tsui, Susan Lee and Carole F. Hinders. "Cost-effectiveness and benefits of outsourcing authority control at the University of Dayton." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, vol. 26 no. 4 (1999): 43-61.
Vellucci, Sherry L. "Metadata and authority control." Library Resources and Technical Services, vol. 44 no. 1 (2000): 33-43.
Warner, Amy J. "A reaction to the findings of 'A study of library users and their understanding of subject headings'." Technicalities, vol. 19 no. 4 (1999): 4-5.
Weimer, Katherine Hart. "Subject analysis for cartographic materials." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 27(3-4) p. 385-404, 1999.
Yee, Martha M. "One catalog or no catalog?" ALCTS Newsletter (Online), vol. 10 no. 4 (1999).
LITA/ALCTS Authority Control Interest Group
SALALM XLV: Report on the Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials annual conference, Long Beach, CA, May 27-31, 2000
The Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials (SALALM) met at Long Beach California, May 27-31, 2000. Amidst panels and workshops exploring the central theme of Andean Studies: New Trends and Library Resources, catalogers were busy discussing new ways to do business and attempting to solve some persistent problems.
The Subcommittee on Cataloging and Bibliographic Technology had a lengthy and productive meeting. Attending were catalogers from the United States, Mexico, and Argentina. Vendor records continue to challenge catalog departments. This year the committee took a different approach. Realizing that expecting vendors to input catalog ready copy was impractical, the Subcommittee decided to send a request to OCLC suggesting a unique Bib Level code so that these records can be easily separated from the general cataloging workflow. Catalogers from OCLC Enhance libraries indicated that additional financial compensation for upgrading these records would encourage expeditious upgrades, and catalogers from non-Enhance libraries wanted to be able to contribute permanent upgrades.
The group also discussed the difficulties of maintaining collaborative cataloging arrangements. The Program for Latin American Cataloging (PLAC) in particular has had difficulty in keeping participants on track and in establishing an easy reporting mechanism, since all libraries have different workflows and keep statistics differently. Program goals and operating guidelines were revisited. Discussions were lively and productive, and an electronic list will be established to keep members informed and to keep the dialog going.
The panel "Cataloging and Bibliographic Control Issues" also addressed issues pertinent to catalogers. Both speakers were from the University of New Mexico. Elizabeth Steinhagen spoke about bibliographic control in Chile from the 1980s to today. The Chilean National Library created RENIB (Red Nacional de Informacion Bibliografica) in the mid-1980s with the aim to create a national union catalog. Participating libraries met to establish bibliographic standards. These standards parallel international standards: MARC, AACR2, and LCRI. NISO Z39.44 level 4 was adopted for holdings data. RENIB contains 8 distinct databases (union catalog of member libraries, serials union catalog, manuscripts catalog, catalog of the National Archives, analytics catalog, Iberoamerican catalog, catalog of the national Museum of Fine Arts Library, and union catalog of public libraries). To date, RENIB numbers 15 libraries, mostly from larger academic institutions. Smaller libraries are associate members. They can access the database but do not contribute cataloging.
Claire-Lise Benaud's presentation "Cataloging Quotas and Flexible Work Schedules: An Alternative Model at the University of New Mexico" addressed a model implemented at the General Library Catalog Department in 1998. It replaced accountability for staff from hours spent on the job to productivity as measured by a point system. The previous work culture measured cataloging statistics within a 40-hour week context. The new system measures output in terms of points earned for specific tasks or activities and allows catalogers to set their own schedules. The program, formally called the "Flextime Program and Point System" is based on three premises: productivity is defined in terms of titles cataloged rather than hours on the job; considerable scheduling freedom is allowed; and such flexibility entails production accountability. The program has drastically changed the work habits of staff members who can set their own pace, hours, and workdays. Under this system, time on the job is no longer measured. Instead, a minimum number of points has to be earned each month. Point values were based on averages for cataloging production, and on time spent on cataloging support activities and generic activities. The point system provides an objective measuring tool and allows for more uniformity and fairness in reporting and evaluating production. The presentation described the point system, how it was derived, and how it works. An analysis of productivity over six months in 1998 showed a slight productivity increase of 4%. This program is now an integral part of the culture of the department. A summary of the program detailing the points assigned to various types of cataloging was handed out.
Claire-Lise Benaud and Sharon Moynahan
Catalog Services Department, University of New Mexico
Reports from the 2000 OLAC (Online Audiovisual Catalogers, Inc.)/MOUG (Music OCLC Users Group) Conference, Seattle, Washington, October 12-15, 2000
M2 = C2E (Music Metadata = Creative Computing Environment): Formula for the 21st Century
Dr. Sherry Vellucci (St. John's University)
Sherry Vellucci spoke on the integration of science and the arts, especially music, and how changes in technology redefine what the library is and what role it plays. She first traced the evolution of the library. It began with physical, owned resources and a paper catalog, where the responsibilities of the library were clear and each functioned independently. With the advent of automation, cataloging became shared and we all saw each other's records; with integrated library systems, we lost some local control of collocation and display issues. But the library still consisted of physical resources and its role did not change appreciably. Now we are moving toward digital resources and digital libraries, where location is not a factor, the catalog accesses resources not owned, there are other lists of electronic resources not reflected in the catalog; and in academia, music departments are creating digital study materials. There is a blurring of boundaries. Where does the library begin and end? What is its function?
Libraries first tried to deal with the new digital environment by continuing in the automated mode--the InterCat project is an example--but the effort proved futile. New organizational concepts and structures for information providers and information itself were needed. Metadata is a step in that direction. Vellucci pointed out, however, that both the MARC record and the Dublin Core data set have inherent limitations in describing complex situations. She suggests that new system architectures may be needed to solve these problems. Vellucci next described the "indecs" (interoperability of data in e-commerce) principles. People and companies involved with intellectual property rights and e-commerce need many of the same things libraries do, and the "indecs" principles define them: unique identification, complexity of relationships, and the need to have interoperability among all the different metadata schemes.
Vellucci closed with a brief description of two digital music libraries, the Variations project at Indiana University and the Multimedia Library at IRCAM in Paris. She also listed areas in music information retrieval that are in need of further research.
Ball State University
The Future of Libraries and Cataloging in a Networked Multimedia Publication Environment: Some Speculations
Martha Yee (UCLA Film and Television Archive)
Martha Yee set out to answer the question, "What might the future of libraries, and therefore of catalogs, be if all information is eventually distributed through networking?"
The Internet could be a party to which no one came. Content providers are nervous about piracy, and with good reason. Prices could be so high that the market will be very small. For end-users, the Internet can be difficult to use. This problem is due to a total lack of cataloging. It could turn out that computers aren't universally available enough to allow the distribution of information through exclusively digital means. The work of installing and maintaining Internet connections is a barrier to ubiquity that television, for instance, did not offer. The Internet also suffers from a lack of standards and from difficulty establishing authenticity and preserving materials.
Yee put forth some possible positive consequences of digital distribution. Digital distribution could be easier and cheaper than existing methods and could allow archival materials to be used without the possibility of damage or loss. Eventually, equipment for using digital resources could be so common that it is no longer considered special; this could lead to a change in the physical description of items. There are also some possible negative consequences. Materials could be aimed at mass markets, leaving small niches underserved. Access could become so easy and cheap that libraries are left out of the loop. All information could become pay-per-view, as movies were when the only place to see them was in theaters.
Yee then spoke about the future of cataloging, which she defined as human intervention for information organization. She put forth the idea that artificial intelligence, or machine processing of information, could turn out to be such a failure that future generations will look on it as the 20th century equivalent of alchemy.
This speculation is based on two assumptions. The first is that authority control is central to what we do and, second, people don't want to pay for human intervention for information organization. These assumptions lead to three possible courses of action: 1) abandon human intervention, 2) provide human intervention only for a small elite, or 3) continue to use tax dollars to organize information (not necessarily information owned by/residing in a library).
When the item being cataloged is an electronic document, the very nature of cataloging should be subject to examination. Using the author's name may not be the best way to identify the document. Part of our job should be to help users make the distinction between variations in copy or manifestation, versus variations between actual editions or expressions of a work. Many works may be works of changing authorship, and changing everything else, especially title. Should a URL be considered local? True of every copy? Is it publication/distribution information, or is it more like a call number? Should it go in the bibliographic record or the holdings record? What if different URLs lead to the same page?
Yee raised the following questions about multimedia: Does text accompany moving images, or do the moving images illustrate the text? How can we describe multimedia in a way that indicates the relative weight of text, sound, moving images, still images, and anything else that might be present? Presently, the only way to articulate this very important information is through use of a summary note. In many cases, the content of an item should be treated according to AACR2 chapter 7 for moving images, while the carrier should be treated according to AACR2 chapter 9 for electronic resources. We would also benefit from a better analysis of the physical description area, so that content-related information is separated from carrier-related information.
Computer Files Cataloging Workshop
Amy K. Weiss (Appalachian State University)
Amy K. Weiss covered the cataloging of direct access computer files. She began the workshop with the basic AACR2R definition of these materials: computer files [available] via carriers (e.g. disks, cassettes, cartridges) designed to be inserted into a computer or its auxiliary equipment by the user.
MARC format selection is the initial, and perhaps greatest, challenge in computer file cataloging. Unlike other formats, a computer file can be cataloged on any kind of MARC record.
The definition of type of record code "m" was revised and narrowed in June 1997. Previously, any direct access computer file (except for cartographic materials) would have been cataloged on a type "m" computer file record. As a result of this redefinition, catalogers must make a decision about the nature of the content of the material before selecting the type of MARC record that will be used for cataloging. Weiss handed out a worksheet that gave the group a chance to identify "true" type "m" computer files such as software and games from text documents (type "a"). The bottom line on this issue: Don't stress over this. If you haven't a clue, use, type "m
Weiss emphasized that when choosing a MARC format, it is useful to load the software and examine its contents. If you load computer files, you will be able to tell what they really contain. Often, the packaging exaggerates the contents. You may want to use a stand alone PC for software loading if possible. Weiss cautioned that "computer files are generally less troublesome to load than they used to be, but every now and again one will run into a program that will rewrite the Autoexec.bat file. However, one might wish to reconsider adding such software to a circulating collection." While software loading may be time consuming and inconvenient, in the long run you are doing your patrons a service.
If you are not able to load computer files, never take the statements on the containers and accompanying materials at face value. Look at the guides for screen pictures and discussions of how to navigate in the file. Look for statements of the number of pictures or videos, evidence that information was reproduced from print sources, and anything else which will tell you what is really there as opposed to what they want you to believe is there. Statements like "develops eye hand coordination" or "fully interactive" are not meaningful in and of themselves. After all, books are also interactive and develop eye hand coordination because you have to turn the pages.
Weiss reviewed each area of the description, which is straightforward once the type of record is determined. She identified common occurrences in computer file cataloging. Titles for computer files tend to have more variation in capitalization (e.g., WordPerfect) and inclusion of publisher's name (e.g., Microsoft's Word for Windows).
A computer file should always have the following notes: The system requirements (538) and source of title (500). System requirement notes need to convey to the patron what equipment they need to run the file. The statement should be short and readable. A summary note (520) is highly recommended though not required. Subject analysis is not always ideal to describe contents of computer files, and a summary can be more exact.
The workshop ended with a discussion of access points and added entries. Normally, a computer file will have title main entry, as most often a number of individuals plus a corporate body are responsible for the work. Make as many title added entries as makes sense, as computer files have variations in spelling and spacing, and may have different titles on title screen, disc label, jewel case, and packaging.
Rebecca L. Lubas
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
CORC (Cooperative Online Resources Catalog)
Eric Childress (OCLC), Betsy Friesen (University of Minnesota), and Dr. John V. Richardson Jr. (UCLA)
Childress began with a thorough introduction to CORC, a Web-based tool developed by OCLC to enable libraries to provide better access to electronic resources. CORC also represents a new type of development process for OCLC-many units at OCLC, as well as member libraries, were involved early on in the design process, which OCLC hopes will permit a shorter lag time from idea to final product. CORC has four main modules:
1. The resource catalog contains bibliographic records for electronic resources. Records can be entered either in Dublin Core or MARC format.
2. The authority file provides direct links to bibliographic records, allowing automatic global updates of headings in bibliographic records.
3. The pathfinder database enables the easy creation and maintenance of subject bibliographies of Web resources.
4. WebDewey contains DDC, suggests Dewey class numbers for Web sites, and provides DDC-to-LCSH mapping.
Friesen described the experiences she and her colleagues have had as participants in CORC. She emphasized the importance of involving public services. She also stressed the importance of starting slowly- they began with minimal records, and the usefulness of having a clearly defined project. She also described a few of her favorite features, such as constant data, which makes the input of many similar records easier. She also likes the harvester, which creates a skeletal record by analyzing information from a web page's HTML tagging. It is, however, only as good as the code it has to work with. Multiple record harvest allows the user to put in the URL for a Web site's main page and to create basic records for the various sub-pages linked from that page (like analytics). Another convenient function allows the cataloger to guess at the form of an authority heading which it then tries to match with the authority file.
Richardson focused on CORC Pathfinders. He suggested that pathfinders could bring reference and technical services together. He talked about the traditional reference pathfinder and the need to provide users with carefully selected introductory resources, rather than everything available on a given topic. He also described the experiences of the students in his class who were assigned to create pathfinders in CORC.
Ball State University
Cataloging Internet Resources Workshop
Linda Barnhart (University of California, San Diego)
This excellent and informative workshop presented by Linda Barnhart offered much practical information on cataloging Internet resources. The workshop covered several types of Internet resources, including websites, electronic books, electronic journals, and databases. The workshop's focus was to provide basic information on cataloging Internet resources from AACR2 and MARC 21. It also offered practical tips gleaned from the experiences of catalogers at UCSD, with real-life examples. Barnhart provided a handout that included lecture notes, cataloging examples for a variety of Internet resources, and a helpful list of resources. She noted that Jay Weitz's document, Cataloging Electronic Resources: OCLC-MARC Coding Guidelines, revised 9/00, is of particular interest. The document is available at:
The importance of assessing resources for cataloging was discussed. A site should be examined carefully to determine its characteristics, means of access, and restrictions. Is the site dynamic or static, a corporate site or a personal one? Another key consideration is its relationship to existing resources in the OPAC. A helpful tip is to look at the HTML coding, particularly the title tag, which shows what the creator thought the title should be.
Support for the equipment needs of Internet catalogers is an important consideration for institutions. Barnhart argued that Internet catalogers need state-of-the-art workstations with the most up-to-date software to optimize their access to electronic resources. She recommends the adoption of an annual replacement cycle for these workstations.
Strategies for defining and prioritizing categories of Internet resources for cataloging were suggested. Criteria for prioritizing resources for cataloging could include: format (such as electronic journals), subject, resources maintained on a local server, locally created or unique resources, and resources maintained by reputable organizations. Barnhart emphasized the importance of cataloging quality and content-rich resources that meet users' needs and priorities. For those who have not yet ventured into cataloging Web resources, she suggested a pilot project approach, with the definition of a target number of resources in an area of interest to users.
Subject cataloging of Internet resources is similar to that for any other format. Barnhart noted that no LCSH form subdivision exists for websites, and cautioned against confusing topical and genre or form headings. Barnhart provided a list of subdivisions and applicable sections of the SCM (Subject Cataloging Manual). There is some debate about the desirability of classification for Websites. Barnhart noted that Internet resources must be clearly identified to prevent users from going to the shelves to find them. A possible solution is to include a class number only on the record, rather than a full call number.
Electronic book cataloging was briefly explored. Current cataloging practice treats these items as digitized reprints (LCRI 1.11A). The catalog record is based on the original print version of the book, giving the reproduction information in a 533 note. Records also include the use of the GMD [computer file] in the 245, an 006 for the electronic aspects, an 007 for more physical details, and 020 |z for the ISBN of the print version.
One of the most interesting aspects of the workshop was the glimpse provided into the innovative cataloging practices at UCSD. The use of the composite record model, local subject cataloging practices, and the addition of "hooks" to facilitate retrieval by format are some examples. The workshop highlighted the many challenges of cataloging these highly complex and dynamic resources, while proving much needed practical information.
Karen M. Letarte
Southwest Missouri State University
Map Cataloging Workshop
Susan Moore (University of Northern Iowa) and Kathryn Womble (University of Washington)
Susan Moore began the workshop with a review of resources accommodating the needs of cartographic catalogers. The most important of these resources continue to be:
Cartographic materials: a manual of interpretation for AACR2 / prepared by the Anglo-American Cataloging Committee for Cartographic Materials. Chicago : ALA, 1982
Map Cataloging Manual / prepared by Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress. Washington, DC : Cataloging Distribution Service, Library of Congress, 1991
Natural Scale Indicator (clear plastic version). Available for $7.50 US dollars as of 10/20/00 from Clifford H. Wood, PhD, Professor of Geography, Director, Memorial University of Newfoundland Cartographic Laboratory, Dept. of Geography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland A1B 3X9 Canada. See also http://www.mun.ca/geog/muncl/Products/msi.htm.
Moore pointed out the major distinctions between map cataloging and book cataloging (minus the mathematical and physical descriptions). Beginning with the fixed fields, all cartographic materials (whether digital or not) are coded Type "e." When beginning to catalog a cartographic item, five initial determinations can help get you started on the right track. These decisions include determining if an item is 1) an atlas, 2) a single map sheet, 3) a map set/series, 4) a serial or 5) a digital map. It is also important to keep in mind that the chief source of information as it applies to cartographic materials is the entire map and "prominent" is defined to be anywhere on a map. With regards to the title proper, you are encouraged to bracket additional area (place name) information in the subtitle if it is not present in the title.
Kathryn Womble then discussed scale as it relates to map cataloging including representative fractions, verbal scale statements, graphic scales, non-representative fraction scale statements, use of latitude in determining scale and the comparison with a map of known scale to determine scale. With a trusty natural scale indicator in hand, workshop participants were allowed to work through ten scale exercises. The group then reviewed and discussed the answers for each exercise.
Projection, the system used to represent information about the spherical surface of the earth on the flat surface of a map, was the next point of discussion. Projection information is transcribed from the map, its container, case, or accompanying printed material, so it is not necessary to understand the numerous different types of projections in order to catalog a map. Coordinates, the geographical grid lines used to pinpoint locations on the earth, were also discussed. It was noted that the latitude and longitude coordinates represented in field 034 are listed in the order of westernmost, easternmost, northernmost and southernmost extents (W, E, N, S), as appropriate.
Womble and Moore then demonstrated how to measure cartographic materials with thirteen examples sampling the spectrum of possibilities of map layouts and presentations. The various maps were held up and physically measured, from point to point with a ruler, graphically illustrating the many scenarios of cartography and maps on paper. Some map measurement points, among others, included: 1) measurements are given height x width rounded up to the nearest centimeter, 2) give the folded size if a map is designed to be folded, 3) if cartographic detail extends beyond the neat line, include it in the measurement and, 4) if there is no neat line, measure the "cartographic extent," which is up to and including the entire sheet.
Workshop participants received a handout on the dating of road maps, with tips for deciphering the codes of maps produced by Rand McNally and H.M. Gousha, as well as a handout regarding subject assignment for cartographic materials. Workshop participants were encouraged to not leave their natural scale indicators on the dash of their car on a hot, sunny day and to subscribe to the MAPS-L discussion list.
University of Georgia
Workshop on Cataloging Realia
Nancy B. Olson
Nancy Olson's workshop on cataloging realia reflected the practical approach that keeps nonprint catalogers coming back to learn more year after year. Her one sheet handout provided a condensed version of what constitutes realia and what properties make realia unique enough to require special rules in chapter 10 of AACR2. One difference includes a scarcity of information. The cataloger must check attached tags and labels, containers and accompanying materials or, in the case of naturally occurring objects, just review the objects themselves and try to figure out their origin.
Most vivid of Nancy's advice: Don't over study what you're doing! Do something reasonable and get on with it (an echo of the famous Jay Weitz' "Don't agonize" warning in his video workshops!). Nancy advises that, as with most cataloging, we need to start by identifying a title and then treat the rest of the record as a matter of multiple choice. Sometimes the process of elimination can be helpful with the cataloger deciding "this is not such and such."
Nancy cautioned that catalogers must be careful to distinguish between a naturally occurring object (such as a frog) and a toy representing the same creature. They will be cataloged quite differently, using different GMDs and sources of cataloging information. A cataloger error in this regards is at least bad form and can lead to the very worst sin in cataloging, misleading the patron. She explained the difference between the creator of the item and the manufacturer of an item and ask that we all catalog with the patron in mind by treating each item as unique.
The workshop ended with the participants working in groups to catalog various versions of Monopoly, from the junior edition to the Elvis Presley edition. Throughout the workshop Nancy was peppered with questions from enthusiastic participants. I am sure some of those questions and her answers will turn up in her next OLAC Newsletter column.
University of North Florida
Adam L. Schiff, Principal Cataloger (University of Washington)
This workshop was both practical and informative. Schiff began by describing SACO as a component of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC), which allows libraries to propose new LC subject headings and new LC classification and changes to existing LSCH and LCC. The submission process and approval steps were outlined, as well as the tools needed to determine changes. The SACO home page is: http://www.loc.gov/catdir/pcc/saco.html and may be accessed to view tentative subject lists.
Libraries may want to participate, according to Schiff, because the existing LCSH and LCC are not always adequate or may not cover areas that are included in libraries. New disciplines and topics are always emerging. It was pointed out that headings should be as specific as the topic. SCM H 180, section 4 describes when catalogers should assign headings that are broader or more general than the topic that it is intended to cover. SCM H 187 instructs catalogers to establish a subject heading for a topic that represents a discrete, identifiable concept. When encountering new emerging topics and disciplines, current American usage is preferred for a concept. In such cases where there is no consensus among American authorities, SCM H 187 instructs catalogers to make an intuitive judgment based on available evidence and provide UF references from any significantly different terms that have been found under the same concept.
The fundaments of the MARC 21 authority format as it pertains to subjects must be known in order to create SACO proposals for subject headings. Proposals must be submitted with explicit MARC coding. Catalogers were referred to MARC 21 Format for Authority Data published by the Library of Congress for detailed explanations. Sample exercises included explanations and examples of coding for both OCLC and RLIN, when there were differences.
Schiff pointed out that the key to doing good authority work is the citation of sources. SACO proposals should contain at least one 670 field. Examples for print, nonprint and electronic resources citations with explanations were given.
Proposal forms for Subject Authority, LC Subject Headings Change, and LC Classification were examined. Change forms are available on the web at the URL listed above and may be emailed to: email@example.com.
Adam Schiff is a gifted speaker who gently reassured and challenged participants to contribute to our profession.
Nazareth College of Rochester
Music Score Cataloging Basics
Ralph Papakhian (Indiana University)
Since most of the attendees already had at least a small amount of experience cataloging music scores, Ralph Papakhian, Head of Technical Services at the William and Gayle Cook Music Library of Indiana University, was able to focus his presentation on issues that frequently cause difficulties for those who don't regularly catalog scores (and sometimes for those who do, as well). Attendees received a very well-organized handout, which was nearly 80 pages long. It combined excerpts from rules in AACR2 with LCRIs, Music Cataloging Decisions, OCLC's Bibliographic Formats and Standards, and the presenter's own observations and explanations. It also incorporated reproductions of pertinent parts of published scores and screen captures of OCLC records, along with a 4 page bibliography of music cataloging tools, making the handout that much more useful.
The bulk of the presentation focused on difficulties encountered in describing music scores. The following topics received particular attention:
* Choosing between MARC type codes "a" and "c." (If a work is intended as a text with musical examples, use type "a;" if it intended as a composition, use type "c.")
* Cataloging individual parts vs. the whole. (For music with a score and parts, it is acceptable to have 3 records in OCLC: 1 for the score, 1 for the parts, and 1 which combines the score and parts.)
* How to identify different types of scores, such as chorus score, piano score, vocal score, and "pages of music."
* Identifying the title page of a score.
* Choosing the chief source of information when there is no title page, along with a discussion of what constitutes a cover. (A great deal of music is published without any cover at all.)
Keeping the focus on description of scores, Papakhian talked about many of the decisions a cataloger has to make when transcribing information into areas 1-4. He gave special attention to:
* How to determine if a title is a type of composition or a distinctive title, and the ramifications of this decision.
* How to handle various types of numbering that may appear with the title.
* How to treat works with the names of multiple types of compositions.
* What belongs in the edition area, the musical presentation statement area, and the statement of responsibility.
There were very interesting discussions about how to interpret various dates that might appear on a score, and also when it is appropriate to create a new record for something that might appear to be a copy at first glance. (Be aware that there are significant differences between OCLC's guidelines and the guidelines of the Library of Congress.)
Papakhian described the various kinds of information that might go into a physical description statement, pointing out differences between parts and various types of scores, along with what specific material designators are used for these types. He also talked about how to handle the diverse numbers that often appear on music scores. The session concluded with a comparison of how arrangements are handled differently in subject headings and uniform titles.
University of Akron
Descriptive Cataloging of Sound Recordings: A Workshop
Mark Scharff (Washington University, Saint Louis)
Mark Scharff distributed a detailed handout compiled by Michelle Koth, Catalog Librarian at Yale University Music Library, and Margaret Kaus, Music Cataloging and Reference Librarian, George F. DeVine Music Library, University of Tennessee. Scharff began with a general concept of sound recording cataloging. The first step is always to identify the intellectual content of the item at hand. All other decisions flow from the answer to this question. From this general beginning, the presenter addressed specifics in a number of areas. Rather than proceeding on a field-by-field basis, he instead made note of troublesome or confusing areas in the catalog record.
It is important to understand the difference between generic and distinctive titles for music recordings. Catalogers also have to determine is the item has a collective title. The web site: http://www.library.yale.edu/cataloging/music/types.htm is helpful in this step of the cataloging process. Participants were instructed to consult Chapter 5 in AACR2 to get needed information, then to go through a reductive process to arrive at an answer.
The coverage of titles continued with a discussion of the difference between the 246 and 740 fields. When cataloging a recording that contains multiple works, a cataloger may use a 246 for a variant form of the first title if the recording does not have a collective title.
A discussion of numbers included the information that catalogers should include all twelve digits when recording UPC codes in the 024 field.
Dates on compact discs continue to be challenging. "P" dates are copyright dates for the recorded sound; "c" dates (after 1971) apply to the art on the container or the text of the insert.
Spoken word recordings may include music pieces. In fixed fields, comp should be nn even if the recording does contain some songs. Spoken recordings are always cataloged as Type i. LTxt must contain a value.
For unpublished sound recordings catalogers were reminded to specify sources of information other that the item itself in a note. Catalogers should describe the original recording in the fixed fields. The country of the recording should be reflected in the country code.
For subject analysis catalogers may obtain guidance on which qualifiers to add by consulting the authority records for the shortest form of a heading. When considering form subdivisions, Scharff offered the following hints. -Drama can be used if the work can staged; -Songs and music should be used for oratorios; -Musical settings is appropriate in the text is pre-existing.
Concordia College, Moorhead, MN
Jay Weitz, Consulting Database Specialist, OCLC
The Videorecordings Cataloging Workshop at the OLAC/MOUG 2000 Conference was an enjoyable educational experience for all who attended. Jay Weitz focused on the issues in video cataloging that seem to give catalogers the most trouble, including AACR2 rules, sources of information, the input of new records into OCLC, and the cataloging of DVDs.
Weitz began by reminding catalogers of the basic rules of videorecording cataloging. Sources of information are the title frames of the video, or the container and labels. Works of mixed responsibility receive a title main entry. A basic understanding of AACR2 rules is of fundamental importance in the cataloging of videorecordings.
Next, Weitz discussed the problematic issue of input of new records into OCLC. Catalogers often feel unsure about the video records they find in OCLC. What differences justify a new record? Weitz provided guidance in the form of a list of justifiable versus unjustifiable differences. For example, justifiable differences include: differences in color/black and white, sound/silent, significantly different length, different format (ex. VHS/DVD), changes in publication dates for reasons other than packaging alone, and dubbing/subtitles. Unjustifiable differences include: absence or presence of multiple distribution or publication dates if at least one date matches the item. Catalogers were reminded that it is perfectly all right to trust their own judgment in cataloging decisions.
The lengthiest portion of the workshop focused on the cataloging of DVDs. The many questions asked by the audience reflect the widespread confusion about cataloging new formats. Weitz provided an overview of the DVD and laser optical disc format and highlighted the features of DVD, including the huge capacity of information that this format is able to store. Weitz then discussed more technical information about cataloging DVDs. The GMD for DVD is [videorecording] and the SMD is videodisc(s). There has been discussion among catalogers about changing the GMD to [DVD]. However, the decision to change the GMD to DVD may be made locally, but it is not standard practice for records added to OCLC. The |c of the 300 field
is 4 3/4 in. The 538 field is DVD, plus bracketed information detailing any special sound, color, etc. Often DVD releases of films contain extra information and film footage. If there is a substantial amount of new material such as trailers, outtakes, interviews, etc., use the release date of the DVD as the date, use date type s in the fixed field, and include a note about the release date of the original version. If the DVD is strictly a release of the same version as VHS, consider it to be a new release on a different format and use date type p in the fixed fields. DVD releases that include extra information and footage can be confusing when it comes to the playing time. For moving images, give the playing times as they would be given for a videocassette. If there is more than one section of the DVD and there are multiple playing times, state the durations in a note and add them together for the time section of the fixed field.
In closing, Weitz again reminded us that we must trust our judgment and do the best we can without becoming mired in details.
Appalachian State University
Best of Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, vol. 28
Filiberto Felipe Martinez Arellano received the Best of CCQ volume 28 award for his paper "Subject Searching in Online Catalogs Including Spanish and English Material." The award panel cited Dr. Martinez for his sound research and its future use. It shows that traditional approaches including a controlled vocabulary still have validity. In general his article speaks to the problems of bilingual and multilingual systems which are increasing in importance as time goes on.
In addition the panel gave an honorable mention to Scott Dennis for his article "Aggravating or Aggregating? Providing Effective Access to Contents of Aggregator Databases: A Reference/Collection Development Librarian's Perspective." Mr. Dennis's essay is based on his presentation made at the ALCTS Technical Services Administrators of Medium-sized Research Libraries Discussion Group at the 1999 ALA Annual meeting. His useful article
provides the CCQ readership with a public services perspective on a topic that is likely to continue to receive considerable discussion.
Ruth Carter, Editor
Cataloging & Classification Quarterly
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Canadian Subject Headings Now on the Web
On October 23, 2000 the National Library of Canada launched a new electronic product, Canadian Subject Headings on the Web. Formerly available in print only, this listing of more than 6,000 standard subject headings (in English) relating to Canada is now available free of charge on the Library's Web site at http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/cshweb/index-e.htm.
If you have a book on B.C.'s Bugaboo Park or a treatise on the formation of the new territory of Nunavut in 1999 but do not know if there are subject headings to describe them, you can find your answer in Canadian Subject Headings (CSH). The site is updated on a monthly basis, providing users with the most recent subject headings available for Canadian topics.
The listing can be searched by browsing or by exact or keyword searches. Extensive references and scope notes are provided, and full authority records are displayed in both MARC 21 and thesaurus formats. The French language equivalents provided are drawn from the standard list of French-language subject headings, Répertoire de vedettes-matičre, published by Université Laval and also available on the Web.
The National Library of Canada
i Thomas Jefferson, in a letter to Dr. Benjamin Rush, March 6, 1813, in Gordon Carruth and Eugene Erlich, the Harper Book of American Quotations (New York: Harper & Row, 1988), p. 256.
ii Henry David Thoreau, entry dated January 31, 1853, in his Journal, 1906, in Carruth and Erlich, Harper Book of American Quotations, p. 257.