Volume 48, no. 4, 2010



Re: Seikel, Michele, "No more Romanizing", CCQ 47, no. 8 (2009), p. 747
Barbara Tillett

Re: Hoffman, Gretchen L., "Meeting Users' Needs in Cataloging: What is the Right Thing to Do?", CCQ 47, no. 7 (2009), pp. 631-641
Barbara Tillett

Response to Barbara Tillett, Re: "Meeting Users' Needs in Cataloging: What is the Right Thing to Do?"
Gretchen L. Hoffman


Metadata for Digital Resources: Implementation, Systems Design and Interoperability by Muriel Foulonneau and Jenn Riley.
Reviewed by Naomi Eichenlaub

Organising Knowledge: Taxonomies, Knowledge and Organisational Effectiveness by Patrick Lambe.
Reviewed by Pauline A. Cochrane

Radical Cataloging: Essays at the Front, edited by K. R. Roberto, introduction by Sanford Berman. Reviewed by Jean Weihs

Understanding FRBR: What It Is and How It Will Affect Our Retrieval Tools, edited by Arlene G. Taylor. Reviewed by Jocelyne Andrews


Cataloging News,
Mary Curran, News Editor


A Study of Romanization Practice for Japanese Language Titles in OCLC WorldCat Records
Yoko Kudo

ABSTRACT: Consistent romanization practice is one of the biggest challenges in cataloging Japanese materials. This study provides a snapshot of how Japanese is inconsistently or incorrectly romanized in OCLC WorldCat records, and analyzes factors that might be causing the romanization problems among the records. Particular focus is placed on the analysis of word division problems that might be affected by different interpretations and applications of the ALA-LC Romanization Tables rules. Results revealed major factors behind the inconsistencies that were associated with the ambiguity and complexity of the word division rules. Solutions and potential ideas for further studies are suggested.

KEYWORDS: Cataloging, romanization, Japanese language titles, OCLC WorldCat, word division

Cataloging 17th- and 18th-Century German Dissertations: Guidelines and Observations
Susan Karpuk

ABSTRACT: The author provides historical background useful in understanding the title pages of 17th-18th-century German dissertations. Images of title pages are included, with details of bibliographic description, and MARC coding, as well as a links to examples of catalog records in the Yale Law Library catalog, MORRIS. This article also includes comments on AACR2 Rule 21.27 regarding the problem of authorship in early dissertations.

KEYWORDS: AACR2 Rule 21.27, German dissertations, title pages, 17th-18th century, bibliographic description, MARC coding, choice of access points

Cataloging and Archiving State Government Publications: A New Role for Catalogers
Colleen Valente

ABSTRACT: The academic libraries in Alabama have been hampered in their ability to provide government information to researchers by the lack of a functioning state depository system. Digital publishing can make timely distribution and wide-spread accessibility of state government information possible if these online documents can be captured and archived before they are removed from agency websites. This paper describes a year-long project to capture, archive, and catalog government publications by a catalog unit.

KEYWORDS: State government documents, cataloging, Network of Alabama Academic Libraries (NAAL), digital documents, archiving

Next Generation OPACs: A Cataloging Viewpoint
Chew Chiat Naun

ABSTRACT: Since around 2005 several striking attempts have been made to rethink the design of library catalogues in production systems, NCSU's Endeca catalogue being a notable example. These developments are taking place just as the continued relevance of traditional cataloguing is being questioned. This article examines the relationship of these new designs to evolving cataloguing practice and the changing discovery environment and the emergence of these new designs from the standpoint of a cataloguing practitioner.

KEYWORDS: OPAC, cataloging, classification, FRBR


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Cataloging News

Welcome to the news column. Its purpose is to disseminate information on any aspect of cataloging and classification that may be of interest to the cataloging community. This column is not just intended for news items, but serves to document discussions of interest as well as news concerning you, your research efforts, and your organization. Please send any pertinent materials, notes, minutes, or reports to: Mary Curran, Morisset Library, University of Ottawa, 65 University Ave, Ottawa, ON Canada K1N 9A5 (email: mgcurran(at)uottawa.ca; phone: 613-562-5800 ext. 3590). News columns will typically be available prior to publication in print from the CCQ website at http://catalogingandclassificationquarterly.com/.

As in the past, this column begins with news related to RDA: Resource Description and Access, followed by items having to do with:

Research and Opinion



RDA Milestones


The publication of RDA: Resource Description and Access will be delayed until June 2010. The transition from publication of AACR2 as a printed manual to the release of RDA as a web-based toolkit is a complex process with many interdependencies, and the product is currently undergoing thorough quality review and testing in preparation for release.
Mary Ghikas, Chair Committee of Principals
Alan Danskin, Chair Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA
Don Chatham, Chair Co-publishers

RDA Vocabularies

The vocabulary portions of RDA are essentially complete and available in the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) Metadata Registry at: http://metadataregistry.org/rdabrowse.htm.  Updates to the vocabularies from the Joint Steering Committee meeting in March 2009 have been integrated, and although we expect to see some minor editorial tweaks prior to the formal publication of the guidance text, what is there is ready for use and experimentation by those whose interest in RDA is in data rather than instruction.
In the meantime, we encourage those who want to work with the vocabularies to feel free to contact us with questions or issues, either via email or the Registry feedback tab.
Diane Hillmann, Co-chair
DCMI/RDA Task Group

The German National Library experience of translating and registering RDA elements and vocabularies

A prerequisite for the registering of our terms in the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) Metadata Registry and one of the greatest challenges for the German National Library at the moment is the translation of the RDA elements and vocabularies.  Since bibliographic description is executed with a highly specialized vocabulary, we are finding that the process of pinpointing the appropriate terms is interesting but also very involved. Although the existing German rules for bibliographic description (RAK) and the authority files for subject headings, Schlagwortnormdatei (SWD), have plenty of vocabulary to offer as equivalents to Anglo-American cataloguing terminology, RDA does include concepts relatively new to bibliographic description.

Before resorting to "inventing" words, always a last resort, we launch comprehensive vocabulary mining efforts, in the process of which, beyond checking already existing translations (FRBR, MARC 21), we consult the expertise such institutions as art libraries and film institutes to get the most up-to-date descriptive terms available in the German language.

Once our small team of librarians from the Office for Library Standards has followed these processes and developed a pool of equivalent German terms which we deem worthy of proposing initially for the Registry and subsequently for our official translation of RDA, we make them available to groups of colleagues specialised in bibliographic description or subject headings at the German National Library for comment in a Wiki and working meetings. Our experience with translation has shown us that the translations of descriptive bibliographic elements and vocabulary into German must be handled by librarians (professional translators can potentially pick up from there) and peer-reviewed through the above-mentioned process to ensure accuracy and acceptance in the library community.

Beyond motivating us to begin our RDA translations early, our participation in the Registry has given us an opportunity to dabble in the semantic web through the process of assigning URIs to our German translations of RDA element and value vocabulary.  As a test run, it therefore allows us to toy with the idea of linked data by setting descriptive bibliographic vocabulary up with its prerequisite domain. The lessons learned and questions raised through this experience put us in a better position for strategic planning regarding the nature of the presentation and sharing of bibliographic data in the future.
Veronika Leibrecht
Deutsche Nationalbibliothek
Office for Library Standards

RDA Forum

Catalogers and metadata librarians are invited to join the new RDA forum on ALA Connect, the new American Library Association (ALA) platform for committee work and information sharing and networking. ALA members and non-members alike can join the RDA forum at: http://connect.ala.org/RDAforum.

RDA and OCLC Webinar

OCLC offered a webinar titled, "RDA and OCLC" on October 30, 2009 and again on Nov. 19, 2009. The webinar was recorded and is available online from the OCLC WebEx site. Topics discussed included:


Access Through Metadata: New Library of Congress Group Tackles the Challenge

Consistent and rich metadata are needed in order to improve search of the Library of Congress collections and provide web services that users have come to expect. To address the challenges in this area, the "Metadata for Digital Content" group was formed at the Library of Congress in March 2009. This internal, cross-Library group is working towards new solutions, aligning with a goal in the Library's overall strategic plan to provide better access to digital materials. The group is co-chaired by Rebecca Guenther and Ann Della Porta from the Technology Policy Directorate of the Library, and members include catalogers, programmers, and digital project managers who represent different service units of the Library concerned with digital content. All are united by the common need for more effective descriptive metadata, which is of increasing importance for the burgeoning amounts of new digital material added to the Library's website every day. In studying the question of "what are users looking for, and can they find it?" the group determined that the overall quality of the online bibliographic records plays a big part in success or failure.

In support of the Library's goal for increased access, the group hopes to accomplish three objectives. First, recommend a common set of metadata elements for current and future uses. Second, provide more consistent metadata for access and use of the digital objects and recommend how it should be managed. And third, develop recommendations for providing metadata for digital objects that currently have none or little metadata. More information is available at http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/library/challenge/metadata_digital_content_challenge.html.

ISBD Area 0: Content Form and Media Type Area ISBD Review Group

Area 0: Content Form and Media Type Area is an amendment to the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD).  This new area of the bibliographic description takes the place of the general material designation (GMD) in area 1. It is being issued with a set of examples.  Area 0 will be incorporated into the consolidated ISBD for its next revision in 2010.

Open Library Environment (OLE)

The Open Library Environment (OLE) Project, whose goal was to produce a design document to inform open source library system development efforts, is now completed. A copy of the final report is available at http://oleproject.org/final-report-on-ole-project/.

A $2.38 million grant from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to Indiana University will be used to develop software created specifically for the management of print and electronic collections for academic and research libraries around the world. Indiana University will lead the Kuali OLE Project.
Lynne O'Brien
Director, Academic Technology and Instructional Services
Perkins Library, Duke University

What is Distinctive about the Library of Congress

In November 2009, a new paper became available from Thomas Mann: "What is Distinctive about the Library of Congress In Both its Collections and its Means of Access to Them, And The Reasons LC Needs to Maintain Classified Shelving of Books Onsite, And A Way to Deal Effectively with the Problem of 'Books on the Floor'" (http://www.guild2910.org/Future%20of%20Cataloging/LCdistinctive.pdf).

MARC Records Study:

The report, Study of the North American MARC Records Marketplace, prepared by R2 Consulting LLC for Library of Congress is available at http://www.loc.gov/bibliographic-future/news/MARC_Record_Marketplace_2009-10.pdf. It is the result of six months of a variety of information gathering techniques including a social network called Bibliographic Record Production, a survey of libraries and another of vendors, interviews, and a literature review. Among other things, this research finds that the market provides insufficient incentives to stimulate additional original cataloging, that cooperative cataloging has not realized its full potential, and that there is adequate cataloging capacity in North America to meet the collective need. A must read!

Sequel to On the Record

A new report, "On the Record Report Recommendations the Library of Congress Should Pursue Over the Next Four Years," prepared by OTR Report Implementation Working Group, co-chaired by Regina Reynolds and Bruce Knarr, was made available in September 2009 at http://www.loc.gov/bibliographic-future/news/OTR_rep_response_final_091509.pdf. This report distills the earlier On the Record recommendations into activities that the Library of Congress should include in its planning process over the next four years while including a mix of new initiatives, and areas warranting further investigation.

PCC Announces Implementation of BIBCO Standard Record

The PCC Policy Committee (PoCo) has set January 4, 2010 as the implementation date for the BIBCO Standard Record (BSR) guidelines for printed books as outlined in the Final Report of the Task Group on BIBCO Standard Record Requirements. Libraries contributing BSR records for printed books (excluding rare books) using the BIBCO Standard Record requirements will use the single encoding level blank.  This replaces the use of BIBCO Full and Core standards for printed books. Libraries contributing BIBCO records for rare books, electronic books, and materials in non-book formats will continue to code full records blank and core records 4, until BSR guidelines can be developed. Encoding level 4 will remain as a valid encoding level in OCLC for earlier BIBCO core records and for records not contributed as PCC printed book records in the future.  It is understood that batch loading processes by libraries that catalog in local systems may result in some BIBCO core level records entering OCLC even after January 4, 2010. The Standing Committee on Standards is charged with developing BSR guidelines for rare books, for electronic books, and for monographs in non-book formats, in consultation with appropriate stakeholders. The Standing Committee on Training is charged with developing training materials aimed primarily at libraries joining the BIBCO program. PoCo extends its thanks to the Task Group members Magda El-Sherbini, Ohio State University; Rebecca Malek-Wiley, Tulane University; Caroline Miller, University of California, Los Angeles; Louise Ratliff, University of California, Los Angeles; Carolyn Sturtevant, Coop, Library of Congress; Iris Wolley, Columbia University (coordinator) and liaisons Joe Kiegel, Standing Committee on Standards, University of Washington; Rebecca Lubas, Standing Committee on Automation, University of New Mexico; and Bob Wolverton, Standing Committee on Training, Mississippi State University. The full announcement with links to the Final Report, the Metadata Application Profile, and FAQ is available at http://www.loc.gov/catdir/pcc/bibco/BSRAnnouncement.pdf.

MarcEdit 5.2 Released

Terry Reece enumerates the many changes and enhancements to the open source tool that he developed and continues to update, a tool that has become indispensible to cataloguing and metadata departments. Enhancements and downloads of the new version are available from Reece's blog at http://people.oregonstate.edu/~reeset/blog/archives/797.

SkyRiver to compete with OCLC

An October 6, 2009 article in Library Journal by Marshall Breeding describes the newest bibliographic utility, SkyRiver, founded by Jerry Kline. Some libraries expect to go into full production with SkyRiver in October 2009, and the company will begin marketing its service in January 2010. The full article, "New Company SkyRiver Sparks Cataloging Competition with OCLC is available at http://www.libraryjournal.com/article/CA6700415.html?desc=3Dtopstory.

CD3 (Cataloger's Desktop Version 3) released on Nov. 2, 2009

Cataloger's Desktop moved to a new and enhanced platform on November 2, 2009 and the Library of Congress, Cataloging Distribution Service offered a series of webinars to make the transition easier for Desktop subscribers. One major change was to allow individual sign-in, and therefore individual customization. All of the webinars (What's new; Account management and Logging in for the first time; Setting up your preferences; Getting the most of Search; and Saving Bookmarks and Searches) were recorded and are available along with Power Points and handouts at http://www.loc.gov/cds/desktop/web-faqs.html#Workshops.

Classify: An Experimental Classification Web Service, http://classify.oclc.org/

Classify is a FRBR-based prototype from OCLC Research that is designed to support the assignment of Library of Congress Classification, Dewey Decimal Classification, and FAST subject headings for books, DVDs, CDs, and other types of materials. Using the FRBR model to aggregate bibliographic information above the manifestation level, bibliographic records are grouped using the OCLC FRBR Work-Set algorithm to form a work-level summary of the class numbers and subject headings assigned to a work. Summaries are available by ISBN, ISSN, UPC, OCLC number, and author/title searches.

OCLC's Metadata Services for Publishers

In October 2009, OCLC announced the availability of Metadata Services for Publishers, a new service that takes publishers' ONIX metadata for titles, enriches it using WorldCat mining and mapping techniques, and delivers the enhanced ONIX metadata back to the publishers for use in their systems. The publishers' enhanced metadata is then made available early in the data creation process to libraries for use in selection, acquisition, and technical services workflows.


A process to add ISSN-L to existing records in OCLC WorldCat has been developed, and OCLC is working with the Library of Congress to implement it.  As of December 2, 2009, OCLC had completed a few records as part of a test (for example, see OCLC bibliographic record 10007380). It is too earlier to estimate when this project might be completed.
Jay Weitz, Senior Consulting Database Specialist
OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Conference report: The Evolving Catalog: New Uses, New Tools?

[Catalogues en devenir: nouveaux usages, nouveaux outils?] 

Saint Cloud, France, June 26, 2009

Médiadix is an organization that provides continuing education and training for librarians and library staff in the Ile-de-France region of France. It depends on Paris Ouest University (former Paris X), 11 avenue Pozzo di Borgo, 92210 Saint-Cloud, France.

The contents of the conference in presentation order were:

Collaborative Web 2.0 Tools Applied to the Catalog [Les outils collaboratifs du web 2.0 au service du catalogue], by Lionel Dujol, head of the médiation numérique des collections - public library Médiathèque du Pays de romans.

The Visual Catalog Experiment: How to Put Users at the Center of the Reference Function [L'expérience du Visual Catalog: comment mettre les usagers au coeur du dispositif de médiation documentaire], by Corinne Leblond, head of the SCD [university library], l'Université d'Artois.

Access to Digital Resources [Accéder aux documents numériques], by Isabelle Westeel, project leader at Direction de la culture du Conseil régional Nord-Pas-de-Calais.

Use of External Sources of Records to Populate the Catalog: The Example of the Bibliothèque municipale de Lille [L'utilisation de réservoirs de notices externes pour l'alimentation du catalogue: l'exemple de la Bibliothèque municipale de Lille], by Juliette Guillemoteau, head of bibliographic services at the Bibliothèque municipale de Lille.

Koha + Typo 3: Open Source Tools to Support Access to Content [Koha + Typo 3: des outils libres au service des contenus], by Jérôme Pouchol, head of collection development and the Koha project at the public library, Médiathèque Intercommunale Ouest Provence, and trainer at Médiat'Rhône Alpes.

The Catalog, a Shared Space: Blogs Around the OPAC [Le catalogue, espace de partage: les blogs autour de l'Opac], by Lionel Dujol.

The Catalog in the Digital Era: What are the Consequences for the Cataloging Rules? [Les catalogues à l'ère numérique: quelles conséquences sur les règles de catalogage?] by Françoise Leresche, Chef du Pôle modélisation fonctionnelle, Département de l'Information bibliographique et numérique, Bibliothèque nationale de France. Responsable à l'AFNOR du groupe d'experts CG46/CN357/GE6 "Evolution de la description bibliographique des documents édités."

I had the pleasure of participating in this one-day meeting organized by Mediadix. The unifying theme of this meeting was the current state of library catalogs. The day was dedicated to new applications and tools for library OPACs, and a few of the presentations touched on the question of cataloging and its management. It was emphasized in the introduction that we were discussing OPACs rather than cataloging, which some consider to be a "dead" service.

Although the job of original cataloging is showing a tendency to disappear,1 some libraries continue to perform it in order to achieve consistency, which is necessary to assure a clear and comprehensible presentation of the OPAC on the web. Remote use of OPACs preceded the development of library websites, however the OPAC has now become part of the web reference services offered by a library.

To supplement official sites, numerous blogs have been created around OPACs. It is to this very recent phenomenon that Laurent Dujol devoted one of his presentations. The collaborative tools of Web 2.0 should support catalogs and their users; it is now the conventions of web use that prevail, and not the conventions of library use. Laurent Dujol showed several examples of library 2.0 sites as well as blogs that could be considered as complementary to catalogs.

Many libraries are increasing the promotion of their digitized collections, developing online tools that enable them to be present in the Internet users' web environment. Librarians can then help these users find their way to available content.

We must give users the ability to take an active part in the creation and enrichment of the catalog. For example, we can give them the ability to tag or comment on catalog records. Links to resources outside libraries such as virtual encyclopedias, to institutions like museums or bookstores, are highly appreciated and increase the appeal of OPACs and, at the same time, encourage the public to come to libraries.

This new generation of users demands that librarians make the effort to become part of their digital universe; if this is not done there is a risk that online information retrieval services will be abandoned. They wish a portal that will let them navigate in new ways through the collections and that will lead to what is so frequently described on the web: "Finding without searching," in contract to the nightmare of librarians who are the "only ones who like to search while everyone else likes to find"? To support his position, Laurent Dujol provided numerous examples, both French and foreign (see

The ease of access to digital resources has created new problems for library catalogs. The search engine Google is very popular, and is used by 89% of web users in France (as of April 2009) and attracts 63.7% of users in the USA, and has completely upset the assumptions underlying the library catalog.

Recent studies, such as those by OCLC, have shown that users seek hyperlinks, are pleased with search results organized by facets (such as country, date, language, medium), and value relevance ranking.

As to librarians, they are trying more and more to respond to user needs, to work with structured data, and to give increased importance to unique identifiers (standard numbers, URLs, etc.)

To be discovered, we must be present in search engines and finally leave the invisible web. To be attractive, we must employ functionalities known to Internet users, adding features such as interactive maps. To be understood and to make it possible for users to find information, we must provide more access points and create shared access points that can be applied to different types of resources.

Insist on the importance of development and the increased use of authority records, whatever the environment (libraries, museums, etc.), work together on metadata to make access to content interoperable; get inspiration from prototypes and well-known projects, such as the Australian SBDS, STEVE for museums in the United States, or Europeana. Collaborate with partners and innovate unceasingly-these were directions identified by Isabelle Westeel.

Françoise Leresche's closing presentation, while defending standardization and endorsing I. Westeel's viewpoint, emphasized that we must work on data interchange and on creating links without trying to achieve perfectly uniform data. MARC is not the only format for data processing and communication. Other formats are used in the world of information resources, such as ONIX in the book publishing industry, IEE-LOM for resources that support learning, and the Dublin Core for web resources. The ISO is also interested in data interchange, as evidenced by the new standard ISO 21127: 2006, "A reference ontology for the interchange of cultural heritage information."

Three examples of local experiments in France were described: the public library of a large city (Lille) and two networks, one managed by the Bibliothèque universitaire d'Arras, and the other by the Médiathèque Ouest Provence.

The "Visual … Catalog" was implemented in 2006 as part of the Documentary information system of the Université d'Artois (which was itself established in 1992, together with its university library), and involved 16 libraries. It had as its objective "to restore meaning to the library." Corinne Leblond gave a brief description of its use, based on a small study done at Arras in 2006/2007. The study did not show a strong desire among students to participate in the development of the catalog, despite the expectation that the study would confirm the conventional wisdom that interactive experience is what is desired today.

Nevertheless, the implementation of the "Visual … Catalog" had a major impact on the operations of the Service commun de documentation (a name commonly used in France for university libraries) of the Université d'Artois, and on the harmonization of indexing practices at the 16 sites. Future projects include the following goals, e.g., attract students using a fun-based approach; develop a partnership program with high schools in order to allow young people to become familiar with and feel comfortable in the world of information in preparation to joining the University; and enrich indexing in order to facilitate bibliographic searching.

The Bibliothèque municipale (BM) de Lille populates its catalog from several sources of bibliographic records. The Electre database was abandoned due to its high cost and the desire to use competitive sources of data, specifically free databases such as BN-Opale or MoCAMM, and the databases of bookstores such as Decitre or Amazon. The SUDOC (Système Universitaire de DOCumentation) database cannot be used by public libraries because of the absence of agreements between ABES (Agence bibliographique de l'enseignement supérieur) and local organizations in France. The BM de Lille continues to perform the function of cataloging, or rather of harmonization, encouraging the enrichment of records and ensuring the consistency of data.

The Médiathèque intercommunale Ouest Provence coordinates a network of 7 sites using the open source software KOHA (version 3) and Typo 3. Jérôme Puchol presented the advantages resulting from this set-up for the region and the users, while addressing the organizational and technological issues with which the network was confronted. The implementation was very successful, and required the full use of both organizational and human resources.

The project's promoters succeeded in convincing their administrators that the library portal was a real information portal, and that to use highly configurable open source software made it possible to reduce the cost of integration and maintenance.

A regular development cycle for versions is possible thanks to effective tools for work and communication, such as instant messaging with the Kohala Association, discussion lists, participatory maintenance, and well coordinated community contributions. The result of this collective work is an OPAC that is integrated into the library's portal, is easy to use, offers subject clouds, searches and links to other resources (publisher sites, author sites), RSS feeds, etc.

Some materials presented at the one-day conference on library OPACs are available on the site of the organizer, Médiadix, at http://mediadix.u-paris10.fr/brochure/documents/programme.doc. Additional material on the projects described, as well as additional writings by the speakers of the conference, may be found on the Internet, mainly in French.

In conclusion the OPAC is becoming a true public service -- a service that makes it possible to navigate in the wide world of information. In view of the increasing dichotomy between "cataloging" and "catalog," shouldn't the title of Cataloging & Classification Quarterly be changed so that the word "catalog" appears in it?
Maria Witt
Paris, France
With translation assistance provided by
Sara Shatford Layne

Fundamentals of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) Classification Course

The Cataloging Section of the National Library of Medicine is pleased to announce the availability of a new e-learning course called Fundamentals of the NLM Classification. The course is a free set of modules and interactive exercises that students may take at their own pace without an instructor. This course covers the principles and applications of the NLM Classification in the cataloging environment, and is divided into nine modules:

  1. Overview of the NLM Classification
  2. Using the Online NLM Classification
  3. Components of NLM Call Numbers
  4. General Principles
  5. Table G (Geographic Notations)
  6. Form Numbers
  7. Bibliographies and Related Materials
  8. Classification of 19th Century Works and Early Printed Books
  9. Continuing Resources

The Fundamentals of the NLM Classification is available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/tsd/cataloging/trainingcourses/classification/index.html.
Diane Boehr, Head of Cataloging
National Library of Medicine
Bethesda, MD

Bibliographic Control Alphabet Soup: AACR to RDA and Evolution of MARC

The slides from this NISO Webinar that occurred on October 14, 2009 are now available at http://www.niso.org/news/events/2009/bibcontrol09/bibcontrol09.pdf. The presentations included: AACR2, RDA, VIAF, and the Future: From There to Here to There by Barbara Tillett, Chief, Policy and Standards Division, Library of Congress; RDA Elements and Vocabularies: a Step Forward from MARC by Diane Hillmann, Director of Metadata Initiatives, Information Institute of Syracuse; and Data-driven Evidence for Core MARC Records by William Moen, Associate Professor, School of Library and Information Sciences, University of North Texas.

Cataloging Groups Formed on ALA Connect

ALA Connect (http://connect.ala.org) is a new social networking utility sponsored by the American Library Association.  It replaces the Online Communities website that ALA started a couple years ago which never really took off. ALA Connect incorporates many Facebook-type features, such as the ability to establish a personal profile page and the ability to establish a personal network of friends.

All existing ALA groups are pre-populated in ALA Connect. This means that, if you are an ALA member, all the divisions, roundtables and sections that you belong to already have counterpart groups established on the utility and that you are automatically listed online as a member of the corresponding ALA Connect group.  For each group, there is a discrete web page that incorporates standard social networking functionality.  For instance, it is possible to add posts, upload and post documents, add events to a group calendar, chat and engage in discussions.

A search of "catalog" pulls up 31 different groups (the search automatically truncates, so the search results also pull up "catalogue" and "cataloging," etc.). Most of these are established ALA committees, such as ALCTS CCS (Cataloging and Classification Section), the most populous cataloging related group, with 2,226 members as of July, 2009.

ALA Connect also includes the ability to establish new groups that don't correspond to already-existing ALA committees. These ad-hoc groups are called "member communities." Many of these communities are ephemeral, established, for example, to support an event or meeting. There are about a dozen cataloging-related communities, and these mostly correspond to ALA interest or discussion groups, such as the Cartographic Resources Cataloging Interest Group (ALCTS CCS / MAGERT). Interest and discussion groups appear not to be automatically populated like divisions and sections and must be created separately. One group called "Cataloging rules" and created by this writer seeks to "serve as a forum for discussing the value that cataloging adds to libraries."

ALA Connect has gotten off to a much better start than ALA's previous networking efforts, and it has a lot of potential for success. Given tight travel budgets and the desire by some to have virtual conferences, ALA connect is well positioned to bring catalogers and other librarians together and to further the work and mission of the American Library Association.
Jeffrey Beall, Catalog Librarian
Auraria Library, University of Colorado Denver
Denver, CO

2009 News from the Library of Congress

Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access Directorate Reorganization

The year 2009 was the first full year that the Library of Congress Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access (ABA) Directorate operated under the new organizational structure that took effect in October 2008.  The fourteen former divisions were restructured as nine divisions.  Four production divisions have fiscal responsibilities and acquire and catalog materials from all parts of the world using methods of purchase, exchange, and gift.  These are the African, Latin American, and Western European Division (chief, Angela Kinney); Asian and Middle Eastern Division (chief, Philip Melzer); Germanic and Slavic Division (chief, Linda Stubbs); and U.S./Anglo Division (chief, Judith A. Mansfield).  Two divisions, the U.S. and Publisher Liaison Division and the U.S. General Division, catalog materials forwarded from the U.S. Copyright Office or received in the Cataloging in Publication, Electronic Pre-assigned Card Number, and International Standard Serial Number programs. Karl Debus-López is chief of U.S. General and also serves as acting chief of the USPL Division. The U.S. General Division also houses the Library of Congress's Dewey classifiers and works closely with the owner of the Dewey Decimal Classification, OCLC, Inc., and its editors.

The Overseas Operations Division continues to administer the Library's six overseas offices in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Cairo, Egypt; New Delhi, India; Jakarta, Indonesia; Nairobi, Kenya; and Islamabad, Pakistan.  The reorganization established an Acquisitions Fiscal and Support Office (head, Joseph Puccio), within the Office of the Director, that is responsible for acquisitions fiscal operations, the Duplicate Materials Exchange Program, the Surplus Books Program, and oversight of materials handling contractors.  The Cooperative and Instructional Programs Division (chief, Judith Cannan) combines the former Cooperative Cataloging Team, CONSER operations, the National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections staff, and the directorate's internal training staff.  This merger recognized that ABA could realize efficiencies in the provision of training both to Library staff and to practitioners in other institutions.

The new Policy and Standards Division (chief, Barbara Tillett) performs all the functions of the former Cataloging Policy and Support Office, including acquisitions policy. The product development functions of the Library of Congress Cataloging Distribution Service have also become the responsibility of Policy and Standards, while the CDS cost-recovery functions moved to the new Business Enterprises organization in the Partnerships and Outreach Programs Directorate.

Appointments, Retirements, etc.

Ann Della Porta was appointed permanent chief of the Library of Congress Integrated Library System (ILS) Program Office on November 2, 2009. She has worked in the ILS Program Office since 1998 and served as an assistant program coordinator for the implementation of the Library's first integrated library system in 1999.  Ann is well known to many CCQ readers as a former cataloger of Russian and other materials at LC and as former leader of the Cooperative Cataloging Team, which serves as the secretariat for the international Program for Cooperative Cataloging.
James Gentner, chief of the Overseas Operations Division, retired on April 3.  Beacher Wiggins, director for ABA, is overseeing the division directly since James's retirement.
Maureen Landry, chief of the US and Publisher Liaison Division, retired on May 30.  Prior to October 2008, Maureen was chief of the former Serial Record Division.

Automated ISSN Register

In August 2009, after over a year of development, the first ISSN using the Automated ISSN Register was assigned to the online version of Publishers Weekly, the magazine to which R.R. Bowker assigned the first ISSN, in 1972. The Automated ISSN Register is a stand-alone database program, built using Apex. The program resides on a server that can be accessed from on-site workstations and remotely, thus ensuring continuity of operations in the event of an emergency that might shut down the Library's facilities. The Automated Register is supported by an Oracle database that stores ISSN allocated by the ISSN International Centre in Paris, together with identifying metadata that is input as the ISSN are assigned. Staff input basic metadata and the system captures their operator ID and a time stamp. The system provides a required report for the ISSN International Centre and a report of prepublication titles that have passed their expected date of publication so that reminder emails can be sent to publishers. Regina Romano Reynolds, ISSN Coordinator at the Library of Congress, oversaw the development and implementation of the Automated ISSN Register, with assistance from John Levy and Linda Geisler. From Oct. 14, 2008 through September 20, 2009, the U.S. ISSN Center in the Library of Congress assigned approximately 5,779 new International Standard Serial Numbers (ISSN). Almost half of the ISSN assignments made at the request of publishers were for online serials. This year's ratio of ISSN assigned to print vs. online resources is comparable to the proportion from last year, indicating a continuing trend towards online publishing of continuing resources.

Catalogers Learning Workshop

In June 2009, the Library of Congress launched all the course material from Catalogers Learning Workshop on its iTunes U pages. The previous autumn, on October 8, 2008, the Library's Cooperative and Instructional Programs Division officially became responsible for the Catalogers Learning Workshop website.  Previously, the content had formed part of the Cataloging Distribution Service's website.  In conjunction with the new launch, the Library began distributing all training materials housed on this site free of charge.  Anyone around the globe can download these training materials and modify them for use in any institution.ID.LOC.GOV

The Library of Congress's ID.LOC.GOV web service, Authorities and Vocabularies, opened with the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) as the initial offering.  The primary goal of this service is to enable machines to programmatically access data at the Library of Congress, but the Web interface also provides simple user access.  We view this service as a step toward exposing and interconnecting vocabulary and thesaurus data via URLs. For LCSH, we were fortunate to have been able to link terms to a similar service provided in Europe for RAMEAU. We plan to expand the ID.LOC.GOV service to other vocabularies commonly found in standards that the Library supports such as the Thesaurus of Graphic Materials, the MARC 21 codes for geographic area, language, and relator terms, and the controlled vocabularies for PREMIS preservation events and roles. We are very interested in feedback on the uses and usefulness of the service to inform ways that we might enhance it. Please explore the site for yourself at http://id.loc.gov/. There is a comment form at the site.

Korean Cataloging

The Library of Congress took several steps to improve the bibliographic control of Korean materials in 2009. The Northeast Asia Section of the Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access Directorate cataloged a total of 9,021 Korean titles, including some Korean language Web sites. The section conducted a major revision and development of Korean ancient history and language tables in the Library of Congress Classification, proposing more than 200 new classification numbers to provide more precise access through classification. The cataloging automation specialist, David Williamson, developed "Korean Z-Processor," a software program that will make it possible to import Korean MARC (KOMARC) records from the National Library of Korea, convert the data into MARC 21 records, and load the records into the LC integrated library system.

David and the Library's Korean catalogers and cataloging policy specialists also worked with the Korean McCune-Reischauer Romanization Dictionary project, based at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee under the leadership of Dr. Wooseob Jeong, on the development of an automated Korean Transliterator, which will automatically supply parallel romanized matching fields to match the nonroman fields in a bibliographic record. The Transliterator configuration file is based on an electronic dictionary that has Korean words and phrases along with their romanized counterparts. The conversion of the dictionary into a form that can be used by the Transliterator software created approximately 80,000 initial entries and immediately enabled Transliterator to romanize more than 95 percent of the Korean characters in records downloaded from the National Library of Korea. Work continues on the dictionary to eliminate duplicate entries as well as to add new phrases, which may sometimes be romanized differently than the individual words in the phrase. Implementation promises to save processing time and promote consistent romanization practices both at LC and throughout the East Asian library community.

Law Materials Digitization

Jolande Goldberg, law classification specialist, is active in a project to increase online access to law materials. This year collaboration began between LC and the Law Library Microform/Digital Consortium (LLMDC) on a cooperative scanning project. The parties agreed on the types of materials that would be included, and Dr. Goldberg selected approximately 3,000 titles from the LC collections, including laws, treaties, and other law-related works for all of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.

ONIX to MARC Conversion Program

Cataloging automation specialist David Williamson has developed application software for converting ONIX data provided by publishers to MARC 21 for ECIP (Electronic Cataloging in Publication) catalog records. Four LC catalogers tested the application in 2009.  The nine-week initial test showed that when the records received from the publishers were accurate, the new ONIX/MARC conversion process was twice as fast as the older TCEC (Text Capture and Electronic Conversion) process. In some cases, however, the publisher records were missing too many key data elements to be useful and actually took longer to process using the converter.

Virtual International Authority File (VIAF)

Work continues on developing and implementing the Virtual International Authority File (VIAF), a joint project of the Library of Congress, OCLC, the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, and the Bibliothèque nationale de France.  The VIAF combines the personal name authority files of participating institutions into a single name authority service.  In 2009, several new partners signed as participants.  The long-term goal of the VIAF is to include authoritative names from many libraries and regional consortia into a global service that is freely available via the Web to users worldwide.  As of the fall of 2009 there were 18 personal name authority files from major national and regional libraries, with applications from 6 additional sources. The full participant libraries were the Library of Congress; the national libraries of Australia, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Israel, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden; the Vatican Library; Biblioteca Alexandrina; Getty Research Institute; and the Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo Unico of Italy.
Susan R. Morris, Assistant to Director
Acquisitions & Bibliographic Access
Library of Congress


1 See Dominique Lahary's comments under the heading "Local cataloguing, secret scandal," posted on the Internet in March 2009, after Thierry Giappiconi's interview which ends: "Local cataloguing is unuseful and damaging" Archimag, February 2009, http://lahary.wordpress.com/2009/03/05/le-catalogage-local-scandale-intime/, http://archimag.com/fr/accueil-archimag/magazines/archimag-n221/actualites/trois-questions-athierry-giappiconi.html?0=.


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