Volume 44, no. 1/2, 2007


Robert P. Holley
Guest Editor


Introduction, Robert P. Holley, Guest Editor



The Story of Ruth: The Life and Contributions of Ruth C. Carter
Kathryn Luther Henderson

ABSTRACT: Ruth C. Carter’s professional career has spanned over three decades of service as librarian, archivist, and editor. Specific aspects of that service are noted in this biographical sketch that commemorates her twenty years as editor of Cataloging & Classification Quarterly.

KEYWORDS: Ruth C. Carter, Cataloging & Classification Quarterly


An Interview with Ruth Carter
Ruth Carter
Linda C. Ewbank

ABSTRACT: Ruth Carter discusses her career as a librarian, archivist, historian, and long-time editor of CCQ and other journals. Topics include her education, mentors, professional positions, work in library organizations, and interests outside of librarianship as well as trends in cataloging research, the future of cataloging, and the relations and connections among her areas of interest.

KEYWORDS: Ruth C. Carter, Kathryn Luther Henderson, Rolland E. Stevens, Edward K. Muller, history, archives, technical services, cataloging, editing, CCQ, ALCTS, IFLA.


Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 1990-2006
Sandra K. Roe
Rebecca Culbertson
Laurel Jizba

ABSTRACT: The authors review the contents of Cataloging & Classification Quarterly and provide an examination of the contributors, article types, and changes in emphasis in topics.


In Honor of Ruth C. Carter
Sheila S. Intner

ABSTRACT: This poem recounts the achievements of Ruth C. Carter.



Books and Other Reading Materials in Early Monroe County, Indiana
Martin D. Joachim

ABSTRACT: This paper analyzes the availability of books and other reading materials in Monroe County, Indiana, through 1850. It examines both unpublished and published primary sources as well as secondary sources to reveal that books and reading were part of life on the western frontier.

KEYWORDS: Monroe County (Ind.), Monroe County (Ind.) Library, Indiana University, library history, history of the book, book ownership, will and probate records.


Annotation: A Lost Art in Cataloguing
J. H. Bowman

ABSTRACT: Public library catalogues in early twentieth-century Britain frequently included annotations, either to clarify obscure titles or to provide further information about the subject-matter of the books they described. Two manuals giving instruction on how to do this were published at that time. Following World War I, with the decline of the printed catalogue, this kind of annotation became rarer, and was almost confined to bulletins of new books. The early issues of the British National Bibliography included some annotations in exceptional cases. Parallels are drawn with the provision of table-of-contents information in present-day OPACs.

KEYWORDS: annotation, summaries, printed catalogues, table-of-contents


Twenty-five Years of Bibliographic Control Research at the University of Bradford
F. H. Ayres
J. M. Ridley

ABSTRACT: This article describes cooperation between Bradford University Library and the Department of Computing that has resulted in nine research projects over a twenty five year period on various aspects of bibliographic control. It recounts the origins of the Universal Standard Bibliographic Code (USBC) and its development for the identification of both books and non book material. It then describes various aspects of the projects including simulating the merging necessary to set up a national database, the cleaning of a database, its use in inter library lending, and its application together with expert systems for the quality control of databases. The final project is BOPAC that has used modern technology to create faster and better access to a number of library catalogues worldwide and has demonstrated that authority control in its present form is not effective.

KEYWORDS: Universal Standard Bibliographic Code (USBC), database merging, duplicate detection, interlending, BOPAC, authority control


International Cataloguing Tradition and Italian Rules: Common Ground and Specific Features
Carlo Bianchini
Mauro Guerrini

ABSTRACT: Many current cataloguing codes have their roots in a common tradition started by the 1961 Paris International Conference on Cataloguing Principles – ICCP. Since 1961, the construction of new national codes had been based on the sharing of cataloguing principles, on agreements for international cooperation, and on a common tradition. The new technological and international environment suggests, more and more, a redesign of those principles to include more suitable features and to assert firmly that the highest principle is the convenience of the users of the catalogue. Within this framework, the authors analyze the Italian cataloguing tradition and its relationships with the international tradition and recount the main activities towards a revision of the present Italian code – Regole italiane di catalogazione per autori RICA. The paper shows that, since the first Italian rules written by Fumagalli, special attention has been paid to the international tradition (in particular toward Panizzi’s rules). After describing the relationships among the international trends and the Italian codes of 1922, 1956 and 1979, the paper deals with the recent works of the new Commission that, since 1997, has started to revise RICA. The paper concludes by reflecting on the Italian position in the debate first on the ISBD and then on the new entity-relationship models.

KEYWORDS: Italian cataloguing rules, RICA, cataloguing history, Paris Principles; international cooperation


Introduction by Robert P. Holley

Ruth Carter has many friends! The number of contributions to this festschrift in honor of her stepping down as editor of the Cataloging & Classification Quarterly is a strong testament to her high regard by leaders in the field. I accepted the invitation to edit this volume in April, 2005 because of my long association with Ruth and my wish to provide a fitting tribute to her years of service to the journal.

I developed the plan for the festschrift in consultation with Sandy Roe, the current editor of CCQ. I extended an invitation to contribute a paper to members of the editorial board, to the most frequent contributors to the journal, and to a few select leaders in cataloging. In addition, Sandy and I sought out several contributions that would deal with Ruth’s professional career and the importance of the journal. Finally, Linda C. Ewbank interviewed Ruth to gain her perspective on her professional career and term as editor.

As can be seen from the number of articles, the response was enormous. Many others declined with regret. I did not assign topics to the contributors. When asked about possible subjects, I told the authors "to write an article that would make Ruth proud." This decision resulted in the somewhat eclectic nature of the festschrift as the various authors chose a wide variety of topics and methodologies.

I have grouped the contributions into the following categories:

All articles were peer reviewed. I wish to thank the following for their efforts and especially for their promptness in returning the articles with comments:


In "The Story of Ruth: The Life and Contributions of Ruth C. Carter," Kathryn Luther Henderson, her cataloging professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, recounts the amazing career of Ruth Carter as a librarian, researcher, editor, and active member of multiple professional associations. She stresses her multifaceted contributions in serials, technical services, and archives as well as her ability to draw the highest level of achievement from her colleagues.

Linda C. Ewbank interviewed Ruth Carter for the festschrift. In "An Interview with Ruth Carter," Ruth comments not only on her life but also on the key issues in cataloging at the beginning of the 21st century. She describes her experiences as the editor of CCQ and her role in professional organizations. She concludes by letting us know a bit about her interests outside of librarianship and her plans for the future.

In "Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 1990-2006," Sandra K. Roe, Rebecca Culbertson, and Laurel Jizba analyze the contents of the journal by looking at contributors, article types, and changes in topics. Their results show that authorship has become more diverse and that topics have changed to reflect developments in cataloging, most frequently caused by advances in technology.

Sheila S. Intner has written a poem "In Honor of Ruth C. Carter."


In a major study on the availability of "Books and Other Reading Materials in Early Monroe County, Indiana," Martin D. Joachim draws upon both published and unpublished sources to show that books were easy to acquire during Indiana’s frontier period in the first half of the 19th century. He includes information about both library and private ownership of reading materials along with extensive documentation on holdings, including individual titles.

"Annotation: A Lost Art in Cataloging" by J. H. Bowman traces the use of annotations in early 20th century Great Britain to clarify obscure titles or to provide further information about the subject-matter. Annotations started to disappear after World War I with the decline of the printed catalog. He draws parallels between annotations and current table-of-contents information.

F. H. Ayres and J. M. Ridley describe "Twenty-five Years of Bibliographic Control Research at the University of Bradford." With the cooperation of the Department of Computing, the Bradford University Library has undertaken many creative projects including the Universal Standard Bibliographic Code; database merging, deduplication, and quality control; and the BOPAC project that creates faster and better access to library online catalogs.

The final paper in this section, "International Cataloguing Tradition and Italian Rules: Common Ground and Specific Features," authored by Carlo Bianchini and Mauro Guerrini, traces the history of the development of cataloging codes in Italy. The authors chronicle the effects of the tension between international standards and local tradition and the need to reconcile the two. They also emphasize the need to make the catalog easier to use.


Janet Swann Hill presents her findings on "Technical Services and Tenure: Impediments and Strategies." Tenure is a difficult issue for librarians because it is based on the faculty model of teaching and research. Through an examination of documents and a questionnaire, she examines whether technical services librarians, whose work most often does not include significant direct contact with users, face difficulties in achieving tenure that their public services colleagues do not. She concludes by discussing strategies to increase the likelihood for technical services librarians to obtain tenure.

In "The ‘Works’ Phenomenon and Best Selling Books," Richard P. Smiraglia empirically examines the instantiation of a sample of best selling works of the 20th century. His analysis of the bibliographic records in OCLC and RLIN and their instantiations on the World Wide Web found that many of these best selling books have large and complex networks. He concludes that solutions that worked for the catalog may need to be modified for the World Wide Web.

Jeffrey Beall and Karen Kafadar present their study on "Measuring Typographical Error’s Impact on Retrieval in Bibliographic Databases." They test the hypothesis that, with the prevalence of keyword searching, a typographical error may not have an impact on retrieval if the word is found correctly spelled elsewhere in the record. They discovered that the presence of a typo blocks access to a significant number of records (35% to 99%), depending upon the frequency of the word being searched and its likelihood of being misspelled.

In "Error Rates in Monograph Copy Cataloging Bibliographic Records Before and After Outsourcing at the University of Saskatchewan Library," Vinh-The Lam determines that, for monograph copy cataloging, outsourcing had no significant effect upon cataloging quality at the University of Saskatchewan Library and that the error rates were low and acceptable.

Robert L. Bothmann is concerned about "Meeting the Needs of Special Format Catalogers: Ideas for Professional Organizations, Library Schools, and Professional Catalogers." Through a voluntary online survey of special format catalogers, he learned that most of them learned their special skills on the job. They expressed a need for more training and for more attention within professional organizations to their concerns. He then offers suggestions for future steps, especially since 50% of the catalogers surveyed intend to retire within fifteen years.

The topic of Carolynne Myall’s and Sydney Chambers’ article is "Copy Cataloging for Print and Video Monographs in Two Academic Libraries: A Case Study of Editing Required for Accuracy and Completeness." By analyzing a sample of cataloging at two mid-sized academic libraries over a three-month period, they determined that video/DVD monographs require much more editing because national-level records are not available. They propose a cooperative program to create high quality records for these items.

Robert P. Holley poses the question "Are Technical Services Topics Underrepresented in the Contributed Papers at the ACRL National Conferences?" He examines the contributed papers from the twelve ACRL National Conferences for those with subjects of interest to members of ALCTS. Only 14.66% dealt with topics that are part of the charge of the units within ALCTS. In eliminating collection development topics, also of interest to public services librarians, the percentage dropped to 7.52%. His unexpected discovery is that the contributed papers have become much more holistic with the arrival of the Internet and electronic resources.


Elizabeth N. Steinhagen, Mary Ellen Hanson, and Sharon A. Moynahan summarize the recent history of cataloging and speculate about future directions in "Quo Vadis, Cataloging?" They trace the path from the golden age of cataloging in the 1970’s and 1980’s through the economic retrenchment of the 1990’s and early 2000’s. They also consider the effects on technology including the rapid rise of search engines such as Google. They conclude with the advice that cataloging must move forward beyond replicating the old paper catalog card to focus on cataloging as part of the intellectual process of access for research.

Dick R. Miller studies the differences between the authority control offered by cataloging and the chaos on the World Wide Web in his "Principia Bibliographica? Balancing Principles, Practice, and Pragmatics in a Changing Digital Environment." Through a systematic examination of several different examples, he looks at the varying approaches and suggests ways to achieve the best of both worlds. He believes that catalogers should take a much more active role in the digital environment.

In "Cataloging Compared to Descriptive Bibliography, Abstracting and Indexing Services, and Metadata," Martha M. Yee deepens the understanding of cataloging by comparing it to descriptive bibliography, indexing and abstracting services, and metadata. She pays particular attention to providing a clearer sense of what metadata is. Yee feels that it is important not to overlook the differences among these various systems in the creation of new cataloging rules.

Nancy J. Williamson evaluates improvements in subject access since 1997 to materials on the Internet. She looks at search engines; Web subject directories; thesauri; and gateways and portals. Williamson concludes that subject access for Internet materials has definitely improved but also that much remains to be done to assure that quality information rises to the top.

In "Numbers to Identify Entities (ISDAN’s—International Standard Authority Data Numbers)," Barbara B. Tillett considers whether it is advisable to develop a system of International Standard Authority Data Numbers. While she recognizes the appeal of unique identifiers, she concludes that the existing machine-generated control numbers from our authority records are adequate until we know better what future systems need.

The volume concludes with a management case study, "When You Come to a Fork in the Road, Pick It Up: A Case Study in Managing by Self-Responsibility’" Lyn Condron strongly believes that the key to management success is initiating and supporting self-responsibility by the manager, by the individuals, and by the team as a group. She discusses the application of this principle to cataloging production; teams and meetings; competency management; the general work environment; and quality assurance.


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