Letters to the Editor
LETTER TO THE EDITOR, Jean Weihs
Metadata by Marcia Lei Zeng and Jian Qin
Reviewed by Steven J. Miller
Introduction to Metadata, edited by Murtha Baca
Reviewed by Anne LePage
User's Guide to Sears List of Subject Headings
Reviewed by I.V. Malhan
, Mary Curran, News Editor
Scope of the Library Catalog in Times of Transition
Jina Choi Wakimoto
ABSTRACT: There has been a flurry of constructive discussion and debate about the future of cataloging and the catalog, from FRBR and RDA on cataloging rules (with a focus on content) to next-generation discovery interfaces for the catalog (with a focus on carrier). A topic that is not receiving as much attention in the midst of these discussions is the scope of the library catalog. This article offers an opinion on the scope of the catalog in a research library, and the role of the catalogers in this time of transition. The article will also elicit some practical approaches that catalogers can take to reposition the catalog for improved user-access and resource discovery.
KEYWORDS: scope of catalog; cataloging; role of catalogers; OPAC enhancements
Results of an Expanded Survey on the Use of Classification Web: They Will Use It, If You Buy It!
Anna M. Ferris
ABSTRACT: This paper presents the results of a survey examining the extent to which working catalogers use Classification Web, the Library of Congress' online resource for subject heading and classification documentation. An earlier survey analyzed Class Web's usefulness on an institutional level. This broader survey expands on that analysis and provides information on such questions as: what types of institutions subscribe to Class Web; what are the reasons for using Class Web when performing original or copy cataloging; and what other resources do catalogers use for classification/subject heading analysis?
KEYWORDS: Classification Web, survey of catalogers
Free Books: Loading Brief MARC Records for Open-Access Books in an Academic Library Catalog
ABSTRACT: Mbooks are open-access, digitized books freely available on the Internet. This article describes the Auraria Library's experience of loading brief MARC records for Mbooks into its online public access catalog and looks at some of the issues that arose from the record-loading project. Despite the low quality of the records, librarians in Auraria Library thought that loading them into the catalog was advantageous because of the rich content in the collection and because many of the records could be improved using the global update functionality in the catalog. Making the records available through the catalog, as opposed to merely linking to the entire collection from the Library's web page, was considered to be valuable because of the aggregation a catalog provides and because the Mbooks collection helped fill gaps in the Library's physical collections. As more open-access, digitized books become available, libraries will need to plan and manage how best to provide access to them.
KEYWORDS: Mbooks, Library catalogs, Open-access books, Metadata, Metadata quality, Hathi Trust, University of Colorado Denver, Auraria Library, MARC records
Perceptions of the Future of Cataloging: Is the Sky Really Falling?
Robert T. Ivey
ABSTRACT: Cataloging procedures have evolved in many academic research libraries over the past 10 years. Some predicted trends--outsourcing, original cataloging by paraprofessionals, more digital material--have been borne out. Others, such as a decline in the amount of material to catalog or in the number of professional catalogers, have not. Changes have been mostly procedural and have not affected the catalog itself. Recently, however, the emergence of powerful Internet search engines has allowed researchers to bypass the catalog. This has led some to question the wisdom of continuing it and others to vigorously defended current practice. In 2005-2007 this debate became especially heated, but a consensus appears to be emerging that although the character of the professional cataloger's job will continue to evolve over the next 5 to 10 years there will not be a revolution. The cataloger's basic skills will still be needed and the fundamental nature of cataloging will remain much as we know it.
KEYWORDS: Future of cataloging, catalogers, Academic research libraries, Trends in libraries, United States
Cataloging Databases and Web Sites in OCLC and Voyager
Barry J. Gray and Monty McAdoo
ABSTRACT: Use of dynamic links from subject-based finding aids to records for electronic resources in the OPAC is suggested as one method for by-passing the OPAC search interface, thus making the library's electronic resources more accessible. This method simplifies maintenance of links to electronic resources and aids instruction by providing a single, consistent access point to them. Results of a usage study from before and after this project was completed show a consistent, often dramatic increase in use of the library's electronic resources.
KEYWORDS: Electronic resources, OPACs, Cataloging, Databases, Internet, AACR2, MARC, OCLC
Welcome to the news column. Its purpose is to disseminate information on any aspect of cataloging and classification that may be of interest to the cataloging community. This column is not just intended for news items, but serves to document discussions of interest as well as news concerning you, your research efforts, and your organization. Please send any pertinent materials, notes, minutes, or reports to: Mary Curran, Morisset Library, University of Ottawa, 65 University Ave, Ottawa, ON Canada K1N 9A5 (email:; phone: 613-562-5800 ext. 3590). News columns will typically be available prior to publication in print from the CCQ website at .
We would appreciate receiving items having to do with:
Research and Opinion
On January 20, 2009, Nicole C. Engard announced the availability of a new web-based community cataloging tool, biblios.net, from LibLime. It is an original and copy cataloging tool with built-in federated search of any Z39.50 target and a large shared database of catalog records. It is possible to edit and contribute to the database without restriction. Feedback about the tool, its interface, and documentation is being sought from both novice and experienced catalogers, along with people to join the community. Records in biblios.net are licensed under the Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and License, commonly abbreviated as PDDL. More information is available from https://biblios.net/how. To provide feedback about biblios.net, please contact Nicole Engard at nce(at)liblime.com.
Technical Services Directors of Large Research Libraries Interest Group (aka Big Heads) American Library Association Midwinter Meeting, Denver, Colorado, January 23, 2009
An official meeting summary will be available on the ALA ALCTS website at http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/alcts/mgrps/ig/bh/.
Resource Description and Access (RDA) Update
John Attig, American Library Association (ALA) representative to the Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA (JSC), provided an update on the status of RDA. He noted that work on the content is winding down and production is winding up. Implementation planning can begin. Since the June 2009 ALA Conference, RDA was presented at IFLA in Quebec City in August 2008 during a one-day preconference. Work continued on both the code and the online product from July to early September 2008 when JSC wound up the full draft and sent it to the developers. RDA is currently being reviewed by the constituencies with responses due on Feb. 9, 2009. Attig noted that there will be a meeting of JSC from March 12 to March 20, 2009 at ALA headquarters and that the final text is expected to go to the publishers in June 2009. The question of how to maintain RDA is but one item on a large list of issues to be dealt with after RDA is published.
Beecher Wiggins from the Library of Congress (LC) gave the group an update about the plans of the National Agricultural Library, the National Library of Medicine, and the Library of Congress to test RDA. Their Testing Steering Group spent the two weeks previous to the ALA Midwinter Meeting laying out plans for testing, participant selection, and developing a testing environment. The timeline for testing is dependent on the availability of RDA online. The expectation is that the testing will be completed and assessed and that the national libraries will make a decision about RDA implementation in the first quarter of 2010.
A public website will be available with a set of materials for the baseline testing, so that even those not selected to participate could conduct their own independent testing and provide feedback. Wiggins noted that testing will be done in the current technical environment (no changes to their integrated library system or to MARC21). Some vendors will be participating in the testing, as well as archivists and metadatalists.
John Attig and University of Pennsylvania will be a partner in testing. A requested show of hands of Big Head institutions that had volunteered for the testing showed about eight to ten Big Heads schools would be participating.
ALCTS Implementation Task Force on Recommendation 220.127.116.11 of the Library of Congress Working Group on the Future of Bibliographic Control
Kate Harcourt (Columbia University), from the ALCTS Task Group on the LC Working Group Report, asked that Big Heads consider sponsoring a group to take the lead on Recommendation 18.104.22.168 ("Bring key participants together to agree to implement a set of measures of (a) costs, benefits, and value of bibliographic control for each group of participants, and (b) interdependencies among participants"). Big Heads has always had a vested interest in cost-effectiveness. Big Heads could be seen as an umbrella or sponsoring organization, similar to their guidance for the ERMI.
Questions were raised by members as to what needs to be done, by whom, and how to establish the time frame. Key players would be ALCTS, OCLC, ASLS, and ARL. There was a great deal of discussion of cooperation between Big Heads and LCWG 22.214.171.124 in identifying the names and make-up of the group which should probably have a short charge after which it would need to move to a permanent home. It was noted that we are headed into troubled waters (economically) and that we have to make cost efficiencies carefully, thinking about the impact of these efficiencies. We need someone with a mile-high view. We can come up with cost measures easily but coming up with benefit measures is more difficult. It would be helpful if the group could identify more actions to get us where we want to be, what values bibliographic control brings, and to assess what measures we need to express this. The group would identify sources for the things we want to measure.
It was suggested that the group be struck quickly and be given a very short time frame. Several members volunteered to identify a group by March 1, 2009 and agreed that the charge would be developed and the membership would be complete before the 2009 ALA Annual Conference.
OLE (Open Library Environment) Project
OLE is a one-year project funded by The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation aimed at the design phase of an Open Access Library systems -- a new OA ILS or infrastructure (not discovery) layer--that applies enterprise-wide solutions to become more fully integrated. Two of the givens are that it will be Open Access and that it will be for higher education research libraries. It is also expected that the design phase will be immediately followed by a build phase. There are virtual meetings every week.
In addition to university libraries in the U.S., the list of project libraries also includes Library and Archives Canada and the National Library of Australia. Duke University is coordinating the project. Broad community involvement and engagement is desired. There have been a number of regional workshops looking at business process modeling and identifying the desirable features of a system. The system would use service-oriented architecture.
OLE has a number of working groups and is now moving into modeling the processes. OLE does not want to rebuild what already exists but rather to identify what processes are needed but not yet available. What pieces need to be included, and how does the group move from design to build? The two areas of disjuncture are a library reserves module and a course management module. The library module needs to interoperate better with the higher education financial system and with other enterprise systems such as authorization systems. The acquisitions module has to be more integrated since currently 50% of acquisitions work is done outside the ILS (invoices, emails, faxes, and the fragmented way of managing e-resources). OLE does not include a discovery layer but does need a layer to make the OLE data discoverable. Service-oriented architecture will make modules both more separable and more connectable. The data should be accessible to multiple systems. It should not be where the data sits that drives thing; we should be able to draw on the data wherever it resides.
Governance management will have to be built into the outcomes of the OLE project. Community participation in any of the working groups and in general is welcomed by OLE who is also looking for build partners. Information on the OLE Project is available at http://oleproject.org/overview/.
Strategies for managing budget retrenchments: Discussion of possible cost-saving measures that would allow for further streamlining of workflows and the deployment of resources within technical services operations
The following list has been transcribed from a handout circulated to members and audience; it was the basis of the discussion of the agenda item, cost-saving measures under consideration in large research libraries. Entries followed by an asterisk (*) were suggested by more than one library.
A show of hands of the Big Heads and of the audience showed that nearly every institution represented in the room was suffering from budget retrenchments.
Some of the points raised by members were: It is important to have principles, such as enhanced discovery, underlying cost-cutting measures. A quadrant grid is often helpful with the quadrants being 1) low financial impact, 2) high financial impact, 3) low impact to users, and 4) high impact to users. Some of the cost-cutting measures listed have already been introduced. At Berkeley, the underlying principle is that the library will not create a backlog; they would rather create low-level records. New York Public Library has greatly reduced the amount of gifts they accept and have expanded approval plans and electronic invoicing. Some libraries cannot create low-level records for a variety of reasons, one of which is public service interest. Some institutions use lower-level records and upgrade them upon faculty or user request so that they can send things to the shop more quickly. Indiana University has had a consultant who has suggested that they stop accepting gifts that they know they cannot provide access to within three to five years. We need partners in public services in order to realize the efficiencies we need. We need other constituency buy-in. Estate collections are a terrible amount of work and because of lack of resources for processing and ordering are no more accessible to the user than not having the gift. University of Chicago does not want to start backlogs, and are finding things that they can stop doing rather than deferring. However, many processes depend on sacred cows outside technical services. Public Services are realizing that cuts like book plates are necessary with the economic downturn. It is important to keep a list of the things you stop doing. We have to learn that we are capable of giving up things and the world does not end (e.g., some have stopped writing the call number on the title page). It is helpful to identify how much time it takes to process a gift, to provide data. It is not just a question of shifting work, you must look at the underlying principles. If we adopt measures we should know that brief records will probably always be brief; the immediate gain may be small but no stop-gap measures will be taken; every title gets some type of record. We can free up resources to catalog digitized materials by expanding shelf-ready. Low-level records were introduced at Berkeley in 2007. More than 50% were upgraded but they may not be able to continue to upgrade in the future. Berkeley has 100,000s of low-level records that need upgrading for OCLC. Big Heads were questioned as to who sends items to storage without call number labels. Berkeley has done so for years with no problems. We must tease out things that cause exceptions; diverting things from main processing stream creates hassles. Exceptions are expensive. Some libraries do not reclassify; some do not reclassify in open collections with music composer numbers. They tried it with the books first and may try it with scores. Ohio State followed a methodology and did a study – started with B, M and N – which resulted in not adjusting cutter numbers. The OSU study can be found on their website. Generally, it is good to conduct a pilot to gain data. One institution stopped binding and no one noticed. Columbia suggests using a methodology of trying to attach a dollar figure to what you will save.
There are a variety of reasons to continue serials check-in. Some include claims, other libraries check our holdings and we check others to see if an issue is missing or not; check for title changes; institutional audits may be criticized for not having what you've paid for; MARC holdings may be needed in the future for Google, OCLC, etc. The library would save on claiming and replacing missed issues. University of Pittsburg noted that their implementation of electronic-only serials reduced staffing by 50% in serials reception. Similarly, Chicago stated that if you still want the paper copy you really have to explain why it is needed. By 2010 every serial should have gone through the print/electronic replacement procedure, i.e., if available in electronic, order electronic and cancel print. Four important points in deciding not to cut a process: patrons need it, colleagues need it, other operations depend on it, or necessary for business purposes such as audit, reporting, etc.
The Taiga Forum was begun to give Assistant/Associate University Librarians and Assistant/Associate Directors a place to share ideas about the changing library environment. The provocative statements from Taiga4, which took place on Thursday, January 22, 2009, in Denver, are now posted online at http://www.taigaforum.org/documents/Taiga%204%20Provocative%20Statements.pdf.
Library of Congress Report to ALA ALCTS Committee on Cataloging: Description and Access (CC:DA), Midwinter Meeting, Denver, Colorado, January 24, 2008
Library of Congress Working Group on the Future of Bibliographic Control.
The Library is pursuing several projects in response to the recommendations of the LC Working Group on the Future of Bibliographic Control. A contract has been awarded to R2 Consulting to produce a survey of the bibliographic landscape, as recommended by the Working Group. An internal LC group, co-chaired by Regina Reynolds and Bruce Knarr of the Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access Directorate, has analyzed the Working Group's recommendations and identified half a dozen projects that the Library could undertake in the near future. Morgan Cundiff of the Network Development and MARC Standards Office has been detailed to the Office of the Associate Librarian for Library Services to explore how Library Services can implement the Working Group's recommendations to widen access to "hidden collections." Library Services is working with representative of the National Library of Medicine and National Agricultural Library to test the proposed cataloging standard, Resource Description and Access, for feasibility, compatibility with existing metadata, cost-effectiveness, and user satisfaction before decisions are made regarding implementation of the new standard. An invitational meeting on January 24 in Denver will invite the participation of potential test partners in the larger community.
International Cataloguing Principles
IFLA--International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions The Policy and Standards Division has been engaged for eight years in the work towards a new "Statement of International Cataloguing Principles" that updates IFLA's Paris Principles of 1961. The final draft underwent worldwide review that produced excellent suggestions for improvements--most of which were incorporated in the final version of the Statement and the accompanying Glossary. The final versions of the Statement and Glossary are awaiting approval from the IFLA Division IV: Bibliographic Control standing committees of the Cataloguing Section, the Bibliography Section, and the Classification and Indexing Section. Work on the publication of the text is underway, enlisting the help of colleagues worldwide with the translation into at least all of the languages from the five International Meetings of Experts on an International Cataloguing Code (IME ICC) that led up to this new statement. The printed text should be available before the next IFLA conference in August 2009, and a free pdf version is being negotiated with the publishers.
Virtual International Authority File (VIAF)
On December 11, 2008, the Library of Congress and the Bibliothèque nationale de France were among the partners (along with the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek and OCLC) signing a new agreement to add the National Library of Sweden as the latest partner to the VIAF. Seven other potential partners have submitted applications to join and are expected to be added during 2009. VIAF is a service that matches and links the world's large personal name authority files. The prototype system is expected to move into a beta version during 2009. Currently more than 9 million personal name authority records are accessible at http://viaf.org/. During 2008 we saw the expansion to include non-Latin characters. Future plans are to expand to geographic names, corporate names, and uniform titles.
ACQUISITIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC ACCESS DIRECTORATE Reorganization The Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access Directorate (ABA) reorganized in October 2008. The new organizational structure merges acquisitions and cataloging functions, based on the regional origin of materials selected for addition to the Library's collections-more than 2.5 million items each year. Approximately 615 ABA staff members, formerly working in 14 divisions, are now assigned to nine new divisions. Additionally, approximately twenty staff who catalog music and sound recordings were reassigned from the ABA Directorate to the Music Division, Collections and Services Directorate, on October 1.
Policy and Standards Division (formerly CPSO)
With the Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access Directorate (ABA) reorganization, the Cataloging Policy and Support Office (CPSO) has become the Policy and Standards Division (PSD or Policy), and its email address has been changed to policy(at)loc.gov.
Authority Non-Latin Reference Project
The Library of Congress is pleased to announce that OCLC has completed the population of the LC/NACO authority file with non-Latin references (authority 4XX fields) derived from non-Latin bibliographic heading fields in WorldCat, a use of data-mining techniques originally developed for the WorldCat Identities project. The project, which began in mid-July, added non-Latin script references to 497,576 name authority records for personal names and corporate bodies. LC hopes to announce soon a process by which catalogers who have been examining the non-Latin script references added by this project can contribute to the development of policies and practices for the future, such as the issues raised in the white paper on non-Latin script references in name authority records (see http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/nonlatin_whitepaper.html).
ALA/LC Romanization Tables
The next issues of the Cataloging Service Bulletin (CSB) will include the new Korean Romanization and word division guidelines developed in collaboration with the ALA Committee on Cataloging: Asian and African Material (CC:AAM). Also work continues to update the Romanization for Greek and to develop a table to help those romanizing Persian from the Perso-Arabic, Cyrillic, or Judeo-Persian Hebrew scripts to the extended Latin script.
Resource Description and Access (RDA)
Barbara Tillett began a series of Webcasts to help LC staff and PCC partners understand the background and underlying concepts behind RDA. Two are now publicly available: (1) Resource Description and Access: Background and Overview" (May 14, 2008), http://www.loc.gov/today/cyberlc/feature_wdesc.php?rec=4320, and (2) Cataloging Principles and RDA: Resource Description and Access (June 10, 2008), http://www.loc.gov/today/cyberlc/feature_wdesc.php?rec=4327. Additional Webcasts are planned for 2009, and announcements will be made when new ones are available.
Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings
With the 2008 update, the Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings is current through the end of February 2008. This is the final update to the 5th edition of the manual. In 2009, a new edition of the manual will be published under the title Subject Headings Manual. The new edition will consolidate the previous updates and complement the Classification and Shelflisting Manual, published in May 2008.
The Division also worked with the American Association of Law Libraries (AALL) on a project to assist catalogers in determining whether individual headings are inherently legal or should be subdivided by --Law and legislation. AALL provided the Division with lists of headings that its members determined to be inherently legal; the Division vetted the lists and added a reference from the topic subdivided by --Law and legislation where appropriate (e.g., Abuse of rights--Law and legislation SEE Abuse of rights).
Cooperative cataloging programs
The PCC has made a final decision to make series tracings and series authority work optional for all members. BIBCO training materials, currently in revision, will include this new policy. BIBCO will also begin investigating a BIBCO Standard Record, in order to use a single bibliographic record rather than various types of bibliographic records.
The PCC Task Group on the Internationalization of the Authority Files is co-chaired by Joan Schuitema, chair of the PCC Standing Committee on Standards, and Barbara Tillett, chief, LC Policy and Standards Division. This group is reviewing current models for an international authority file and will assess each in terms of feasibility for PCC participation. It will address subject as well as name authorities.
The Library's shelf-ready agreement with Casalini libri of Fiesole, Italy, is now in its fourth production year. Casalini supplies bibliographic records, end-stage processing, ownership marks, and labeling for approximately 3,500 Italian titles each year--approximately half the Italian titles acquired by the Library of Congress. A significant price reduction was achieved for fiscal years 2008 and 2009. Casalini performs name and subject authority work as a member of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging.
Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (Serials), 2008 edition
This new publication replaces Appendix C of Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books, 2nd Edition, 1991. It results from a collaboration between LC and the Rare Books and Manuscripts Section of ACRL, the ALA Association of College and Research Libraries. Other publications in this series are also being planned for future publication.
Subject Headings Manual
This new publication replaces the Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings (SCM:SH). It includes all SCM:SH updates through 2008. Two updates will be published each year. The manual is in four volumes with loose-leaf pages.
FREE PDF versions of selected publications
The following publications are freely available at http://www.loc.gov/cds/freepdf.html as they are published: Cataloging Service Bulletin; and updates to the following: Library of Congress Rule Interpretations, Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings, CONSER Cataloging Manual, CONSER Cataloging Manual, Descriptive Cataloging Manual, and updates to MARC 21 format documentation.
Network Development and MARC Standards Office (NDMSO)
During 2008, NDMSO issued the full MARC 21 format online in March 2008. Formerly it was only available in print with the concise version serving the online audience. This was made possible by the completion of the master XML file in fiscal year 2007 from which all versions are simple transformations.
Barbara B. Tillett
LC Liaison to ALA/ALCTS/CCS/CC:DA
Nancy B. Olson Award Announcement from OLAC (Online Audiovisual Catalogers, Inc.) The OLAC Awards Committee has selected Paige Andrew to receive the 2009 Nancy B. Olson Award. Paige's considerable achievements, made the choice evident. This award will be presented to Paige at the OLAC membership meeting in July during the ALA Annual Conference: For making substantial contributions to audiovisual and map cataloging; For his various publications on map cataloging; For presenting quality cataloging workshops at OLAC Conferences and other local, state, regional, and national conferences; For his work in and for OLAC and various national and regional organizations and committees; and For his willingness to share his knowledge with other librarians.
Vicki Toy-Smith, Committee Chair
The 2009 Nancy B. Olson Awards Committee