Cataloging & Classification Quarterly
Volume 35, no. 1-2, 2002
HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF CATALOGING AND CLASSIFICATION
Martin D. Joachim
special theme issue guest editor
Introduction by Martin D. Joachim
GENERAL WORKS ON CATALOGING RULES
Forging the Anglo-American Cataloging Alliance: Descriptive Cataloging, 1830-1908
by Virgil L. P. Blake
Abstract: This paper discusses the development of descriptive cataloging from 1830 to 1908 and focuses on the careers of Antonio Panizzi, Charles Coffin Jewett, and Charles Ami Cutter and the development of the American Library Association (ALA) and the Library Association of the United Kingdom (LAUK). It analyzes the various rules and codes put forth by both Americans and British librarians and the eventual cooperation between the United States and the United Kingdom. Keywords: Antonio Panizzi, Charles Coffin Jewett, Charles Ami Cutter, American Library Association, Library Association of the United Kingdom, descriptive cataloging, cooperative cataloging, cataloging rules.
The Original 73 Rules of the British Museum: a Preliminary Analysis
by Michael Carpenter
Abstract: The well-known 91 rules of the 1841 British Museum catalog, adopted in July 1839, had an ancestor in a draft of 73 rules from March 1839, a document that might be called the original rules of Anthony Panizzi. The code finally sanctioned by the British Museum Trustees has some substantial differences from the original draft, differences that seem to foreshadow later discussion on cataloging rules. In this preliminary analysis, some of these differences are described. Additionally, the origin of the rules is discussed. Keywords: Cataloging rules; Anthony Panizzi; British Museum rules; British Museum, Dept. of Printed Books, Catalogue of printed books in the British Museum.
Principle Issues: Cataloging Paradigms, Old and New
by E. de Rijk Spanhoff
Abstract: Recent attempts to assess the adequacy of AACR as a descriptive cataloging code for the online environment have focused attention on cataloging principles. This paper looks at some old and new attempts to isolate the fundamental principles underlying AACR. It considers catalog objectives, principles, and rules and looks at how these relate to one another. It analyzes the relationship of these principles and rules to the final product, the library catalog, pointing out differences (in this regard) between catalogs that are paper-based and those that are electronic. Finally, it comments on the present effort of the Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR to formulate a statement of principles to be included in a new introduction to AACR Keywords: Cataloging rules, cataloging aims and objectives, cataloging main entry, Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR, International Conference on Cataloging Principles, Paris Principles, International Conference on the Principles and Future Development of AACR, Anglo-American cataloguing rules evaluation.
INDIVIDUAL COUNTRIES OR REGIONS
Historical Perspectives of Cataloging and Classification in Africa
Abstract: This paper discusses the historical perspectives of cataloguing and classification practices in Africa and looks at international cataloguing practices and their implications for African librarianship. The challenges facing libraries on the continent in the cataloguing and classification of Africana materials are discussed and some suggestions offered on how the situation may be improved. Efforts towards developments of bibliographic control in Africa are highlighted. Keywords: Cataloguing—history—Africa, cataloguing perspectives—Africa, cataloguing African materials, African local materials; bibliographic control of African materials.
Facts, Approaches, and Reflections on Classification in the History of Argentine Librarianship
by Elsa E. Barber, Nicolás M. Tripaldi, Sylvia L. Pisano
Abstract: Argentine library science literature reflects a diverse interest in the subject organization of library collections. Early writings looked at the need to organize one library in particular (the National Library methodical catalog of 1893); and, therefore, the central issue was the adoption of a practical model of library organization. However, the twentieth century inaugurated the era of library studies in the strictest sense. It began an exchange of ideas about the advantages and disadvantages of Decimal Classification, and it resulted in the work of Carlos V. Penna by the middle of the century. This article is based on the analysis and interpretation of the main primary sources, with the purpose of identifying the influences of European and American library thought on the development of the history of classification in Argentina in a period during which a national library identity began to develop. Keywords: Classification history, classification systems, Argentina.
Standardization of Technical Processes in Central American Libraries
Abstract: This article discusses the standardization of technical processes in Central American libraries. Topics covered include tools used for document analysis, tools used to process documents, standards for document cataloging, development of collections on and by indigenous ethnic groups, means of access to collections of documents on and by indigenous ethnic groups, standards used for information processing, development of document databases, access to networks, need for training on information processing, and consortiums of Central American libraries. Keywords: Technical processing, Central America, document analysis, cataloging standards, collection development, indigenous ethnic groups, information processing, databases, networks, technical processing training, library consortia.
Historical Perspective of a Union Catalog in Chile: Authorities and Periodicals
by Elizabeth N. Steinhagen
Abstract: For almost 20 years, the National Bibliographic Network (Red Nacional de Información Bibliográfica (RENIB)) has been the driving force of library networking and resource sharing in Chile. Administratively dependent on the National Library (Biblioteca Nacional) and also physically located on its premises, RENIB has been very successful in bringing together librarians from most of the major Chilean libraries and in obtaining their cooperation for a number of important joint projects. The most important among these was the development of the national union catalog, which provides access to the holdings of all member libraries. An earlier project resulted in the online union list of periodicals, developed jointly with the National Commission of Scientific and Technological Research (Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)), which contains periodical records and detailed holdings data of twenty-four universities. As the bibliographic database was being planned, RENIB personnel anticipated the need for a centralized authorities database in order to maintain consistency and uniform standards. Participating libraries provided expert staff members who work jointly with RENIB in teams that build and maintain headings for names, subjects, series, uniform titles, and subdivisions and resolve conflicts. RENIB provided documentation and training and, especially, the organizational structure that now allows for continuing cooperation among institutions that, traditionally, had not worked together. Keywords: Chile, RENIB, union catalog, periodicals union list, authorities database.
Abstract: With a long history, cataloging has evolved with changes in society, economy, and technology in China. This paper presents Chinese cataloging history into four parts, with emphasis on the last two parts: the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949 and the development of cataloging after 1979 when China opened its doors to the world. Particularly important has been the rapid growth of online cataloging in recent years. The China Academic Library and Information System (CALIS), as a successful online cataloging model, is emphasized. Through investigation of the entire history of Chinese cataloging, three distinct features can be stated: (1) Standardization—switching from Chinese traditional way to aligning with international standards, (2) Cooperation—from decentralized and self-supporting systems to sharing systems, (3) Computerization and networking—from manual operation to computer-based online operation. At the end of this paper, a set of means by which to enhance online cataloging and resource sharing is suggested. Keywords: Cataloging history, online cataloging resource sharing, China, CALI
The Development of Descriptive Cataloging in Germany
Abstract: This article discusses the development of descriptive cataloging in Germany and the evolution of cataloging principles. The Instruktionen für die alphabetischen Kataloge der preußischen Bibliotheken (Instructions for the Alphabetic Catalogs of the Prussian Libraries, known as the Prussian Instructions, or PI, for short) were published in 1899. The so-called Berliner Anweisungen (Berlin Instructions,” Instructions for the Alphabetic Catalog in Public Libraries) appeared in 1938. Discussion for reform of cataloging rules began in the 1950s and received impetus from the International Conference on Cataloging Principles in Paris in 1961 and from the International Meeting of Cataloging Experts in Copenhagen in 1969. Preliminary drafts of the new Regeln für die alphabetische Katalogisierung, RAK (Rules for Descriptive Cataloging) were issued between 1969 and 1976; the complete edition of the RAK was published in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) in 1976 and in a slightly different version in 1977 for the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). A version for academic libraries appeared in 1983, followed by a version for public libraries in 1986. Between 1987 and 1997, supplementary rules for special categories of materials were published. Keywords: Descriptive cataloging history, Germany, Austria, Prussian Instructions, PI, Berlin Instructions, Rules for Descriptive Cataloging, RAK.
RAK or AACR2?: The Current Discussion in Germany on Cataloging Codes
Abstract: Discussion around the issue of cataloging codes has become heated in Germany since Germany’s national committee on cataloging standardization announced in December 2001 that its goal would now be to pursue a migration to AACR2 and MARC. Like AACR2, Germany’s current cataloging code, RAK, is based on the ISBD, but the two codes differ from each other in a number of significant ways. This paper compares German and Anglo-American cataloging practice, with particular regard to determining main entry, the treatment of corporate bodies and conferences, the treatment of personal name headings, and the treatment of multipart items. Keywords: AACR2, RAK, cataloging codes, main and added entry, corporate body headings, personal name headings, treatment of multipart items, analysis.
Historical Aspects of Cataloging and Classification in Iran
by Poori Soltani
Abstract: This article consists of three parts: 1) Introduction, 2) Cataloging and classification of manuscripts, and 3) Cataloging and classification of printed matters in Iran. In the introduction, after a short review of Iranian libraries, the historical background of Fihrist is touched upon. In the second section, the historical development of cataloging of manuscripts is discussed, emphasising the catalogs of manuscripts of the Parliament, Astani Qods, and the National Library as examples. In the third section, the history of cataloging and classification of printed books in modern times is reviewed: This event was initiated in Iran through formal and informal courses taught mainly by foreign lecturers. The initiation of the MLS degree at the University of Tehran and the establishment of TEBROC paved the way for standard rules and methods. With the amalgamation of TEBROC in the National Library, modern ways and means were developed more rapidly, hence computerization of cataloging, CIP, and IRANMARC. Keywords: Iran, cataloging, classification, manuscripts, TEBROC, National Library of Iran, library education.
Cataloging in Japan: Relationship between Japanese and Western Cataloging Rules
by Tadayoshi Takawashi
Abstract: In 1943 the Japanese League of Young Librarians published Nippon Catalog Rules (NCR1942), based on ALA 1908, and adopted the author main-entry system for Japanese and Western materials. After World War II the Japan Library Association (JLA) compiled and published NCR1952, based on ALA 1949 and LC 1949 but maintained the author main-entry system. The main-entry system was then replaced by an alternative heading method, which came to be known as the Description-Independent-System (DIS). NCR1965 adopted the main entry principle, which was based on the Paris Principles of 1961. NCR1977 was compiled and published by the JLA Cataloging Committee and based upon a “no-main-entry principle.” Then in 1987, the Committee published the standard edition of the rules, which was completely compatible with the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD). NCR1987R was published in 1994 and NCR1987R01 in 2001, which included revised “Chapter 9: Computer Files,” devised according to ISBD(ER). Keywords: Nippon Cataloging Rules, NCR, Description-Independent System, DIS, Japanese-Western relations.
Cataloging and Classification History in Mexico
by Filiberto Felipe Martínez Arellano
Abstract: This article discusses cataloging and classification history in Mexico and how cataloging and classification have evolved according to the changes that libraries and library science have experienced on both a national and international level. The first part of the article refers to the first half of the twentieth century, detailing the origins of cataloging and classification history. The second part presents discussion of the development and consolidation of both cataloging and classification during the second half of the twentieth century. The article also discusses subject headings, automation, centralization, and union catalogs in Mexico. It discusses past difficulties in creating a union catalog at a national level and the advantages of automated systems in helping to develop this needed union catalog. The article discusses the need to resume publication of the Bibliografía Mexicana. One of the main problems that Mexican libraries have faced is a scarcity of librarians adequately prepared to perform cataloging and classification of their collections. This lack of librarians is even more acute in the Mexican states. There are insufficient numbers of students in library schools to provide the staffing that libraries demand not only for cataloguing and classification but also for many other library activities. Keywords: Cataloging, classification, subject headings, union catalogs, centralized cataloging, cataloging automation, Mexico.
Three Book Collectors of Imperial Spain
by Ruth C. Carter
Abstract: During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Spain’s Empire flourished. This article discusses leading Spanish bibliophiles of its golden age with detailed attention on the private libraries of Don Fernando Colón; Diego Sarmiento de Acuña, Count of Gondomar; and Gaspar de Guzman, Count-Duke of Olivares. Their libraries are known today through extant portions of collections and/or catalogs describing each item. Colón, whose collections approached 30,000 items, established detailed procedures for catalog entries by author, title, and subject and placed an emphasis on facilitating use of his collection. Keywords: Bibliophiles; book collectors; catalog rules, private collection catalogs; Imperial Spain; sixteenth century Spain; seventeenth century Spain; Fernando Colón; Gaspar de Guzman, Count-Duke of Olivares; Diego Sarmiento de Acuña, Count of Gondomar.