Cataloging & Classification Quarterly
Volume 35, no. 3-4, 2003
HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF CATALOGING AND CLASSIFICATION
Martin D. Joachim
special theme issue guest editor
Introduction by Martin D. Joachim
SPECIAL FORMATS OR TOPICS
Cultural Reassertion of Alaska Native Languages and Cultures: Libraries’ Responses
by Tamara Lincoln
Abstract: During the past thirty years, scholars in many fields have written voluminously on the maintenance and significance of Native languages among ethnic minorities. Language endangerment and erosion is viewed as a tragic phenomenon on a global level. Yet, it is in the circumpolar North that these losses have been especially poignantly felt. This essay will address those aspects of the history of Alaska Native languages and language loss as it has unfolded within the broad spectrum of socio-cultural forces affecting Alaska Native cultures. Evidence suggests that the legacy of language loss has been substantial. Throughout the spectrum of Alaska Native cultures, this tragedy is felt profoundly as it has brought about a sense of irreplaceable loss and left many questions unanswered. Have the outside forces working within been the primary causes of this erosion or, perhaps, have the victims of this tragedy also played a role of enablers in this process? The recognition of this condition has triggered strong, positive reactions throughout the state of Alaska and its Native communities. These culturally integrated responses indicate tenacity, courage, wisdom and hope for a renaissance. How can libraries become more sensitive and culturally responsive in this emerging milieu? We do not want to be perceived, as libraries often are, as a component of a white, European imperialist institution but rather as supportive partners in this process of cultural reassertion. Thus, our methodologies of selection, preservation, classification, access, and dissemination may need to be refashioned and explained in terms that fit into the vision and philosophy of connectivity to Alaska Native cultures. Keywords: Elmer E. Rasmuson Library, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska and Polar Regions Collections, Oral History Program UAF, Alaska Native Language Center UAF, Arctic minority languages endangerment, Native language loss—Alaska, Alaska Native people—history, Alaska Native people—assimilation, Circumpolar Regions—Library collections, bilingual education, Alaska cultural reassertions, culturally responsive libraries.
Descriptive Standards and the Archival Profession
by Susan E. Davis
Abstract: Studies of professions emphasize various means by which an occupation increases its authority over areas of activity within its jurisdiction. Development of standards and codification of knowledge are important stages in professionalization for any occupation. As technology became a more prevalent component of library bibliographic access, archivists began to seek ways to develop standards for archival description that would support information exchange and allow archives and manuscripts collections to be included in bibliographic utilities. This article describes the evolution of archival descriptive standards, beginning in the late 1970s, within the context of the development of the archival profession. Keywords: Archival description, archives, MARC formats, Research Libraries Group (RLG), Society of American Archivists (SAA), Library of Congress, online cataloging, professions.
Foundations of Government Information and Bibliographic Control in the United States: 1789-1900
by John A. Shuler
Abstract: A history of classification and bibliographic control of government information is, by necessity, a tangled tale that involves the complex evolution of governments, the regularization of official publishing, along with the growth of professional librarianship. For the purposes of this article, the main argument will draw its narrative largely from the historic evolution of bibliographic control and U.S. government information during the nineteenth century. The standards and practices developed in the United States during this period remain a common framework for the discussion of any government in the world. It is further argued that these bibliographic arrangements remained in play until the 1980s when the advent of distributed computer networks began to undermine the traditions of what had largely been a print culture. Keywords: Government information, government publications, U.S. Government Printing Office, government information bibliographic control, government publishing, government information resource management, depository libraries.
Characteristics of Material Organization and Classification in the Kinsey Institute Library
by Liana Zhou
Abstract: Dr. Alfred C. Kinsey's landmark research in the 1940s and 1950s made his name synonymous with the scientific study of sexuality. The extensive resources collected by Kinsey and his research team provided a foundation of library and special collections at the Kinsey Institute, located on the Bloomington campus of Indiana University. A library of books, articles, periodicals, and other materials is valuable to scholars and users only if the materials are organized with a practical classification scheme and retrievable by unique subject headings. In the 1960s the Institute librarians applied the Dewey classification system to the realm of sexuality. In the 1970s the Kinsey Institute developed a monograph of controlled vocabulary, Sexual Nomenclature: a Thesaurus, for cataloging the diverse materials at the Institute. Now more than 95,000 items are available via KICAT, the online database, consisting of monographs, journals and reprints, manuscripts, and audiovisual materials that represent all disciplines in the social and behavioral sciences as well as literature, art, and folklore. The Library also has significant holdings in such areas as erotic novels, popular sex magazines, nudist publications, pseudo-scientific works, comic books, and tabloids. This article will trace the history of bibliographic control of the library collections over many decades, and describe the approaches and efforts in providing organization and access to these rich and unique collections. Keywords: Alfred C. Kinsey, Kinsey Institute, Kinsey Institute Library, KICAT, sexuality, cataloging of sex-related materials, sexual nomenclature.
Development of a Universal Law Classification: a Retrospective on Library of Congress Class K
by Jolande E. Goldberg
1. The Early Years of Library of Congress Collecting and Classifying (1801-1901)
1.1 Setting the Stage. The American Century
1.2 Expanding General Collections: The Window on Europe
1.3 A New Classification for the Library of Congress
2. Breaking Ground for Law: Classifications for the Discipline and its Literature
2.1 The Early Proposals for a Law Book Classification
2.2 Expanding Law Collections: The Second Window on Europe
2.3 The Law Classification Theater and the Players
2.4 Structure and Scope of the Anticipated Class K. Jurisdictionality
3. The Code vs. the Court report: Model Schemes for Civil and Common Law
3.1 The Washington Dialogues: Law for Law
3.2 In Search for Common Ground
3.2.1 The Committee Dialogues: Joint in Dissent
3.3 The Anglo-American Law: Model KF (Law of the United States)
3.4 The Law of the American Indians
4. The Civil law: Model KK (Law of Germany)
4.1 The Historic German Split and History of Law
4.2 KF and KK Comparatively
4.2.1 Private Law: Mixed Aspects
4.2.2 Constitutional and Administrative Law: Mixed Messages
4.3 KKA (Law of East Germany): Classification by Comparison
4.4 German States and Territories
5. The Regional Law: Model KJ (Law of Europe). Regionalism
5.1 The Resulting New Hierarchy
5.2 European Legal History: A Comparative Discipline
5.3 KJC Regional Comparative and Uniform Law
5.4 KJE Regional Organization and Integration
6. Regional Classification: KL-KWX (“The Rest of the World”)
Keywords: Library of Congress Class K, law classification, jurisdictionality, civil law, common law, Anglo-American law, law of American Indians, law of the United States, German law, regional law, regionalism, European law, law of the world.
The Evolution of Bibliographic Control of Maps
by Rebecca L. Lubas
Abstract: Although maps have been used for thousands of years, they have not been maintained or organized as well as printed books until relatively recently. Maps were often treated as ephemeral material. Early attempts at map cataloging are much more scattered than book cataloging, and printed catalogs of early libraries often omitted the mention of maps. It was only after map use became commonplace and thematic maps increased in number that cataloging and classification attempts began in earnest. The classification and cataloging of maps started to come together in the early part of the twentieth century. This article will examine how maps were organized in early collections and some of the advice provided for catalogers of map collections from the end of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth. Keywords: Map cataloging, map catalogers, maps, bibliographic control.
Monastic Cataloging and Classification and the Beginnings of “Class B” at the Library of Congress
by Lawrence Simpson Guthrie II
Abstract: This work explores the influence of medieval monastic libraries on the modern university, the break of monastic libraries from antiquity, and the cataloging and classification methods of medieval times, their influence on today, and their template for later historical eras. Keywords: Monastic cataloging and classification, medieval libraries, Library of Congress classification schedule B.
Abstract: This paper presents an account of the development of music classifications, cataloguing codes, and subject heading lists in the United States. It also discusses pertinent activities within the Music Library Association, particularly the efforts of Eva Judd O’Meara, music librarian at Yale University from 1924 to 1952. Keywords: Music cataloguing, music classification, music subject headings, cataloging of records, music librarianship, Music Library Association, Eva Judd O’Meara.
Cataloging and Classification of Pacific and Asian Language Materials at the National Library of Australia
by Peter Haddad
Abstract: From its inception early in the twentieth century, the National Library of Australia has included in its collections materials in the languages of the Pacific region. Following the Second World War, the Library began to collect materials in the languages of East and Southeast Asia. This collection policy presented the Library with a number of choices in the cataloging, classification, and organizing of its collections. Early difficulties in controlling materials, many in non-roman scripts, showed the need to be consistent in bibliographic standards and practices. A concern for the needs of specialist readers led the National Library to provide innovative solutions for accessing script materials in the automated environment. Keywords: Asia, bibliographic organization, cataloging standards, Pacific, transliteration.
Description and Access in Rare Books Cataloging: an Historical Survey
by Beth M. Russell
Abstract: Rare book cataloging codes and practices have been shaped by a constant interplay between the tradition of descriptive bibliography and the evolution of library cataloging codes. At the same time, technological changes, such as the emergence of bibliographic databases and online catalogs, have led to promises of increased flexibility and usability in records for rare books. This article will focus on the development of modern Anglo-American rare book cataloging, highlighting special access points that often appear to exist outside the mainstream of library cataloging. By focusing on the treatment of several “hallmarks” of rare book records in codes published during the second half of the twentieth century, the development of rare book cataloging and its relationship to the traditions of bibliography and general library emerges. Keywords: Rare books cataloging, Anglo-American cataloging rules, cataloging history.
Posthumously Plagiarizing Oliva Sabuco: an Appeal to Cataloging Librarians
Abstract: The Biblioteca Nacional of Madrid and the U.S. National Library of Medicine, followed by libraries worldwide, have changed the authorship of the 1587 Nueva filosofía de la naturaleza del hombre from Oliva Sabuco to her father, Miguel Sabuco y Alvarez. The authors present arguments offered by others supporting this change and examine newly uncovered archival documents to show that the change of named author to Miguel Sabuco is founded on mistaken arguments based on misconstrued evidence and that the burden of proof has been met to restore the attribution of this work to Oliva Sabuco. Keywords: Attribution, authorship, women authors, Oliva Sabuco, Miguel Sabuco y Alvarez, sixteenth century Spanish authors, history and philosophy of medicine.
Serials Cataloging in Germany: the Historical Development
by Hartmut Walravens
Abstract: This paper outlines the development of serials cataloguing in Germany, which started with entries usually in systematic catalogues. Cataloguing codes were developed first by individual major libraries; the establishment of a Prussian union catalogue called for generally recognized rules, but these focused mainly on sorting and filing. When, in the 1960s, the Prussian Instructions were given up in favor of RAK (Regeln für Alphabetische Katalogisierung), ISBD was adopted for the descriptive part. As to modern international cooperation, this paper explains that the main obstacles are not so much different cataloguing codes but the lack of consensus on the definition of a serial title. Recent revision efforts missed the opportunity of accepting an International Standard Serials Title. Keywords: Serials, alphabetical cataloguing, serials cataloguing—history—Germany, Prussian Instructions, Prussian Union Catalogue, RAK, serials cataloguing, International Standard Serials Title.
The History of “The Work” in the Modern Catalog
by Richard P. Smiraglia
Abstract: From a historical perspective, one could consider the modern library catalog to be that bibliographical apparatus that stretches at least from Thomas Hyde’s catalog for the Bodleian Library at Oxford to the near present. Mai and other recent authors have suggested postmodern approaches to knowledge organization. In these, we realize that there is no single and unique order of knowledge or documents but rather there are many appropriate orders, all of them contextually dependent. Works (oeuvres, opera, Werke, etc.), as are musical works, literary works, works of art, etc., are and always have been key entities for information retrieval. Yet catalogs in the modern era were designed to inventory (first) and retrieve (second) specific documents. From Hyde’s catalog for the Bodleian until the late twentieth century, developments are epistemologically pragmatic--reflected in the structure of catalog records, in the rules for main entry headings, and in the rules for filing in card catalogs. After 1980 developments become empirical—reflected in research conducted by Tillett, Yee, Smiraglia, Leazer, Carlyle, and Vellucci. The influence of empiricism on the pragmatic notion of “the work” has led to increased focus on the concept of the work. The challenge for the postmodern online catalog is to fully embrace the concept of “the work,” finally to facilitate it as a prime objective for information retrieval. KEYWORDS: Works, catalogs, postmodernism, epistemology, information retrieval.