Cataloging & Classification Quarterly

Volume 36, no. 3-4, 2003


Special issue:




Sheila S. Intner, Sally C. Tseng, and Mary Larsgaard

special issue guest editors








Cataloging In An Electronic Age

by Michael Gorman


Abstract: Examines the achievements in bibliographic control of the last thirty years and the strides made toward Universal Bibliographic Control.  Discusses the effects of three standards--the MARC format, ISBD, and AACR--both intended and unintended.  Analyzes the types of resources in cyberspace to be organized and their similarities to and differences from documents librarians already know.  Suggests strategies for solving the seemingly insoluble problems of cataloging the Internet and predicts how metadata will evolve.


Why Metadata?  Why Now?  Why Me?

by Brian E. C. Schottlaender


Abstract: This introductory overview will consider why metadata issues are central to discussions about the evolution of library services--particularly digital library services, and why the cataloging community is, and should be, front and center in those discussions.


Developing A Metadata Strategy

by Grace Agnew


Abstract: This presentation will cover the steps to building a metadata repository, including modeling the information needs of your community, selecting and adapting a metadata standard, documenting your metadata, populating your database and sharing your metadata with other initiatives.  In addition, advances and options for metadata for multimedia, particularly video, will be presented.


Metadata Schemas And Controlled Vocabularies For Art, Architecture, And Material Culture

by Murtha Baca 


Abstract: This presentation will give an overview of descriptive metadata schemas for art and architecture, including Categories for the Description of Works of Art, Object ID, and the VRA Core Categories.  It will also focus on the “menu” of controlled vocabularies and classification systems that are needed to populate these metadata schemas:  the Art & Architecture Thesaurus, Union List of Artist Names, Thesaurus for Graphic Materials, ICONCLASS, and others.  Other issues that will be addressed are the development of local authority files and thesauri to enhance end-user access, and metadata mapping and “crosswalks” as a means to provide integrated access to diverse information resources.


Digital Resources And Metadata Application In Shanghai Library

by Yuanliang Ma and Wei Liu


Abstract: The Shanghai Digital Library (SDL) is a component of the China Digital Library Project.  This paper introduces the framework, goals and contents of the China Digital Library Project.  Based on this Project, it discusses the vision, mission, system architecture, digital resources and related major technology of the SDL Project.  It describes the background of the Chinese metadata application and the metadata scheme of the SDL, and analyzes the features of metadata application in practical cases.  Finally, it suggests current issues of metadata application and their solutions.


Struggling Toward Retrieval: Alternatives To Standard Operating Procedures Can Help Librarians & The Public

by Sheila S. Intner


Abstract: Four assumptions underlie the arguments presented here:  (1) "the goal of libraries is to serve their patrons" (Intner); (2) the principles underlying bibliographic services are that cataloging operations should identify individual items and collocate related items (Cutter); (3) "the library is a growing organism" (Ranganathan); and (4) "the medium is the message" (McLuhan).  The first two assumptions are starting points for cataloging and bibliographic control operations, and the basis of current standard methods.  The last two highlight the fact that change in bibliographic control is a continuous and natural phenomenon, and attention must be paid to the interfaces between catalogs and searchers.  Changes have occurred and are occurring in catalogs, searchers, and catalog-searcher interfaces.  In light of these assumptions and despite the author's strong inclination to trust in the overall value of standard methods, alternatives to standard methods for creating and delivering metadata for serially-issued resources are explored and evaluated.  Potentially useful innovations are suggested, some of them based on the author's observations of e-commerce.


AACR2 And Other Metadata Standards: The Way Forward

by Ann Huthwaite


Abstract: The paper will examine the changes in the environment in which AACR2 now operates. These include the growth in electronic publishing and the use of the Internet, and the increasing development and use of a range of other metadata standards, such as the Dublin Core. AACR2 and other metadata standards (in particular the Dublin Core) will be compared; it will be argued that AACR2 should continue be used for describing a particular subset of Web-based resources. Criteria for deciding whether to use AACR2 for electronic resources or a Dublin Core based metadata standard will be defined, drawing on the experiences of a collaborative working group set up by two Brisbane universities to develop mechanisms for providing access to electronic resources. Different options for providing access to Internet resources will be evaluated. These options include catalogue-only access, access through subject gateways, and a combination of the two. The option chosen by the Brisbane universities will be outlined. The latest set of revisions to the rules in AACR2 for cataloguing electronic resources (resulting from decisions made through 2000) will be described. Possible near-term and longer-term revisions will also be explored.



AACR And Metadata : Library Opportunities In The Global Semantic Web - LC, IFLA, Dublin Core, Virtual International Authority Files, And More

by Barbara B. Tillett


Abstract: This presentation explores the opportunities for libraries to contribute to the proposed global "Semantic Web" with our name and subject authority files, including work that IFLA has done related to a new view of "Universal Bibliographic Control" in the Internet environment and the work underway in the US and Europe to make a reality of the virtual international authority file through the Web.  The bibliographic and authority records created according to AACR reflect standards for metadata that have been provided for years in libraries.  New opportunities for using these records in the digital world will be described (interoperability), including the mapping with Dublin Core metadata.  AACR recently updated Chapter 9 on Electronic Resources and that process and highlights of the changes will be described, including LC's rule interpretations.


Seriality: What Have We Accomplished, What's Next?

by Jean Hirons


Abstract:  With the forthcoming revision of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules to accommodate various aspects of seriality, Jean Hirons will discuss achievements and further goals. She will focus on the seriality of integrating resources (loose-leafs, Web sites, databases), how they are similar to serials and how they differ and will review the various ideas that led to the revised rules.  She will also review decisions yet to be reached in the implementation of the rules.  Hirons will explain MARBI decisions that will impact on both serials and integrating resources and discuss the challenges that a new category of materials is presenting to the Program for Cooperative Cataloging's CONSER and BIBCO programs.  Hirons will ask participants to consider how the seriality of these resources is being accommodated in their institutions.  Hirons will also highlight the significant changes for serials and will discuss the international harmonization effort and how this will benefit libraries in the U.S.


MARC And Mark-Up: Different Metadata Containers For Different Purposes

by Erik Jul


Abstract: This presentation surveys the form and function of MARC format records and emerging alternatives.  Key topics include the fundamentals of mark-up languages, key features of XML (eXtensible Mark-up Language), the role of RDF (Resource Description Framework), and various metadata schemes.  The discussion focuses on implications and applications for library systems, services, workflow, staffing, end users, and continuing education for librarians.


ISSN: Dumb Number, Smart Solution

by Regina R. Reynolds


Abstract: Reynolds will focus on the uses of the ISSN as an identifier and as a linking mechanism in the metadata environment.  She will present background on the ISSN and other identifiers, and outline reasons for the importance of identifiers in the digital age.  Reynolds will differentiate between dumb identifiers--like the ISSN--which have no inherent meaning, and intelligent identifiers--like the SICI--which have embedded meaning.  The core of the presentation will be an exploration of problems in the metadata environment--such as identification, metadata for e-resources, multiple manifestations, and linking--and solutions to these problems which the ISSN can help provide for continuing resources.  There will be an opportunity for questions and discussion about topics raised in the presentation.  

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