Volume 49, no. 1, 2011


Book Review

Implementing FRBR in Libraries: Key Issues and Future Directions, by Yin Zhang and Athena Salaba.
Reviewed by William Denton

RDA Vocabularies for a Twenty-First Century Data Environment, by Karen Coyle.
Reviewed by Marcia Salmon

Understanding the Semantic Web: Bibliographic Data and Metadata, by Karen Coyle.
Reviewed by Marcia Salmon

Collection-level Cataloging: Bound-with Books, by Jain Fletcher.
Reviewed by Sara Rofofsky Marcus


Cataloging News, Robert Bothmann, News Editor


Original Articles

Google Book Search and Metadata
Julia Pope and Robert P. Holley

ABSTRACT: This article summarizes published documents on metadata provided by Google for books scanned as part of the Google Book Search (GBS) project and provides suggestions for improvement. The faulty, misleading, and confusing metadata in current Google records can pose potentially serious problems for users of GBS. Google admits that it took data, which proved to be inaccurate, from many sources and is attempting to correct errors. Some argue that metadata is not needed with keyword searching; but optical character recognition (OCR) errors, synonym control, and materials in foreign languages make reliable metadata a requirement for academic researchers. The authors recommend that users should be able to submit error reports to Google to correct faulty metadata.

KEYWORDS: Google, Google Book Search project, metadata


Reclassification in Academic Research Libraries: Is It Still Relevant in an E-book World?
Thomas D. Steele and Jody Bales Foote

ABSTRACT: This article examines whether academic libraries are still reclassifying materials, how they are doing so, and if the acquisition of electronic materials has an impact on reclassification efforts. An online survey was sent to the heads of cataloging units at libraries belonging to the Association of Research Libraries to answer these questions. Almost one-third of libraries are currently involved in reclassification projects. Most respondents reported they do not believe that purchasing e-books has affected their decisions about reclassification. The article also examines the faceted search capability of next-generation catalogs and their possible impact on patrons' opinion of classification.

KEYWORDS: Classification, e-books, reclassification, Association of Research Libraries, next generation catalogs


Catalogue Use in Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Library, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
Isaac Olugbenga Ajala and Christianah Oluwafunmilayo Aderinto

ABSTRACT: This study examines use of the card catalog by staff and undergraduate and postgraduate students of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo state, Nigeria. The population sample was comprised of 1,200 library users randomly selected from 13,592 registered library users at the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso. Results from questionnaires established that the library card catalogue was underutilized by the undergraduate students (44%), but more heavily used by postgraduate students (78%), academic staff (74%), and administrative staff (66%). Recommendations are suggested to improve catalog use in the library.

KEYWORDS: Card catalog use, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology


In Memoriam

Brian Vickery, September 11, 1918 - October 17, 2009
Vanda Broughton

The article reviews the life and work of Brian Campbell Vickery, one of the major figures of British classification and information retrieval, and a scholar of international reputation. His career as librarian, researcher, and academic is described, as is the part he played in the development of information science theory in the twentieth century. Some of his most significant publications are listed, with reference to the scale and breadth of his published work overall.


Cataloging News
Robert Bothmann, News Editor

Welcome to the news column.  Its purpose is to disseminate information on any aspect of cataloging and classification that may be of interest to the cataloging community.  This column is not just intended for news items, but serves to document discussions of interest as well as news concerning you, your research efforts, and your organization.  Please send any pertinent materials, notes, minutes, or reports to: Robert Bothmann, Memorial Library, Minnesota State University, Mankato, ML 3097, PO Box 8419, Mankato, MN 56002-8419 (email: robert.bothmann@mnsu.edu, phone: 507-389-2010.  News columns will typically be available prior to publication in print from the CCQ website at http://catalogingandclassificationquarterly.com/.

We would appreciate receiving items having to do with:

Research and Opinion

  • Abstracts or reports of on-going or unpublished research
  • Bibliographies of materials available on specific subjects
  • Analysis or description of new technologies
  • Call for papers
  • Comments or opinions on the art of cataloging


  • Notes, minutes, or summaries of meetings, etc. of interest to catalogers
  • Publication announcements
  • Description of grants
  • Description of projects


  • Announcements of changes in personnel
  • Announcements of honors, offices, etc.


Research and Opinion

Cost/Value Assessment of Bibliographic Control Report

At the Heads of Technical Services in Large Research Libraries Interest Group meeting at ALA Annual 2010 in Washington, DC, the Task Force on Cost/Value Assessment of Bibliographic Control presented its report, available at http://connect.ala.org/files/7981/costvaluetaskforcereport2010_06_18_pdf_77542.pdf. The task force was charged with identifying measures for cost, benefit, and value of bibliographic control and the development of a plan for implementing the identified measures. The report lays out definitions of value and some concepts regarding cost, which the task force found difficult to define. Part of the charge was to develop measures for cost and value, but lacking a common vocabulary these measures were not developed. Instead, the report quietly calls for more research to be conducted on these concepts.


CC:DA Comments on the draft 2010 Consolidated ISBD

The Committee on Cataloging: Description and Access (CC:DA) of the Association for Library Collections and Technical Services (ALCTS) division of the American Library Association (ALA) released its final report of comments (http://www.libraries.psu.edu/tas/jca/ccda/docs/tf-isbd2a.pdf) on the International Federation of Library Associations and Institute's (IFLA) 2010 consolidated edition of the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) as part of the world-wide review of the ISBD (http://www.ifla.org/en/news/worldwide-review-of-isbd). A draft version and a marked-up version appear on the IFLA Web site. CC:DA's comments are generally favorable. Some highlights include:

  • a brief discussion on the concept of "older monographic resources" and problems with the concept of "monographic" in relation to incunabula, and graphic, cartographic, and musical materials, all of which can be considered monographic (p. 2)
  • a critique of the area 0 placement in the ISBD at the head of a record as too early in display to be useful, as well as a critique of some of the terms
  • a proposal to allow alternatives to s.l. and s.n. in area 4, much as it would be in RDA


LC Implements Genre/Form Headings in the Cataloging of Cartographic Materials

Beginning September 1, 2010 the Library of Congress began adding genre/form headings in new cataloging for cartographic materials. This is a fundamental change to cartographic cataloging. The free-floating form subdivisions with the term maps followed by an adjective, such as "$v Maps, Topographic," have all been changed to "$v Maps" for simplification of subject analysis. The specificity formerly found in the adjectival terms will now be added as form/genre terms. The official announcement from Policy and Standards Division may be found at http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/cartographic4.pdf.


Call for Papers:

Library Trends, International Journal of the Graduate School of Library and Information Science
Special Issue on Trends in Next Generation Discovery and Access

The library catalog, along with other traditional information retrieval tools, is in a state of flux. Contributing factors include changing codes, changing priorities, and changing expectations. In the past four years, many institutions have implemented radically new approaches to the traditional library catalog. Whether we call these Third Generation Catalogs, Next Generation Catalogs, or Next Next Generation Catalogs, these are most often characterized by the introduction of faceted search capabilities and reliance on social technologies like tagging that encourage user interaction and participation.  This period marks a new phase of experimentation that has not been seen since the late 1970s and early 1980s when the OPAC burst upon the scene.  Since the unveiling of the new catalog at North Carolina State University in 2006, impassioned exchanges have occurred throughout the grey literature of our field today, from blog posts to the NGC4LIB listserv.

To provide a more permanent record of the ideas driving these exchanges, the international journal Library Trends is planning a special issue, Trends in Next Generation Discovery and Access. This issue of Library Trends aims to investigate the historical background of the developments and innovations in the catalog, and to support articulation work that describes both the theory and practices that underlie Next Generation Discovery and Access. Some of these instantiations are traditional catalogs with new window dressing, but many institutions are rethinking fundamental technologies and practices. It is these experiments that will be highlighted by this issue. Proposals for articles may address a specific implementation or types of implementations; these articles may be written in a brief case study format. In addition, as benefits the aims of the journal, authors are encouraged to write more extended articles that interpret, contextualize and describe a relevant topic. Contributions on the history, theory and philosophy of developments in library catalogs are welcome.

Proposals of no more than 300 words to be sent by 30 December 2010 to: Dr. Kathryn La Barre (klabarre@illinois.edu), Assistant Professor, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Decisions will be communicated to contributors no later than 15 January 2011. Delivery date of manuscripts: December 1, 2011. Each article will be in the range of 5,000-8,000 words (Case studies may be more brief). Articles will be published in Library Trends, volume 60:4 (Spring 2012).

Kathryn La Barre, Assistant Professor
Graduate School of Library and Information Science
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign



Cologne Conference on Interoperability and Semantics in Knowledge Organization

The "Concepts in Context - Cologne Conference on Interoperability and Semantics in Knowledge Organization" took place in Cologne, Germany on July 19 and 20, 2010. Topics of this conference focused on questions of interoperability and semantic representation of subject information, presenting "current developments in the field of knowledge organization, especially theoretical foundations for interoperability and semantic enrichment."

The slides of the presentations as well as some mp3 recordings are available on the conference website: http://linux2.fbi.fh-koeln.de/cisko2010/programme.html.


RDA in Europe: Making it Happen!

EURIG - JSC Seminar on RDA, Copenhagen, Denmark, 8 August 2010

During the annual conference of the American Library Association in Chicago in 2009, I was an eager observer at many meetings dealing with the new cataloguing standard RDA: Resource Description and Access, at that time just released in its final version by the Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA (JSC). At more or less every meeting I went to I also ran into a few other European colleagues who appeared to be at the same conference for more or less the same reasons. We were all very eager to hear more about the new rules and we came from libraries that attentively had followed the developments in the Anglo-American cataloguing community during the last few years and that either used the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules as their cataloguing code or used versions of it. Those of us who met were I, Anders Cato from the National Library of Sweden, Stockholm, Mar Hernández Agusti from the National Library of Spain, Madrid, Christine Frodl from the German National Library, Frankfurt and Corinne Déliot from the British Library.

During one of our meetings we discussed the need for some kind of interest group for European libraries that were interested in the latest developments of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules and that might also be considering implementing the new RDA code one day once it had been adopted by the Anglo-American library community. We then decided to form a loosely held together interest group that we named the "European RDA Interest Group," EURIG. Corinne spoke to Gordon Dunsire at the University of Strathclyde, who helped us set up a web site: http://www.slainte.org.uk/eurig/. Within a few months the group had increased in number from the four of us that started it to a total number of 21 persons from 16 national libraries in Europe.

Given the fact that the interest was so great, the four of us, together with Hanne Hørl Hansen from the DBC in Denmark began discussing the possibility of organising a first European RDA meeting, or seminar. Soon we found different sponsors for this event, so we decided to "go for it." The first EURIG seminar was held in the Royal Library in Copenhagen on August 8, 2010 and had about 130 participants from almost every country in Europe, and also some from outside of Europe.

The seminar was held in the Dronningesal at the Royal Library of Denmark, the biggest auditorium available, and opened by Erland Kolding Nilesen, Director of the library. The day had been divided into two blocks, a first block with presenters of the new rules, speakers who came from the JSC and from the national libraries of the four participating countries of the JSC, i.e. the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and Australia. A thorough background on the reasons for a change from AACR2 to RDA was given by Alan Danskin, chair of the JSC, and he also made a summary of all activities to date. He described how the JSC first had tried to reform and rewrite AACR2 into an AACR3, but having received severe criticism after its first worldwide review in 2004 had decided to start from scratch and do something following a totally new model. In RDA the old arrangement of the chapters following different media types is gone and has instead been totally replaced with an arrangement following the FRBR model. Overall the RDA has changed its terminology and its way of looking at the bibliographic universe to be much more in line with new standards that have been developed, above all within IFLA, such as the FRBR, FRAD and also the terminology of the revised ISBD. The new rules will be more flexible in many ways, hopefully making cataloguing work much more rational and effective. After the introduction the audience was given a presentation on RDA in practice by Troy Linker from the American Library Association and Barbara Tillett from the Library of Congress.

European representatives from nine national libraries gave their thoughts about a possible move to RDA: Germany, France, Spain, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, Italy and Portugal.  The two largest countries, France and Germany (presentations given by Renate Gömpel of the German National Library, and Françoise Leresche & Françoise Bourdon of the French National Library) gave a more thorough presentation of the work in their respective countries. In France and Germany the two national libraries have already started preparations for translating the texts to their own languages and they have several working groups looking into the rules and what implications an adoption of them would have on their own cataloguing rules. Germany has up until now been using their own RAK rules and in France the AFNOR rules are prevalent. A change to RDA will most likely mean more of a revolution in these countries than in the countries already using some version of AACR2.

Having listened to all the presentations from the national libraries it can however be clearly stated, that not many countries will be willing to take the rules exactly as they are without any national adaptations. The issue with national adaptations was something that was brought up by several speakers. Will the rules function even if we have national flavours? How long does a flavour remain a flavour and not a new set of rules? How will all the different national flavours and translations be handled, especially if the whole set of rules will be maintained by ALA Publishers in Chicago? Troy Linker assured the participants that ALA Publishers were ready to take on this task. It would take some time though, and we should not expect everything to be ready as soon as the first country adopts the rules. But ALA will work on it, closely together with the countries that make a decision to move to RDA.

Pricing was also a question that was touched upon, and more about that can be read on the RDA Toolkit website. During the summer the RDA had been free for testing purposes, but after September 1, 2010 a subscription is needed. However, for those who are working on translations of the rules or analysing the texts, special solutions may be possible.

Barbara Tillett and Beacher Wiggins from the Library of Congress went through the planned implementation process. From the 1st of October and until the end of 2010 the US National Libraries will make intense testing of the new rules to see that they meet up with the expectations of the library community in general and with demands stated in the report "On the Record" that was put together by the Library of Congress Working Group on the Future of Bibliographic Control.

Twenty-five test records will be catalogued by each testing institution, following both AACR2 and RDA. Results will be registered and then compared. Apart from this, ordinary records following the standard flow will be catalogued on a test basis during the same time period. This means that libraries should be prepared to see catalogue records made according to RDA in the big library catalogues, such as WorldCat, as soon as October 2010. Once the testing is over a period of evaluation will follow and most likely the decisions to move to RDA will be made during April-June 2011. As soon as the US decisions are made the other JSC national libraries will most likely follow. So far the only country that has more or less clearly stated that they will move to RDA is the National Library of Australia.

The last speaker at the seminar was Caroline Brazier from the British Library who spoke about the future of RDA after its first implementation. How will the set of rules be governed and what will happen to the Joint Steering Committee if RDA becomes truly international and many countries join. Can the JSC grow, and if it can, how much can it grow? Are there other ways to give countries from outside the Anglo-American library community influence over the rules that they make their own?

The two biggest impressions of this seminar were firstly an intense curiosity concerning RDA and an eagerness to learn more and in some cases get translations started; secondly it was a feeling of a need to wait. Canada and the UK are waiting for a US decision to implement before they decide anything; France and Germany are waiting for the four Anglo-American countries- and the rest of Europe is waiting to see what is happening in both the Anglo-American world, and in France and Germany. Everyone is interested and excited, but it is a big step to take to move into a completely new set of cataloguing rules. Hopefully more news will be available early in 2011 on what direction the cataloguing communities are going. All signs however point towards an implementation of RDA in many countries. Maybe the implementation will be during 2011 in the Anglo-American community and a few years later in the most interested other countries.

As a first European meeting on a joint effort to work towards a common goal of having as similar cataloguing rules as possible all over the continent, I think this day was a great success. We managed to get 130 librarians to come to Copenhagen to listen to presentations on the new proposed cataloguing code and to discuss a united approach for Europe. If RDA is going to be an international cataloguing code, which is the ambition of the JSC, then the world outside the JSC needs to get their views heard to a much greater extent than is being done today. Hopefully this seminar was a first step in a European move in that direction.

So what will happen to the European RDA Interest Group now? The EURIG will not disappear after this seminar. Before and during the seminar a change of the interest group into something more stable was discussed and a proposed cooperation agreement has been drafted. That will soon be sent out to the members of the group and to other national libraries in Europe. If that is approved Europe will soon have its own RDA forum, EURIG, just as it has its own Dewey forum, the European Dewey Users' Group. National libraries, and others, interested in joining the EURIG should visit the website and read the instructions for joining.

Anders Cato
Katalogiseringschef - Head of Cataloguing
Kungl. biblioteket - National Library of Sweden
Stockholm, 2010-09-01


Report of Activities 2009-2010, FRBR Review Group

International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) Cataloguing Section

In 2010 the FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records) Review Group transitioned to the new terms of reference, adopted in 2009, which formally expanded the group's responsibility to the whole FRBR family of conceptual models. Attention turned to the task of preparing a consolidated or harmonized statement of IFLA's conceptual models: FRBR, FRAD (Functional Requirements for Authority Data), and FRSAD (Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data).

Members of the Review Group were active in three IFLA Task Groups which prepared reports for the 2010 spring meeting of the IFLA Professional Board: IFLA's role in Bibliographic Standards, IFLA Namespaces, and International Cataloguing & Bibliographic Control. All three of these groups worked in areas important directly or indirectly to the overall work of the Review Group.


The existing draft FRBR namespaces (for entities, relationships, and user tasks) was expanded to include FRBR attributes and a complete suite for FRAD was also created. The framework of the namespace raised a number of policy decisions which had to be addressed, and points not explicitly addressed by the FRBR or FRAD final reports are the object of ongoing discussion. These vocabularies are in draft pending responses to the issues raised in the report of the Namespaces Task Force. This work is interrelated with a number of non-IFLA initiatives in linked data. Review Group member Gordon Dunsire was a lead investigator for the Vocabulary Mapping Framework (VMF), and Miriam Säfströöm participated in the VMF Advisory Board on behalf of the Review Group.

Archives-Libraries-Museums (ALM) Harmonization

A productive meeting and workshop was held January 27-29, 2010 in Helsinki, hosted by the National Gallery of Finland. Pat Riva, Gordon Dunsire, Eeva Murtomaa, and Patrick LeBoeuf attended. January 27 was a tutorial on International Committee for Documentation (CIDOC) Conceptual Reference Model (CRM), and was followed by a business meeting on CRM and FRBR-object oriented (FRBRoo) issues. A workshop on Conceptual Modeling for Archives, Libraries and Museums was held on January 28th (the agenda is available at: http://www.cidoc-crm.org/agentas/workshop_finland.html). The focus on January 29th was to develop an understanding of the present international landscape of archival standards. Claire Sibille, secretary to the International Council on Archives (ICA) Committee on Best Practices and Standards, presented an overview which was followed by a discussion of areas of library/archival inter-relationships and then of archival/museum inter-relationships. The meeting wrapped up with the approval of a small number of updates and editorial corrections to FRBRoo. These were primarily technical updates relating to the need for each property to be attached properly to the property hierarchy. The resulting FRBRoo version 1.0.1 (January 2010) was posted on the CIDOC CRM website. Continuation of the Archives-Libraries-Museums (ALM) exchanges is hoped for, a mailing list hosted on the listserv of the Institute of Computer Science at the University of Heraklion has been created, and an umbrella group named the ALM Harmonization group was tentatively created, pending endorsement by the ICA Committee on Best Practices and Standards.

FRBR Review Group Website, http://www.ifla.org/en/frbr-rg

A new section for FRAD was created in the publications section of the FRBR Review Group web pages. This includes the FRANAR paper on authority record numbering as well as translations of FRAD (Chinese and Spanish are complete so far). An umbrella section entitled Functional Requirements: the FRBR Family of Models serves as a gathering point for the pages for the FRBR, FRAD, and FRSAD publications. Minutes were posted and the existing pages were maintained.

Discussion List

The FRBR listserv, hosted by INIST in France (frbr@infoserv.inist.fr listserv), has continued to grow and currently has 832 subscribers. Pat Riva and Patrick LeBoeuf remain the co-listowners. The listserv archive is available to subscribers from http://infoserv.inist.fr/wwsympa.fcgi/info/frbr. List threads this year include: statistics on holdings relating to multi-manifestation works, identifiers such as the International Standard Text Code (ISTC), announcements of workshops, and projects and publications with relevance to FRBR.

Pat Riva, Chair
FRBR Review Group


Publication Announcements

Chan, Lois Mai and Edward O'Neill. FAST: Faceted Application of Subject Terminology: Principles and Application. Santa Barbara, Calif. Libraries Unlimited, 2010. ISBN 9781591587224 $52.00.

Edward, Evans G., Sheila S. Intner and Jean Weihs. Introduction to Technical Services. Santa Barbara, Calif. Libraries Unlimited, 2010. ISBN 9781591588887 $50.00.

Fletcher, Jain. Collection-level Cataloging: Bound-with Books (Third Millennium Cataloging). Santa Barbara, Calif.: Libraries Unlimited, 2010. ISBN 978-1591585435 $45.00.

Hart, Amy. The RDA Primer: A Guide for the Occasional Cataloger. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Linworth Publishing, 2010.

Intner, Sheila, Joanna F. Fountain and Jean Weiss. Cataloging Correctly for Kids: An Introduction to the Tools. 5th ed. Chicago: American Library Association, 2010. ISBN 9780838935897 $55.00.

RDA: Resource Description and Access [loose-leaf print]. Chicago: American Library Association, 2011. ISBN 9780838910931. $150.00.

Sanchez, Elaine R. Conversations with Catalogers in the 21st Century. Santa Barbara, Calif. Libraries Unlimited, 2010. ISBN 9781598847024. $50.00.

Welsh, Anne and Sue Batley. Practical Cataloguing: AACR, RDA and MARC21. London: Facet Publishing, 2010. ISBN 9781856046954 $95.00.



Best of CCQ v. 46 Awarded to David Bade

David Bade, Monographic Cataloger, Joseph Regenstein Library, University of Chicago, is the recipient of the award for the best paper in CCQ volume 46. The awards panel, Robert Holley (convener), Deirdre Kiorgaard, and Nancy Williamson, selected "The Perfect Bibliographic Record: Platonic Ideal, Rhetorical Strategy or Nonsense?" for its research on how the concept of the perfect record entered into the vocabulary of librarianship and influenced discussions of quality control. Drawing upon a wide array of resources, he argues that the perfect record is used most often "as a rhetorical strategy for reducing the complex and context-dependent issue of quality to an absurdity" that then cuts off any meaningful examination of the concept. On a positive note, he concludes by providing five cases in which the mention of "the perfect record" leads to discussions that are "responsible, informed and beyond ideology."

The awards panel specifically noted his novel approach, his bringing together materials from many different sources, his broad perspective, and the high quotability that comes from his rigorous analysis and excellent style. They also believed that others could build upon his methodology to attack other myths and straw men within the world of librarianship. "The Perfect Bibliographic Record: Platonic Ideal, Rhetorical Strategy or Nonsense?" appears in CCQ 46(1): 109-133 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01639370802183081).


Return to the top of the page.


©Taylor & Francis