Cataloging & Classification Quarterly

Volume 35, no. 1-4, 2002




Martin D. Joachim

special theme issue guest editor

Introduction by Martin D. Joachim




Forging the Anglo-American Cataloging Alliance: Descriptive Cataloging, 1830-1908

by Virgil L. P. Blake

Abstract: This paper discusses the development of descriptive cataloging from 1830 to 1908 and focuses on the careers of Antonio Panizzi, Charles Coffin Jewett, and Charles Ami Cutter and the development of the American Library Association (ALA) and the Library Association of the United Kingdom (LAUK).  It analyzes the various rules and codes put forth by both Americans and British librarians and the eventual cooperation between the United States and the United Kingdom. Keywords:  Antonio Panizzi, Charles Coffin Jewett, Charles Ami Cutter, American Library Association, Library Association of the United Kingdom, descriptive cataloging, cooperative cataloging, cataloging rules.


The Original 73 Rules of the British Museum: a Preliminary Analysis

by Michael Carpenter


Abstract: The well-known 91 rules of the 1841 British Museum catalog, adopted in July 1839, had an ancestor in a draft of 73 rules from March 1839, a document that might be called the original rules of Anthony Panizzi. The code finally sanctioned by the British Museum Trustees has some substantial differences from the original draft, differences that seem to foreshadow later discussion on cataloging rules. In this preliminary analysis, some of these differences are described. Additionally, the origin of the rules is discussed. Keywords: Cataloging rules; Anthony Panizzi; British Museum rules; British Museum, Dept. of Printed Books, Catalogue of printed books in the British Museum.


Principle Issues: Cataloging Paradigms, Old and New

by E. de Rijk Spanhoff


Abstract: Recent attempts to assess the adequacy of AACR as a descriptive cataloging code for the online environment have focused attention on cataloging principles.  This paper looks at some old and new attempts to isolate the fundamental principles underlying AACR.  It considers catalog objectives, principles, and rules and looks at how these relate to one another.  It analyzes the relationship of these principles and rules to the final product, the library catalog, pointing out differences (in this regard) between catalogs that are paper-based and those that are electronic.  Finally, it comments on the present effort of the Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR to formulate a statement of principles to be included in a new introduction to AACR Keywords:  Cataloging rules, cataloging aims and objectives, cataloging main entry, Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR, International Conference on Cataloging Principles, Paris Principles, International Conference on the Principles and Future Development of AACR, Anglo-American cataloguing rules evaluation.





Historical Perspectives of Cataloging and Classification in Africa

by Stephen M. Mutula, Mashingaidze Tsvakai


Abstract: This paper discusses the historical perspectives of cataloguing and classification practices in Africa and looks at international cataloguing practices and their implications for African librarianship. The challenges facing libraries on the continent in the cataloguing and classification of Africana materials are discussed and some suggestions offered on how the situation may be improved. Efforts towards developments of bibliographic control in Africa are highlighted. Keywords: Cataloguing—history—Africa, cataloguing perspectives—Africa, cataloguing African materials, African local materials; bibliographic control of African materials.


Facts, Approaches, and Reflections on Classification in the History of Argentine Librarianship

by Elsa E. Barber,  Nicolás M. Tripaldi, Sylvia L. Pisano


Abstract: Argentine library science literature reflects a diverse interest in the subject organization of library collections.  Early writings looked at the need to organize one library in particular (the National Library methodical catalog of 1893); and, therefore, the central issue was the adoption of a practical model of library organization. However, the twentieth century inaugurated the era of library studies in the strictest sense. It began an exchange of ideas about the advantages and disadvantages of Decimal Classification, and it resulted in the work of Carlos V. Penna by the middle of the century.   This article is based on the analysis and interpretation of the main primary sources, with the purpose of identifying the influences of European and American library thought on the development of the history of classification in Argentina in a period during which a national library identity began to develop. Keywords:  Classification history, classification systems, Argentina. 


Standardization of Technical Processes in Central American Libraries

by Alice Miranda-Arguedas


Abstract: This article discusses the standardization of technical processes in Central American libraries.  Topics covered include tools used for document analysis, tools used to process documents, standards for document cataloging, development of collections on and by indigenous ethnic groups, means of access to collections of documents on and by indigenous ethnic groups, standards used for information processing, development of document databases, access to networks, need for training on information processing, and consortiums of Central American libraries. Keywords:  Technical processing, Central America, document analysis, cataloging standards, collection development, indigenous ethnic groups, information processing, databases, networks, technical processing training, library consortia.


Historical Perspective of a Union Catalog in Chile: Authorities and Periodicals

by Elizabeth N. Steinhagen


Abstract: For almost 20 years, the National Bibliographic Network (Red Nacional de Información Bibliográfica (RENIB)) has been the driving force of library networking and resource sharing in Chile.  Administratively dependent on the National Library (Biblioteca Nacional) and also physically located on its premises, RENIB has been very successful in bringing together librarians from most of the major Chilean libraries and in obtaining their cooperation for a number of important joint projects.  The most important among these was the development of the national union catalog, which provides access to the holdings of all member libraries.   An earlier project resulted in the online union list of periodicals, developed jointly with the National Commission of Scientific and Technological Research (Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)), which contains periodical records and detailed holdings data of twenty-four universities.   As the bibliographic database was being planned,  RENIB personnel anticipated the need for a centralized authorities database in order to maintain consistency and uniform standards.  Participating libraries provided expert staff members who work jointly with RENIB in teams that build and maintain headings for names, subjects, series, uniform titles, and subdivisions and resolve conflicts.  RENIB provided documentation and training and, especially, the organizational structure that now allows for continuing cooperation among institutions that, traditionally, had not worked together. Keywords:  Chile, RENIB, union catalog, periodicals union list, authorities database.


The Development of Cataloging in China

by Liu Suqing, Shen Zhenghua


Abstract: With a long history, cataloging has evolved with changes in society, economy, and technology in China. This paper presents Chinese cataloging history into four parts, with emphasis on the last two parts: the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949 and the development of cataloging after 1979 when China opened its doors to the world.  Particularly important has been the rapid growth of online cataloging in recent years. The China Academic Library and Information System (CALIS), as a successful online cataloging model, is emphasized. Through investigation of the entire history of Chinese cataloging, three distinct features can be stated: (1) Standardization—switching from Chinese traditional way to aligning with international standards, (2) Cooperation—from decentralized and self-supporting systems to sharing systems, (3) Computerization and networking—from manual operation to computer-based online operation. At the end of this paper, a set of means by which to enhance online cataloging and resource sharing is suggested. Keywords: Cataloging history, online cataloging resource sharing, China, CALI


The Development of Descriptive Cataloging in Germany

by Hans Popst


Abstract: This article discusses the development of descriptive cataloging in Germany and the evolution of cataloging principles.  The Instruktionen für die alphabetischen Kataloge der preußischen Bibliotheken (Instructions for the Alphabetic Catalogs of the Prussian Libraries, known as the Prussian Instructions, or PI, for short) were published in 1899.  The so-called Berliner Anweisungen (Berlin Instructions,” Instructions for the Alphabetic Catalog in Public Libraries) appeared in 1938.  Discussion for reform of cataloging rules began in the 1950s and received impetus from the International Conference on Cataloging Principles in Paris in 1961 and from the International Meeting of Cataloging Experts in Copenhagen in 1969.  Preliminary drafts of the new Regeln für die alphabetische Katalogisierung, RAK (Rules for Descriptive Cataloging) were issued between 1969 and 1976; the complete edition of the RAK was published in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) in 1976 and in a slightly different version in 1977 for the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany).  A version for academic libraries appeared in 1983, followed by a version for public libraries in 1986. Between 1987 and 1997, supplementary rules for special categories of materials were published. Keywords:  Descriptive cataloging history, Germany, Austria, Prussian Instructions, PI,  Berlin Instructions, Rules for Descriptive Cataloging, RAK.


RAK or AACR2?: The Current Discussion in Germany on Cataloging Codes

by Charles R. Croissant


Abstract: Discussion around the issue of cataloging codes has become heated in Germany since Germany’s national committee on cataloging standardization announced in December 2001 that its goal would now be to pursue a migration to AACR2 and MARC. Like AACR2, Germany’s current cataloging code, RAK, is based on the ISBD, but the two codes differ from each other in a number of significant ways. This paper compares German and Anglo-American cataloging practice, with particular regard to determining main entry, the treatment of corporate bodies and conferences, the treatment of personal name headings, and the treatment of multipart items. Keywords: AACR2, RAK, cataloging codes, main and added entry, corporate body headings, personal name headings, treatment of multipart items, analysis.


Historical Aspects of Cataloging and Classification in Iran

by Poori Soltani


Abstract: This article consists of three parts: 1) Introduction, 2) Cataloging and classification of manuscripts, and 3) Cataloging and classification of printed matters in Iran.  In the introduction, after a short review of Iranian libraries, the historical background of Fihrist is touched upon.  In the second section, the historical development of cataloging of manuscripts is discussed, emphasising the catalogs of manuscripts of the Parliament, Astani Qods, and the National Library as examples.  In the third section, the history of cataloging and classification of printed books in modern times is reviewed: This event was initiated in Iran through formal and informal courses taught mainly by foreign lecturers.  The initiation of the MLS degree at the University of Tehran and the establishment of TEBROC paved the way for standard rules and methods. With the amalgamation of TEBROC in the National Library, modern ways and means were developed more rapidly, hence computerization of cataloging, CIP, and IRANMARC. Keywords:  Iran, cataloging, classification, manuscripts, TEBROC, National Library of Iran, library education.


Cataloging in Japan: Relationship between Japanese and Western Cataloging Rules

by Tadayoshi Takawashi


Abstract: In 1943 the Japanese League of Young Librarians published Nippon Catalog Rules (NCR1942), based on ALA 1908, and adopted the author main-entry system for Japanese and Western materials.  After World War II the Japan Library Association (JLA) compiled and published NCR1952, based on ALA 1949 and LC 1949 but maintained the author main-entry system.  The main-entry system was then replaced by an alternative heading method, which came to be known as the Description-Independent-System (DIS).  NCR1965 adopted the main entry principle, which was based on the Paris Principles of 1961.  NCR1977 was compiled and published by the JLA Cataloging Committee and based upon a “no-main-entry principle.”  Then in 1987, the Committee published the standard edition of the rules, which was completely compatible with the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD).  NCR1987R was published in 1994 and NCR1987R01 in 2001, which included revised “Chapter 9: Computer Files,” devised according to ISBD(ER). Keywords: Nippon Cataloging Rules, NCR, Description-Independent System, DIS, Japanese-Western relations.


Cataloging and Classification History in Mexico

by Filiberto Felipe Martínez Arellano


Abstract: This article discusses cataloging and classification history in Mexico and how cataloging and classification have evolved according to the changes that libraries and library science have experienced on both a national and international level. The first part of the article refers to the first half of the twentieth century, detailing the origins of cataloging and classification history.  The second part presents discussion of the development and consolidation of both cataloging and classification during the second half of the twentieth century.  The article also discusses subject headings, automation, centralization, and union catalogs in Mexico.  It discusses past difficulties in creating a union catalog at a national level and the advantages of automated systems in helping to develop this needed union catalog.  The article discusses the need to resume publication of the Bibliografía Mexicana.   One of the main problems that Mexican libraries have faced is a scarcity of librarians adequately prepared to perform cataloging and classification of their collections.  This lack of librarians is even more acute in the Mexican states. There are insufficient numbers of students in library schools to provide the staffing that libraries demand not only for cataloguing and classification but also for many other library activities. Keywords: Cataloging, classification, subject headings, union catalogs, centralized cataloging, cataloging automation, Mexico.


Three Book Collectors of Imperial Spain

by Ruth C. Carter


Abstract: During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Spain’s Empire flourished.  This article discusses leading Spanish bibliophiles of its golden age with detailed attention on the private libraries of Don Fernando Colón; Diego Sarmiento de Acuña, Count of Gondomar; and Gaspar de Guzman, Count-Duke of Olivares.  Their libraries are known today through extant portions of collections and/or catalogs describing each item.  Colón, whose collections approached 30,000 items, established detailed procedures for catalog entries by author, title, and subject and placed an emphasis on facilitating use of his collection. Keywords:  Bibliophiles; book collectors; catalog rules, private collection catalogs; Imperial Spain; sixteenth century Spain; seventeenth century Spain; Fernando Colón; Gaspar de Guzman, Count-Duke of Olivares; Diego Sarmiento de Acuña, Count of Gondomar.





Cultural Reassertion of Alaska Native Languages and Cultures: Libraries’ Responses

by Tamara Lincoln


Abstract: During the past thirty years, scholars in many fields have written voluminously on the maintenance and significance of Native languages among ethnic minorities.   Language endangerment and erosion is viewed as a tragic phenomenon on a global level.  Yet, it is in the circumpolar North that these losses have been especially poignantly felt. This essay will address those aspects of the history of Alaska Native languages and language loss as it has unfolded within the broad spectrum of socio-cultural forces affecting Alaska Native cultures.   Evidence suggests that the legacy of language loss has been substantial.  Throughout the spectrum of Alaska Native cultures, this tragedy is felt profoundly as it has brought about a sense of irreplaceable loss and left many questions unanswered.  Have the outside forces working within been the primary causes of this erosion or, perhaps, have the victims of this tragedy also played a role of enablers in this process? The recognition of this condition has triggered strong, positive reactions throughout the state of Alaska and its Native communities.  These culturally integrated responses indicate tenacity, courage, wisdom and hope for a renaissance. How can libraries become more sensitive and culturally responsive in this emerging milieu? We do not want to be perceived, as libraries often are, as a component of a white, European imperialist institution but rather as supportive partners in this process of cultural reassertion. Thus, our methodologies of selection, preservation, classification, access, and dissemination may need to be refashioned and explained in terms that fit into the vision and philosophy of connectivity to Alaska Native cultures. Keywords:  Elmer E. Rasmuson Library, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska and Polar Regions Collections, Oral History Program UAF, Alaska Native Language Center UAF, Arctic minority languages endangerment, Native language loss—Alaska, Alaska Native people—history, Alaska Native people—assimilation, Circumpolar Regions—Library collections, bilingual education, Alaska cultural reassertions, culturally responsive libraries.


Descriptive Standards and the Archival Profession

by Susan E. Davis


Abstract: Studies of professions emphasize various means by which an occupation increases its authority over areas of activity within its jurisdiction.  Development of standards and codification of knowledge are important stages in professionalization for any occupation.  As technology became a more prevalent component of library bibliographic access, archivists began to seek ways to develop standards for archival description that would support information exchange and allow archives and manuscripts collections to be included in bibliographic utilities.  This article describes the evolution of archival descriptive standards, beginning in the late 1970s, within the context of the development of the archival profession. Keywords: Archival description, archives, MARC formats, Research Libraries Group (RLG), Society of American Archivists (SAA),  Library of Congress, online cataloging, professions.


Foundations of Government Information and Bibliographic Control in the United States: 1789-1900

by John A. Shuler


Abstract: A history of classification and bibliographic control of government information is, by necessity, a tangled tale that involves the complex evolution of governments, the regularization of official publishing, along with the growth of professional librarianship. For the purposes of this article, the main argument will draw its narrative largely from the historic evolution of bibliographic control and U.S. government information during the nineteenth century. The standards and practices developed in the United States during this period remain a common framework for the discussion of any government in the world. It is further argued that these bibliographic arrangements remained in play until the 1980s when the advent of distributed computer networks began to undermine the traditions of what had largely been a print culture. Keywords: Government information, government publications, U.S. Government Printing Office, government information bibliographic control, government publishing, government information resource management, depository libraries.


Characteristics of Material Organization and Classification in the Kinsey Institute Library

by Liana Zhou


Abstract: Dr. Alfred C. Kinsey's landmark research in the 1940s and 1950s made his name synonymous with the scientific study of sexuality.  The extensive resources collected by Kinsey and his research team provided a foundation of library and special collections at the Kinsey Institute, located on the Bloomington campus of Indiana University.  A library of books, articles, periodicals, and other materials is valuable to scholars and users only if the materials are organized with a practical classification scheme and retrievable by unique subject headings.  In the 1960s the Institute librarians applied the Dewey classification system to the realm of sexuality.   In the 1970s the Kinsey Institute developed a monograph of controlled vocabulary, Sexual Nomenclature: a Thesaurus, for cataloging the diverse materials at the Institute.  Now more than 95,000 items are available via KICAT, the online database, consisting of monographs, journals and reprints, manuscripts, and audiovisual materials that represent all disciplines in the social and behavioral sciences as well as literature, art, and folklore.  The Library also has significant holdings in such areas as erotic novels, popular sex magazines, nudist publications, pseudo-scientific works, comic books, and tabloids. This article will trace the history of bibliographic control of the library collections over many decades, and describe the approaches and efforts in providing organization and access to these rich and unique collections. Keywords Alfred C. Kinsey, Kinsey Institute, Kinsey Institute Library, KICAT, sexuality, cataloging of sex-related materials, sexual nomenclature.   


Development of a Universal Law Classification: a Retrospective on Library of Congress Class K

by Jolande E. Goldberg




1. The Early Years of Library of Congress Collecting and Classifying (1801-1901)

1.1 Setting the Stage. The American Century

1.2 Expanding General Collections: The Window on Europe

1.3 A New Classification for the Library of Congress

2. Breaking Ground for Law: Classifications for the Discipline and its Literature

2.1 The Early Proposals for a Law Book Classification

2.2 Expanding Law Collections: The Second Window on Europe

2.3 The Law Classification Theater and the Players

2.4 Structure and Scope of the Anticipated Class K. Jurisdictionality          

3. The Code vs. the Court report: Model Schemes for Civil and Common Law

3.1 The Washington Dialogues: Law for Law

3.2 In Search for Common Ground                                                                 

3.2.1 The Committee Dialogues: Joint in Dissent

3.3 The Anglo-American Law: Model KF (Law of the United States)

3.4 The Law of the American Indians

4. The Civil law:  Model KK (Law of Germany)

4.1 The Historic German Split and History of Law

4.2 KF and KK Comparatively

4.2.1 Private Law: Mixed Aspects

4.2.2 Constitutional and Administrative Law: Mixed Messages

4.3 KKA (Law of East Germany): Classification by Comparison

4.4 German States and Territories

5. The Regional Law: Model KJ (Law of Europe). Regionalism 

5.1 The Resulting New Hierarchy

5.2 European Legal History: A Comparative Discipline

5.3 KJC Regional Comparative and Uniform Law

5.4 KJE Regional Organization and Integration

6. Regional Classification: KL-KWX (“The Rest of the World”)


Keywords:  Library of Congress Class K, law classification, jurisdictionality, civil law, common law, Anglo-American law, law of American Indians, law of the United States, German law, regional law, regionalism, European law, law of the world.


The Evolution of Bibliographic Control of Maps

by Rebecca L. Lubas


Abstract: Although maps have been used for thousands of years, they have not been maintained or organized as well as printed books until relatively recently. Maps were often treated as ephemeral material. Early attempts at map cataloging are much more scattered than book cataloging, and printed catalogs of early libraries often omitted the mention of maps. It was only after map use became commonplace and thematic maps increased in number that cataloging and classification attempts began in earnest. The classification and cataloging of maps started to come together in the early part of the twentieth century. This article will examine how maps were organized in early collections and some of the advice provided for catalogers of map collections from the end of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth. Keywords: Map cataloging, map catalogers, maps, bibliographic control.


Monastic Cataloging and Classification and the Beginnings of “Class B” at the Library  of Congress

by Lawrence Simpson Guthrie II


Abstract: This work explores the influence of medieval monastic libraries on the modern university, the break of monastic libraries from antiquity, and the cataloging and classification methods of medieval times, their influence on today, and their template for later historical eras. Keywords:  Monastic cataloging and classification, medieval libraries, Library of Congress classification schedule B.


Classifying and Cataloging Music in American Libraries: an Historical Overview

by Carol June Bradley


Abstract: This paper presents an account of the development of music classifications, cataloguing codes, and subject heading lists in the United States.  It also discusses pertinent activities within the Music Library Association,  particularly the efforts of Eva Judd O’Meara, music librarian at Yale University from 1924 to 1952. Keywords:  Music cataloguing, music classification, music subject headings, cataloging of records, music librarianship, Music Library Association, Eva Judd O’Meara.


Cataloging and Classification of Pacific and Asian Language Materials at the National Library of Australia

by Peter Haddad


Abstract: From its inception early in the twentieth century, the National Library of Australia has included in its collections materials in the languages of the Pacific region.  Following the Second World War, the Library began to collect materials in the languages of East and Southeast Asia.  This collection policy presented the Library with a number of choices in the cataloging, classification, and organizing of its collections.  Early difficulties in controlling materials, many in non-roman scripts, showed the need to be consistent in bibliographic standards and practices.  A concern for the needs of specialist readers led the National Library to provide innovative solutions for accessing script materials in the automated environment. Keywords: Asia, bibliographic organization, cataloging standards, Pacific, transliteration.


Description and Access in Rare Books Cataloging: an Historical Survey

by Beth M. Russell


Abstract: Rare book cataloging codes and practices have been shaped by a constant interplay between the tradition of descriptive bibliography and the evolution of library cataloging codes. At the same time, technological changes, such as the emergence of bibliographic databases and online catalogs, have led to promises of increased flexibility and usability in records for rare books. This article will focus on the development of modern Anglo-American rare book cataloging, highlighting special access points that often appear to exist outside the mainstream of library cataloging. By focusing on the treatment of several “hallmarks” of rare book records in codes published during the second half of the twentieth century, the development of rare book cataloging and its relationship to the traditions of bibliography and general library emerges. Keywords:  Rare books cataloging, Anglo-American cataloging rules, cataloging  history.


Posthumously Plagiarizing Oliva Sabuco: an Appeal to Cataloging Librarians

by Mary Ellen Waithe, Maria Elena Vintro


Abstract: The Biblioteca Nacional of Madrid and the U.S. National Library of Medicine, followed by libraries worldwide, have changed the authorship of  the 1587 Nueva filosofía de la naturaleza del hombre from Oliva Sabuco to her father, Miguel Sabuco y Alvarez.  The authors present arguments offered by others supporting this change and examine newly uncovered archival documents to show that the change of named author to Miguel Sabuco is founded on mistaken arguments based on misconstrued evidence and that the burden of proof has been met to restore the attribution of this work to Oliva Sabuco. Keywords: Attribution, authorship, women authors, Oliva Sabuco, Miguel Sabuco y Alvarez, sixteenth century Spanish authors, history and philosophy of medicine.


Serials Cataloging in Germany: the Historical Development

by Hartmut Walravens


Abstract: This paper outlines the development of serials cataloguing in Germany, which started with entries usually in systematic catalogues.  Cataloguing codes were developed first by individual major libraries; the establishment of a Prussian union catalogue called for generally recognized rules, but these focused mainly on sorting and filing.  When, in the 1960s, the Prussian Instructions were given up in favor of RAK (Regeln für Alphabetische Katalogisierung), ISBD was adopted for the descriptive part.  As to modern international cooperation, this paper explains that the main obstacles are not so much different cataloguing codes but the lack of consensus on the definition of a serial title.  Recent revision efforts missed the opportunity of accepting an International Standard Serials Title. Keywords:  Serials, alphabetical cataloguing, serials cataloguing—history—Germany, Prussian Instructions, Prussian Union Catalogue, RAK, serials cataloguing, International Standard Serials Title.


The History of “The Work” in the Modern Catalog

by Richard P. Smiraglia


Abstract: From a historical perspective, one could consider the modern library catalog to be that bibliographical apparatus that stretches at least from Thomas Hyde’s catalog for the Bodleian Library at Oxford to the near present. Mai and other recent authors have suggested postmodern approaches to knowledge organization. In these, we realize that there is no single and unique order of knowledge or documents but rather there are many appropriate orders, all of them contextually dependent. Works (oeuvres, opera, Werke, etc.), as are musical works, literary works, works of art, etc., are and always have been key entities for information retrieval. Yet catalogs in the modern era were designed to inventory (first) and retrieve (second) specific documents. From Hyde’s catalog for the Bodleian until the late twentieth century, developments are epistemologically pragmatic--reflected in the structure of catalog records, in the rules for main entry headings, and in the rules for filing in card catalogs. After 1980 developments become empirical—reflected in research conducted by Tillett, Yee, Smiraglia, Leazer, Carlyle, and Vellucci. The influence of empiricism on the pragmatic notion of “the work” has led to increased focus on the concept of the work. The challenge for the postmodern online catalog is to fully embrace the concept of “the work,” finally to facilitate it as a prime objective for information retrieval. KEYWORDS: Works, catalogs, postmodernism, epistemology, information retrieval.


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