Cataloging & Classification Quarterly
Volume 33, no. 2, 2001
to the news column. Its purpose is
to disseminate information on any aspect of cataloging and classification that
may be of interest to the cataloging community.
This column is not just intended for news items, but serves to document
discussions of interest as well as news concerning you, your research efforts,
and your organization. Please send
any pertinent materials, notes, minutes, or reports to: Sandy Roe; Memorial
Library; Minnesota State University, Mankato; Mankato, MN 56001-8419 (email: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org; phone: 507-389-2155).
would appreciate receiving items having to do with:
Abstracts or reports of on-going or unpublished research
Bibliographies of materials available on specific subjects
Analysis or description of new technologies
Call for papers
Comments or opinions on the art of cataloging
Notes, minutes, or summaries of meetings, etc. of interest to catalogers
Description of grants
Description of projects
Announcements of changes in personnel
Announcements of honors, offices, etc.
21 Authority Records for GSAFD Genre Terms
on Subject Access to Individual Works of Fiction, Drama, Etc., 2nd edition, was
published in 2000. The Guidelines constitute a recommendation for national
standard practice in the provision of genre and subject access to individual
works of fiction, drama, poetry, humor, and folklore in all formats. The
publication is available from ALA Editions.
order to provide libraries with the ability to more fully implement the
Guidelines and provide enhanced access to works of fiction in library catalogs,
machine-readable authority records have been created for the form/genre headings
in chapter 1 of GSAFD. A file of the records in the MARC 21 format is available
for loading into library databases. The size of the file is 58 KB, and it
contains 153 records. An ASCII version of the file (71 KB) is also available for
viewing and printing with a text editor.
authority records include reference structure and scope notes from the printed
list. (It should be emphasized that the thesaural hierarchy of the form/genre
list is incomplete, since the higher level terms, such as Fiction, Drama, so on,
are not included in the list.) The
coding of the authority records is standard MARC 21 that would be found in other
subject heading systems, such as LCSH. Coding specific to the GSAFD records is
001 Control Field: Contains a GSAFD control number.
003 Control Field: Contains the control number identifier for the ALCTS Subject
Analysis Committee, IlChALCS, whose control number is in the 001 field.
008/11 fixed field byte: Coded z for other subject heading system/thesaurus,
which in this case is gsafd.
040 |a subfield: Coded IlChALCS, which identifies the Subject Analysis Committee
as the original cataloging agency.
040 |f subfield: Identifies the subject heading system/thesaurus as gsafd.
that a new MARC Organization Code, IlChALCS, was created for the Subject
Analysis Committee, so that the source of the GSAFD authority records could be
files are available for anonymous FTP at ftp://libadmin.library.nwu.edu/gsafd/.
The MARC 21 file is named gsafd.mrc, and the ASCII file is named gsafd.mrc.txt.
Please note that no additional technical support will be provided; it is
assumed that those wishing to use the files are familiar with FTP, and that they
have access to sufficient resources for loading the MARC file into their local
catalog. For further information, and to access the files, visit http://www.ala.org/alcts/organization/ccs/sac/gsafdauthority.html.
ALCTS CCS Subject Analysis Committee
Library, Curry College
Electronic Resources: OCLC-MARC Coding Guidelines
Electronic Resources: OCLC-MARC Coding Guidelines" was revised December 6,
2001 by Jay Weitz, Consulting Database Specialist, OCLC Metadata Standards and
Quality Division. It now
incorporates the changes necessitated by the December 1, 2001 implementation of
"Amendments 2001" to the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd
edition. These revised guidelines
are intended to assist catalogers in creating records for electronic resources
in WorldCat, the OCLC Online Union Catalog and should be implemented
immediately. Included is a
definition of an electronic resource and guidelines for assigning type of
record, type and file, form of item, 006, 007, 856, and general material
designation. Also included are discussions on separate versus single records and
electronic reproductions of items previously published in print form.
It is available online at http://www.oclc.org/oclc/cataloging/type.htm.
Tools for Audiovisual & Music Catalogers
website has been compiled by a subcommittee of the Cataloging Policy Committee
of OnLine Audiovisual Catalogers, Inc. (OLAC) that lists and annotates sources
that are helpful when creating authority records for audiovisual and music
materials. As of this writing, the
site includes thirty-four annotated resources, a list of another thirty-four
which will added to the site during its annual update, and a list of resources
the compilers have chosen not to include. The
site is indexed by subject, author, and title.
It is available at http://ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/units/cts/olac/capc/authtools.html.
If you have titles to add, see errors to be corrected, or would like to
be contacted to provide annotations, please contact the individual listed as
responsible for resource maintenance.
Library, University of Akron
Core Metadata Element Set Approved
September 10, 2001 ANSI, the American National Standards Institute, approved the
Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (Z39.85-2001). The standard was processed and approved for submission to
ANSI by the National Information Standards Organization (NISO).
The standard as approved defines fifteen metadata elements for resource
description in a cross-disciplinary information environment.
These elements are: title, subject, description, source, language,
relation, coverage, creator, publisher, contributor, rights, data, type, format,
standard represents the work of the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) which
began with an invitational workshop in Dublin, Ohio in 1995.
This and subsequent workshops brought together librarians, digital
library researchers, content providers, and text-markup experts to improve
discovery standards for Web-based documents.
The Dublin Core metadata element set exists in over 20 translations, has
been adopted by CEN/ISSS (European Committee for Standardization / Information
Society Standardization System), and has official standing within the WWW
Consortium and the Z39.50 standard. The
Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an organization dedicated to promoting
interoperable metadata standards. For
more information on the DCMI, see http://dublincore.org/.
DCMI will act as the maintenance agency for the Dublin Core Metadata
Element set standard.
standard, ANSI/NISO Z39.85-2001 The Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, is
available for free downloading or hardcopy purchase at http://www.techstreet.com/cgi-bin/detail?product_id=926135.
Retrieval in a Networked Environment, IFLA Satellite Meeting, Dublin, Ohio, Aug.
IFLA Section on Classification and Indexing and the IFLA Section on Information
Technology in association with OCLC organized a satellite meeting which was held
in Dublin, Ohio prior to the Boston IFLA Conference.
Organized from general to specific, the sessions are listed below.
Very brief summaries follow the paper titles.
URLs to project sites are provided when known.
While some full papers have been made available on the World Wide Web by
the authors, it is expected that the full proceedings will be published at a
1: Retrieval in a Multilingual Environment
Subject Access across Languages and Networks" by Elisabeth Freyre, Délégation
aux relations internationals, Secteur Europe, and Max Naudi, Direction des
services et des réseaux, Bureau RAMEAU. The MACS (Multilingual Access to Subjects) project is working
to create equivalence links between the three indexing languages: SWD/RSWK (for
German), RAMEAU (for French) and LCSH (for English) so that a user's monolingual
subject search in the language of his/her choice retrieves all pertinent
documents held in catalogs in different languages.
A principle of the project is the equality of languages and Subject
Heading Languages (SHL). To use the prototype, see http://infolab.kub.nl/prj/macs/.
Languages and Multilingual Subject Access" by Dr. Gerhard J.A. Riesthuis,
University of Amsterdam. A small
model of a multilingual thesaurus is presented in which not all descriptors in a
given language have equivalent descriptors in all other languages and in which
the hierarchical structure can have variations in the different languages.
Riesthuis concludes that the search possibilities for bibliographic
databases and OPACs have increased enormously, but the rules for cataloging and
subject indexing have not kept pace. Developments
make it possible to build a multilingual thesaurus that allows
single-to-multiple equivalence, descriptors without equivalence (orphans), and
variations in hierarchical structure. Our
goal should be a system where an end user can use terms from a familiar language
and have results.
2: Retrieval across Multiple Vocabularies I
LCSH and MeSH in Information Systems" by Tony Olson, Northwestern
University, Chicago, IL, USA. Olson
reports that the mapping of the two subject lists (Library of Congress Subject
Headings and the National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings) which
began in 1991 is completed, that the data continues to be updated and
maintained, and that the data should soon be available for distribution to
libraries, vendors, bibliographic utilities, and other system developers.
Cross-browsing European Subject Gateways via a Common Classification System (DDC)"
by Traugott Koch, NetLab, Lund University, Sweden and Technical Knowledge Center
& Library of Denmark (DTV), Lyngby, Denmark; Heike Neuroth, State and
University Library Goettingen (SUB), Germany; and Michael Day, UK Office for
Library and Information Networking (UKOLN), University of Bath, UK.
Renardus is a cross-browsing feature based on the Dewey Decimal
Classification (DDC) that improves subject searching across a range of
European-based information services designed for the academic and research
communities. The paper presents
general mapping approaches and issues, the definition of mapping relationships,
and information on technical solutions and the mapping tool.
The project site can be accessed at http://renardus.sub.uni-goettingen.de/.
3: Retrieval across Multiple Vocabularies II
the World Back Together: Mapping Multiple Vocabularies into a Single
Thesaurus" by Patricia S. Kuhr, H. W. Wilson Company.
Presents the design of the database, algorithms created to link
like-concepts, and daily maintenance for a single vocabulary and reference
structure that has been created from twelve controlled vocabularies.
of Access in a Database of E-journals" by Friedrich Geisselmann, University
Library Regensburg, Germany. Describes
Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek, a database developed to offer a
user-friendly interface for electronic journal content that is independent from
publishers' websites. The system is
a web-based service outside the traditional catalog.
To view Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek, access http://www.bibliothek.uni-regensburg.de/ezeit/.
Standards, Everyday Technologies, Equitable Access" by Hope A. Olson and
Dennis B. Ward, School of Library & Information Studies, University of
Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Four
different approaches to ameliorating bias in subject access for marginalized
information sources are surveyed: revision of general standards, adaptation of
general standards, specialized standards for particular knowledge domains, and
specialized standards for particular situations. Technological alternatives and institutional barriers to
solutions are also discussed.
4: Cross-Sectoral Retrieval
Subject Retrieval in a Distributed Environment" by Dennis Nicholson and
Susannah Wake, Centre for Digital Library Research, Strathclyde University,
Glasgow, Scotland. A history of the
project is presented along with a description of the activities and outcomes of
the HILT (High-Level Thesaurus project) Stakeholder Workshop.
The project aims to study and report on the problem of cross-searching
and browsing by subject across a range of communities, services, and service or
resource types in the UK given the wide range of subject schemes and associated
practices. For more information about HILT, see http://hilt.cdlr.strath.ac.uk/.
Colorado Digitization Project: Subject Access Issues" by William A.
Garrison, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
The Colorado Digitization Project (CDP) is creating a union catalog of
metadata records from Colorado's archives, historical societies, libraries, and
museums. Use of the Dewey Decimal
Classification is also being explored. The
CDP homepage can be viewed at http://coloradodigital.coalliance.org/.
Iter Bibliography: International Standard Subject Access to Medieval and
Renaissance Materials (400-1700)" by Clare Beghtol, Faculty of Information
Studies, University of Toronto, Canada. The
subject cataloging process and subject access to records for journal articles
(using LCSH and DDC) within this comprehensive bibliography is described.
Subject analysis has three parts: a descriptive sentence; a time period;
and headings. The project involves
students and graduates in both information studies and Middle Ages and
Renaissance studies at different stages of the subject cataloging process. The project homepage is available at http://iter.library.utoronto.ca/iter/.
5: Domain-Specific Retrieval
Access to Web Resources in Education" by Michèle Hudon, École de bibliothéconomie
et des sciences de l'information, Universitéde Montréal, Montréal, Canada.
Discusses classificatory structures used to organize and make collections
of Web-based resources in education more accessible (e.g., Yahoo!, Google, Argus
ClearingHouse, Librarians' Index to the Internet, etc.).
Suggests exploring a wider variety of organizing models.
Multi-Layered, Multi-Dimensional Representation of Digital Education
Resources" by Jian Qin and Jiangping Chen, School of Information Studies,
Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y., USA. Reports
the preliminary results of a semantic mapping experiment for the Gateway to
Educational Materials (GEM) and discusses the linguistic and technical problems
Library Classification in Learning Material Metadata: the Application in IMS/LOM
and DCMES Metadata Schemas" by Aida Slavic, School of Library, Archive and
Information Studies, University College London and South Bank University,
London, United Kingdom. Presents
the EASEL (Educator's Access to Services in the Electronic Landscape) project
which uses the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) as a source of indexing
terms, a reference tool to control simple keyword indexing, and as the basis for
the subject browsing taxonomy. The project page can be viewed at http://www.fdgroup.com/easel/.
6: Tool Development for Retrieval
Construct Theory as a research tool in Library and Information Science. Case
Study: Development of a user-driven classification of photographs" by Prof.
Mary A. Burke, Department of Library and Information Studies, University College
Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland. This
project tests the validity of Personal Construct Theory for subject content
analysis of photographs and uses the Personal Construct Theory and repertory
grids to enhance retrieval of photographs. The paper concludes that Repertory Grids provide a useful
method of collecting unbiased data about what users see in visual images and for
comparing user perceptions with alternative retrieval vocabularies.
Subject Retrieval with Frame Representations" by Carol A. Bean, National
Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA and Rebecca Green, University of
Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA. Describes
frames as integrated structures that address equivalence, hierarchical, and
associative relationships. Evaluates
the use of frames to promote high recall and to give access to relevant
literature via non-matching relationships and analogy.
of an Integrated Thesaurus Management and Search System for the Networked
Environment" by Marcia Lei Zeng & Yu Chen, Kent State University, Kent,
Ohio, USA. Presents an integrated
thesaurus management and cross-thesaurus search system which the authors
designed for CAMed (comprehensive resources for complementary and alternative
7: Transformation of Traditional Tools for the Web Environment I
Library Authority Control to Network Authoritative Metadata Sources" by
Maria Inês Cordeiro, Art Library, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon,
Portugal. The evolution of work
methods and standards for the sharing of authority files is reviewed, the need
to improve the network availability and usability of authority information is
underlined, and a new philosophy and scope is proposed for library authority
work based on the primacy of the linking function of authority data and by
expanding the finding, relating, and informing functions of authority records.
Faceted Application of Subject Terminology" by Edward T. O'Neill, Eric
Childress, Rebecca Dean, Kerre Kammerer, Diane Vizine-Goetz, OCLC Online
Computer Library Center, Dublin, Ohio, USA; Lois Mai Chan, University of
Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; and Lynn El-Hoshy, Library of Congress,
Washington, D.C., USA. This
project, although not complete, demonstrates that it is viable to derive a new
subject schema based on the terminology of the Library of Congress Subject
Headings but with a simpler syntax and application rules.
Indexing Application for Organizing and Accessing Internet Resources" by
Francis J. Devadason, Director, Center for Library and Information Resources,
Asian Institute of Technology, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, Thailand.
Describes an experimental system designed to organize and provide access
to web documents using a faceted pre-coordinate indexing system based on the
Deep Structure Indexing System derived from POPSI (Postulate-based Permuted
Subject Indexing) of Bhattacharyya and the facet analysis and chain indexing
system of Ranganathan.
8: Transformation of Traditional Tools for the Web Environment II
Library of Congress Classification as a Knowledge Base for Automatic Subject
Categorization" by Carol Jean Godby and Jay Stuler, OCLC Online Computer
Library Center, Dublin, Ohio, USA. Describes
a set of experiments in adapting a subset of the Library of Congress
Classification for use as a database for automatic classification.
One goal of this project is to exploit the LCC structure for online
UDC and the World Wide Web" by Ia C. McIlwaine. Discusses recent revisions of the Universal Decimal
Classification (UDC), its analytico-synthetic basis, and its potential when
embedded in metadata or used as the basis for subject trees.
UDC is available in a Web-based version and in recent editions in many
languages. In conclusion, its
potential as a multilingual switching language is considered.
DDC-Classified Displays of NetFirst Search Results" by Diane Vizine-Goetz
and Roger Thompson, OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Dublin, Ohio, USA.
Reports on an analysis of the classification features of the OCLC
NetFirst database using criteria developed by the Subject Analysis Committee
subcommittee on Metadata and Classification and a study of the NetFirst search
logs to see how classification-based searching is used.