Cataloging & Classification Quarterly

Volume 33, no. 2, 2001


Sandy Roe, News Editor

Welcome to the news column.  Its purpose is to disseminate information on any aspect of cataloging and classification that may be of interest to the cataloging community.  This column is not just intended for news items, but serves to document discussions of interest as well as news concerning you, your research efforts, and your organization.  Please send any pertinent materials, notes, minutes, or reports to: Sandy Roe; Memorial Library; Minnesota State University, Mankato; Mankato, MN 56001-8419 (email:; phone: 507-389-2155). 

 We would appreciate receiving items having to do with:

 Research and Opinion

* Abstracts or reports of on-going or unpublished research

* Bibliographies of materials available on specific subjects

* Analysis or description of new technologies

* Call for papers

* Comments or opinions on the art of cataloging



* Notes, minutes, or summaries of meetings, etc. of interest to catalogers

* Publication announcements

* Description of grants

* Description of projects



* Announcements of changes in personnel

* Announcements of honors, offices, etc.



MARC 21 Authority Records for GSAFD Genre Terms

Guidelines on Subject Access to Individual Works of Fiction, Drama, Etc., 2nd edition, was published in 2000. The Guidelines constitute a recommendation for national standard practice in the provision of genre and subject access to individual works of fiction, drama, poetry, humor, and folklore in all formats. The publication is available from ALA Editions.

In order to provide libraries with the ability to more fully implement the Guidelines and provide enhanced access to works of fiction in library catalogs, machine-readable authority records have been created for the form/genre headings in chapter 1 of GSAFD. A file of the records in the MARC 21 format is available for loading into library databases. The size of the file is 58 KB, and it contains 153 records. An ASCII version of the file (71 KB) is also available for viewing and printing with a text editor.

The authority records include reference structure and scope notes from the printed list. (It should be emphasized that the thesaural hierarchy of the form/genre list is incomplete, since the higher level terms, such as Fiction, Drama, so on, are not included in the list.)  The coding of the authority records is standard MARC 21 that would be found in other subject heading systems, such as LCSH. Coding specific to the GSAFD records is noted below:

* 001 Control Field: Contains a GSAFD control number.

* 003 Control Field: Contains the control number identifier for the ALCTS Subject Analysis Committee, IlChALCS, whose control number is in the 001 field.

* 008/11 fixed field byte: Coded z for other subject heading system/thesaurus, which in this case is gsafd.

* 040 |a subfield: Coded IlChALCS, which identifies the Subject Analysis Committee as the original cataloging agency.

* 040 |f subfield: Identifies the subject heading system/thesaurus as gsafd.

(Note that a new MARC Organization Code, IlChALCS, was created for the Subject Analysis Committee, so that the source of the GSAFD authority records could be appropriately identified.)

The files are available for anonymous FTP at The MARC 21 file is named gsafd.mrc, and the ASCII file is named gsafd.mrc.txt.  Please note that no additional technical support will be provided; it is assumed that those wishing to use the files are familiar with FTP, and that they have access to sufficient resources for loading the MARC file into their local catalog. For further information, and to access the files, visit

David Miller

Chair, ALCTS CCS Subject Analysis Committee

Levin Library, Curry College

Milton, Massachusetts


Cataloging Electronic Resources: OCLC-MARC Coding Guidelines

"Cataloging Electronic Resources: OCLC-MARC Coding Guidelines" was revised December 6, 2001 by Jay Weitz, Consulting Database Specialist, OCLC Metadata Standards and Quality Division.  It now incorporates the changes necessitated by the December 1, 2001 implementation of "Amendments 2001" to the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd edition.  These revised guidelines are intended to assist catalogers in creating records for electronic resources in WorldCat, the OCLC Online Union Catalog and should be implemented immediately.  Included is a definition of an electronic resource and guidelines for assigning type of record, type and file, form of item, 006, 007, 856, and general material designation. Also included are discussions on separate versus single records and electronic reproductions of items previously published in print form.  It is available online at


Authority Tools for Audiovisual & Music Catalogers


A website has been compiled by a subcommittee of the Cataloging Policy Committee of OnLine Audiovisual Catalogers, Inc. (OLAC) that lists and annotates sources that are helpful when creating authority records for audiovisual and music materials.  As of this writing, the site includes thirty-four annotated resources, a list of another thirty-four which will added to the site during its annual update, and a list of resources the compilers have chosen not to include.  The site is indexed by subject, author, and title.  It is available at  If you have titles to add, see errors to be corrected, or would like to be contacted to provide annotations, please contact the individual listed as responsible for resource maintenance.


David Prochzka

Music/Special Materials Cataloger

Bierce Library, University of Akron

Akron, Ohio


Dublin Core Metadata Element Set Approved


On September 10, 2001 ANSI, the American National Standards Institute, approved the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (Z39.85-2001).  The standard was processed and approved for submission to ANSI by the National Information Standards Organization (NISO).  The standard as approved defines fifteen metadata elements for resource description in a cross-disciplinary information environment.  These elements are: title, subject, description, source, language, relation, coverage, creator, publisher, contributor, rights, data, type, format, and identifier. 


This standard represents the work of the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) which began with an invitational workshop in Dublin, Ohio in 1995.  This and subsequent workshops brought together librarians, digital library researchers, content providers, and text-markup experts to improve discovery standards for Web-based documents.  The Dublin Core metadata element set exists in over 20 translations, has been adopted by CEN/ISSS (European Committee for Standardization / Information Society Standardization System), and has official standing within the WWW Consortium and the Z39.50 standard.  The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an organization dedicated to promoting interoperable metadata standards.  For more information on the DCMI, see  DCMI will act as the maintenance agency for the Dublin Core Metadata Element set standard. 


This standard, ANSI/NISO Z39.85-2001 The Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, is available for free downloading or hardcopy purchase at


Subject Retrieval in a Networked Environment, IFLA Satellite Meeting, Dublin, Ohio, Aug. 14-16, 2001


The IFLA Section on Classification and Indexing and the IFLA Section on Information Technology in association with OCLC organized a satellite meeting which was held in Dublin, Ohio prior to the Boston IFLA Conference.  Organized from general to specific, the sessions are listed below.  Very brief summaries follow the paper titles.  URLs to project sites are provided when known.  While some full papers have been made available on the World Wide Web by the authors, it is expected that the full proceedings will be published at a later date. 

Session 1: Retrieval in a Multilingual Environment

"MACS: Subject Access across Languages and Networks" by Elisabeth Freyre, Délégation aux relations internationals, Secteur Europe, and Max Naudi, Direction des services et des réseaux, Bureau RAMEAU.  The MACS (Multilingual Access to Subjects) project is working to create equivalence links between the three indexing languages: SWD/RSWK (for German), RAMEAU (for French) and LCSH (for English) so that a user's monolingual subject search in the language of his/her choice retrieves all pertinent documents held in catalogs in different languages.  A principle of the project is the equality of languages and Subject Heading Languages (SHL).  To use the prototype, see


"Information Languages and Multilingual Subject Access" by Dr. Gerhard J.A. Riesthuis, University of Amsterdam.  A small model of a multilingual thesaurus is presented in which not all descriptors in a given language have equivalent descriptors in all other languages and in which the hierarchical structure can have variations in the different languages.  Riesthuis concludes that the search possibilities for bibliographic databases and OPACs have increased enormously, but the rules for cataloging and subject indexing have not kept pace.  Developments make it possible to build a multilingual thesaurus that allows single-to-multiple equivalence, descriptors without equivalence (orphans), and variations in hierarchical structure.  Our goal should be a system where an end user can use terms from a familiar language and have results.


Session 2: Retrieval across Multiple Vocabularies I

"Integrating LCSH and MeSH in Information Systems" by Tony Olson, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.  Olson reports that the mapping of the two subject lists (Library of Congress Subject Headings and the National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings) which began in 1991 is completed, that the data continues to be updated and maintained, and that the data should soon be available for distribution to libraries, vendors, bibliographic utilities, and other system developers.


"Renardus: Cross-browsing European Subject Gateways via a Common Classification System (DDC)" by Traugott Koch, NetLab, Lund University, Sweden and Technical Knowledge Center & Library of Denmark (DTV), Lyngby, Denmark; Heike Neuroth, State and University Library Goettingen (SUB), Germany; and Michael Day, UK Office for Library and Information Networking (UKOLN), University of Bath, UK.  Renardus is a cross-browsing feature based on the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) that improves subject searching across a range of European-based information services designed for the academic and research communities.  The paper presents general mapping approaches and issues, the definition of mapping relationships, and information on technical solutions and the mapping tool.  The project site can be accessed at


Session 3: Retrieval across Multiple Vocabularies II

"Putting the World Back Together: Mapping Multiple Vocabularies into a Single Thesaurus" by Patricia S. Kuhr, H. W. Wilson Company.  Presents the design of the database, algorithms created to link like-concepts, and daily maintenance for a single vocabulary and reference structure that has been created from twelve controlled vocabularies.


"Methods of Access in a Database of E-journals" by Friedrich Geisselmann, University Library Regensburg, Germany.  Describes Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek, a database developed to offer a user-friendly interface for electronic journal content that is independent from publishers' websites.  The system is a web-based service outside the traditional catalog.  To view Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek, access


"Mundane Standards, Everyday Technologies, Equitable Access" by Hope A. Olson and Dennis B. Ward, School of Library & Information Studies, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.  Four different approaches to ameliorating bias in subject access for marginalized information sources are surveyed: revision of general standards, adaptation of general standards, specialized standards for particular knowledge domains, and specialized standards for particular situations.  Technological alternatives and institutional barriers to solutions are also discussed.


Session 4: Cross-Sectoral Retrieval

"HILT: Subject Retrieval in a Distributed Environment" by Dennis Nicholson and Susannah Wake, Centre for Digital Library Research, Strathclyde University, Glasgow, Scotland.  A history of the project is presented along with a description of the activities and outcomes of the HILT (High-Level Thesaurus project) Stakeholder Workshop.  The project aims to study and report on the problem of cross-searching and browsing by subject across a range of communities, services, and service or resource types in the UK given the wide range of subject schemes and associated practices.  For more information about HILT, see


"The Colorado Digitization Project: Subject Access Issues" by William A. Garrison, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA.  The Colorado Digitization Project (CDP) is creating a union catalog of metadata records from Colorado's archives, historical societies, libraries, and museums.  Use of the Dewey Decimal Classification is also being explored.  The CDP homepage can be viewed at


"The Iter Bibliography: International Standard Subject Access to Medieval and Renaissance Materials (400-1700)" by Clare Beghtol, Faculty of Information Studies, University of Toronto, Canada.  The subject cataloging process and subject access to records for journal articles (using LCSH and DDC) within this comprehensive bibliography is described.  Subject analysis has three parts: a descriptive sentence; a time period; and headings.  The project involves students and graduates in both information studies and Middle Ages and Renaissance studies at different stages of the subject cataloging process.  The project homepage is available at


Session 5: Domain-Specific Retrieval

"Subject Access to Web Resources in Education" by Michèle Hudon, École de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l'information, Universitéde Montréal, Montréal, Canada.  Discusses classificatory structures used to organize and make collections of Web-based resources in education more accessible (e.g., Yahoo!, Google, Argus ClearingHouse, Librarians' Index to the Internet, etc.).  Suggests exploring a wider variety of organizing models.


"A Multi-Layered, Multi-Dimensional Representation of Digital Education Resources" by Jian Qin and Jiangping Chen, School of Information Studies, Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y., USA.  Reports the preliminary results of a semantic mapping experiment for the Gateway to Educational Materials (GEM) and discusses the linguistic and technical problems encountered.


"General Library Classification in Learning Material Metadata: the Application in IMS/LOM and DCMES Metadata Schemas" by Aida Slavic, School of Library, Archive and Information Studies, University College London and South Bank University, London, United Kingdom.  Presents the EASEL (Educator's Access to Services in the Electronic Landscape) project which uses the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) as a source of indexing terms, a reference tool to control simple keyword indexing, and as the basis for the subject browsing taxonomy.  The project page can be viewed at


Session 6: Tool Development for Retrieval

"Personal Construct Theory as a research tool in Library and Information Science. Case Study: Development of a user-driven classification of photographs" by Prof. Mary A. Burke, Department of Library and Information Studies, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland.  This project tests the validity of Personal Construct Theory for subject content analysis of photographs and uses the Personal Construct Theory and repertory grids to enhance retrieval of photographs.  The paper concludes that Repertory Grids provide a useful method of collecting unbiased data about what users see in visual images and for comparing user perceptions with alternative retrieval vocabularies.


"Improving Subject Retrieval with Frame Representations" by Carol A. Bean, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA and Rebecca Green, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA.  Describes frames as integrated structures that address equivalence, hierarchical, and associative relationships.  Evaluates the use of frames to promote high recall and to give access to relevant literature via non-matching relationships and analogy.


"Features of an Integrated Thesaurus Management and Search System for the Networked Environment" by Marcia Lei Zeng & Yu Chen, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, USA.  Presents an integrated thesaurus management and cross-thesaurus search system which the authors designed for CAMed (comprehensive resources for complementary and alternative medicine).


Session 7: Transformation of Traditional Tools for the Web Environment I

"From Library Authority Control to Network Authoritative Metadata Sources" by Maria Inês Cordeiro, Art Library, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon, Portugal.  The evolution of work methods and standards for the sharing of authority files is reviewed, the need to improve the network availability and usability of authority information is underlined, and a new philosophy and scope is proposed for library authority work based on the primacy of the linking function of authority data and by expanding the finding, relating, and informing functions of authority records.


"FAST: Faceted Application of Subject Terminology" by Edward T. O'Neill, Eric Childress, Rebecca Dean, Kerre Kammerer, Diane Vizine-Goetz, OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Dublin, Ohio, USA; Lois Mai Chan, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; and Lynn El-Hoshy, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., USA.  This project, although not complete, demonstrates that it is viable to derive a new subject schema based on the terminology of the Library of Congress Subject Headings but with a simpler syntax and application rules.


"Faceted Indexing Application for Organizing and Accessing Internet Resources" by Francis J. Devadason, Director, Center for Library and Information Resources, Asian Institute of Technology, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, Thailand.  Describes an experimental system designed to organize and provide access to web documents using a faceted pre-coordinate indexing system based on the Deep Structure Indexing System derived from POPSI (Postulate-based Permuted Subject Indexing) of Bhattacharyya and the facet analysis and chain indexing system of Ranganathan.


Session 8: Transformation of Traditional Tools for the Web Environment II

"The Library of Congress Classification as a Knowledge Base for Automatic Subject Categorization" by Carol Jean Godby and Jay Stuler, OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Dublin, Ohio, USA.  Describes a set of experiments in adapting a subset of the Library of Congress Classification for use as a database for automatic classification.  One goal of this project is to exploit the LCC structure for online subject-oriented browsing.


"The UDC and the World Wide Web" by Ia C. McIlwaine.  Discusses recent revisions of the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC), its analytico-synthetic basis, and its potential when embedded in metadata or used as the basis for subject trees.  UDC is available in a Web-based version and in recent editions in many languages.  In conclusion, its potential as a multilingual switching language is considered.


"Toward DDC-Classified Displays of NetFirst Search Results" by Diane Vizine-Goetz and Roger Thompson, OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Dublin, Ohio, USA.  Reports on an analysis of the classification features of the OCLC NetFirst database using criteria developed by the Subject Analysis Committee subcommittee on Metadata and Classification and a study of the NetFirst search logs to see how classification-based searching is used.

| CCQ Homepage | Tables of Contents | Return to Vol. 33, Nr. 2 | Informaworld |

Comments to: Jeffrey Beall at
© Haworth Press, Inc.