Cataloging Correctly for Kids: An Introduction to the Tools edited by Sheila S. Intner, Joanna F. Fountain, and Jean Weihs.
Reviewed by May Chan
, Robert Bothmann, News Editor
Special Collections and Archive Code (SPAC): Preserving Provenance in a Bibliographic Catalog
Sarah A. Buchanan
ABSTRACT: The recording of provenance is of particular importance in special collections cataloging, as knowledge of provenance lends authenticity and reliability to the materials held. A method of cataloging collection-level provenance in bibliographic records through a short mnemonic code, a Special Collections and Archive Code (SPAC), is described which enhances visibility of collections and retrieval in a catalog. A collection code not only collocates unique individual items which share a common characteristic, but can also constitute part of a linked data approach to visualizing integrated collections in the form of a 'virtual bookplate.'
KEYWORDS: Special Collections and Archive Code (SPAC), Descriptive cataloging, Rare books, Bookplates, Provenance, Cataloging standards
Consortial Cataloging Guidelines for Electronic Resources: I-Share Survey and Recommendations
Kristin Martin, Judith Dzierba, Lynnette Fields, Sandy Roe
ABSTRACT: In 2009, the Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois (CARLI) charged a task force to update and revise recommendations to address cataloging practice and catalog access to electronic resources for libraries participating in the I-Share union catalog. This paper presents the results of a survey and recommendations developed by the 2009 Task Force that cover all types of e-resources. Issues covered include: single or separate records for electronic and print versions of a title; the use of aggregator-neutral and provider neutral records; the construction and placement of the URL and notes; and the use of vendor records.
KEYWORDS: Surveys, Cataloging research, Cataloging, Library catalogs/OPACs, College and university libraries, Electronic books, Electronic journals, Electronic resources
Knowledge Organization in Knowledge Management Systems of Global Consulting Firms
Ling-Ling Lai and Arlene G. Taylor
ABSTRACT: Organizing knowledge is essential for corporations to have an effective and successful knowledge management system. This study investigates how consultants in global consulting firms organize corporate knowledge. The major findings are: knowledge organization is not separate from other components of a knowledge management system, but instead holds all other knowledge management components together; metadata with attributes and facets is created when consultants submit knowledge pieces to a knowledge management system; a standard template for describing a knowledge piece exists in each firm in this study; the knowledge organization part of consultants' work is similar to librarians' work in organizing information.
KEYWORDS: Knowledge management, knowledge organization, tacit knowledge, consulting firms, attributes, facets, taxonomy
Ethical Considerations in Classification Practice: A Case Study Using Creationism and Intelligent Design
This article re-visits a scenario from 1987: a university president required a library director to reclassify some materials into a science classification. The author looks at the prominence of the Code of Ethics of the American Library Association in the general library literature and in classification and cataloging practice literature. The issue of censorship is also discussed. The author then reviews classification for Creationism and Intelligent design and some decision-making processes one could use when deciding on the professional ethics of such a request, concluding that in some cases the ethical action might indeed be to go ahead with the reclassification.
KEYWORDS: Code of Ethics of the American Library Association; decision-making; professional conduct; professional ethics; classification
Robert Bothmann, News Editor
Welcome to the news column. 'Its purpose is to disseminate information on any aspect of cataloging and classification that may be of interest to the cataloging community.' This column is not just intended for news items, but serves to document discussions of interest as well as news concerning you, your research efforts, and your organization.' Please send any pertinent materials, notes, minutes, or reports to: Robert Bothmann, Memorial Library, Minnesota State University, Mankato, ML 3097, PO Box 8419, Mankato, MN 56002-8419 (email:, phone: 507-389-2010.' News columns will typically be available prior to publication in print from the CCQ website at .
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Research and Opinion
Dr. Aida Slavic, Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) editor-in-chief, recently shared news on the multilingual UDC Summary project at. Currently more than 2,000 classes complete with notes and examples exist in the project. The UDC Summary now has 40 languages, some completely translated and others in various stages. The current languages are Armenian, Basque, Bengali, Catalan, Chinese, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Esperanto, Estonian, Finnish, French, Galician, Georgian, German, Greek, Hindi, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Latvian, Lithuanian, Malayalam, Marathi, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish, Swedish, Tamil, Turkish, and Ukrainian. Irish, Punjabi, and Vietnamese are expected to be added soon. Dr. Slavic notes that the UDC schedules are freely available for use and exports can be obtained upon request from .
The iSchool at the University of Texas at Austin is host to past American Library Association Loriene Roy's Capturing Our Stories project (). This oral history project gathers "life histories of experienced librarians as they exit their careers" (FAQ). The "Life Stories" section includes interviews with retired or retiring librarians, including catalogers Dorothy McGarry and Janet Swan Hill. You can help by interviewing, being interviewed, or nominating a librarian for interview.
In yet more fall-out from OCLC's controversial "WorldCat Rights and Responsibilities for the OCLC Cooperative" policy (), the George A. Smathers Libraries at the University of Florida in Gainesville began adding a Creative Commons license in its MARC 21 records for all new original cataloging ( ). The license reads:
588::|a This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
The eXtensible Catalog (XC) is a set of open-source software tools and metadata schema designed to facilitate library metadata management and resource discovery. XC is the result of a multi-million dollar, multi-year software development project funded by The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation's Scholarly Communications Program, with additional support from The University of Rochester, The Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois (CARLI) and other XC partner institutions. XC software is supported and maintained by the not-for-profit eXtensible Catalog Organization (XCO).
XC software represents the first live implementation of a subset of RDA in a FRBR-based, non-MARC environment. XC's implementation of RDA has been led by individuals who have participated in the development of both the RDA Toolkit and the RDA vocabulary registry. XC's use of RDA has also been informed by the real-world requirements of actual working software, as well as through a user research process conducted at four ARL libraries.
RDA in the XC Schema
XC uses a metadata schema, called the XC Schema, to facilitate the functionality of the XC discovery environment and take full advantage of metadata created by libraries. The XC Schema uses the concept of a Dublin Core Application Profile to use metadata elements from various schemas within a single environment. The schema currently contains twenty-two RDA elements and eleven RDA role designators, as well as all Dublin Core "dcterms" data properties and a few other data elements defined specifically to enable XC's system functionality. To be eligible for inclusion within a Dublin Core Application Profile, schema terms or elements must be defined on the basis of RDF (Resource Description Framework). Metadata elements created using AACR2 and MARC do not fit this criterion and therefore cannot be used within an Application Profile. Fortunately, RDA elements and vocabularies DO fit this criterion because of their development and maintenance, in parallel with the development of the RDA Toolkit, in the Open Metadata Registry. RDA elements can therefore interact easily with elements from other metadata schemas, making RDA a much more flexible standard than other standards currently in use within the library community, and therefore attractive for use within XC.
For the first version of the XC Schema, we selected RDA elements that enable us to retain the granularity of bibliographic data currently coded within MARC records. RDA elements used within the XC Schema include serial numbering, scale for cartographic materials, plate number for musical scores and other very specific elements that are not represented in more general schemas such as Dublin Core. Using these particular RDA elements within the XC Schema enables us to map several MARC data elements directly to RDA properties. In developing the XC Schema, we have been fortunate to have access to elements from a standard such as RDA that has been being developed within the library community, and which therefore aligns closely with defined elements in existing library catalog data. The developers of RDA have wisely created a standard that can function both within the existing MARC environment as well as in an RDF-based, linked data environment. We have found that RDA thus serves as an important "bridge" between present library systems and emerging applications such as XC.
Preparing MARC data to be reused in an open system environment has required XC software developers to build a robust metadata processing platform to analyze, clean up, and repurpose MARC data. The resulting XC Schema metadata records enable the functionality of XC's next-generation user interface, and can be potentially converted into RDF-based linked data, to make data about library resources available for use as part of the Semantic Web. While we have demonstrated that existing MARC records can be reused successfully, we have also confirmed that a significant amount of AACR2/MARC data cannot be reused without considerable programming or manual record editing. One AACR2/MARC bibliographic record may contain references to multiple resources, but lack identifying information for the related entities. The process of converting data from AACR2/MARC records to linked data is complicated because the data has not originated in RDF-compatible structures and the definitions do not always map correctly. We believe that the library community can derive benefit from current MARC data in future systems. However, to knowingly continue to create metadata that cannot be reused effectively in other systems is potentially a waste of current library resources, especially when using a more forward-looking standard (RDA) will begin to address these problems.
Implementing RDA in a FRBR-based Environment
One of XC's goals is to enable legacy MARC metadata to be reused within a new system architecture that is not based upon MARC. The XC Schema is FRBR based, and makes use of separate but linked records for the FRBR Group 1 entities, in an architecture that approaches an RDA "Scenario" implementation. XC software enables the processing of these FRBR-based records in an end-to-end system, managing the relationships between these records even as records are updated and deleted and as new records are added to a source repository. XC's current abilities to create, parse, and manage FRBRized data records demonstrate that basing a system upon a FRBRized data structure is indeed feasible, and show how such a system can work alongside current MARC-based Integrated Library Systems. We envision a scenario where XC will harvest both RDA records in MARC from an ILS, plus records in some FRBR-based RDA carrier or schema (yet to be defined) from another source, and enable both types of metadata to interact within the same discovery interface. With both sources of metadata using the same RDA elements and vocabularies, the amount of metadata manipulation necessary will be much reduced, and a greater percentage of the metadata will be usable by other applications. Using RDA in a non-MARC environment is not something that is far off in the future it is possible now.
We have used RDA-defined associations between a data element and a particular FRBR or FRAD entity as the basis for such associations within the XC Schema, and XC's mapping of MARC fields to the XC Schema is informed by the MARC to RDA mappings presented in the RDA Toolkit. By basing as much of our work as possible upon RDA, XC has set the stage for additional transformations of metadata into a more complete FRBR-based implementation of RDA. This could occur either through the addition of more RDA elements and roles to the XC Schema, or through the development of another carrier or schema defined specifically for RDA. In either scenario, XC software's ability to parse MARC data into a hierarchical FRBR-based structure can ease the transition of the library community into an RDA-based world that goes beyond an initial implementation of RDA in MARC. XC's transformation of MARC data to the XC Schema can be thought of as an interim step that will pave the way for a full system implementation of RDA in the future.
Given the current lack of a metadata carrier or schema for RDA other than MARC, some have speculated that it is premature to implement RDA, considering the seemingly meager benefits of implementing RDA in MARC. We do not see this as an issue. As we have demonstrated with the XC Schema, RDA elements and properties can be used in combination with other schema elements within an XML-based Application Profile. The use of RDA elements, even within a MARC-based structure, will help XC's metadata cleanup and transformation programs work more effectively than does AACR2 data. We look forward to experimenting with RDA elements expressed as RDF statements, which may be a more promising alternative than developing a new XML record-based carrier for RDA data. These scenarios can be investigated using XC software as soon as RDA is implemented more widely and libraries begin sharing larger sets of records that have been cataloged using RDA.
Benefits of RDA in XC
XC's implementation of RDA elements within a FRBR-based XML schema positions the XC Schema as the most promising way forward for implementing RDA in XML in the near term. XC's potential use for this purpose was apparently evident to the developers of the RDA Toolkit, who included a link to the eXtensible Catalog website as a resource within the RDA Toolkit itself. XC not only enables the conversion of MARC fields to RDA data elements using bulk processing services, but also successfully makes use of that same RDA data within a working discovery system. XC Schema is a foundation for a solid RDA implementation that is usable in real systems, addresses real use scenarios, and works with existing Integrated Library Systems and web content management systems.
A community-wide implementation of RDA within the library world will benefit not only users of the eXtensible Catalog, but also developers and users of other applications that make information about library collections accessible via the open web. One of the strengths of the library community has always been its adoption of community-wide standards such as AACR2 and MARC, which encourage other communities to interact with our metadata. A widespread adoption of RDA will continue this tradition of library leadership in metadata standards, and provide a clearer vision for the development of future library systems.
Jennifer Bowen and David Lindahl
eXtensible Catalog Organization
University of Rochester
The Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois (CARLI) is the recipient of a $100,000 grant from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. The grant will support CARLI's effort to develop the Metadata Services Toolkit (MST) for use by library consortia. The MST is a component of the open source eXtensible Catalog (XC) software from the eXtensible Catalog Organization. XC provides a next-generation discovery interface and metadata management tools for libraries. For more information, visit the eXtensible Catalog Organization at.
The twentieth annual North Carolina Serials Conference, "Time Flies Exploring the Future for Serialists," was held on March 10, 2011, at the Friday Center in Chapel Hill, NC. True to its theme, this conference's speakers and session presenters were, while acknowledging the past, firmly focused on the future.
Rick Anderson, associate director, Scholarly Resources and Collections, University of Utah, opened with the keynote address, "The Future (or Not) of Library Collections: the Serials Perspective." Known for his sometimes radical approach towards library operations, Rick did not disappoint when discussing serials, especially as they relate to collection development. He said that the library, created as a way to house and share documents, was designed to solve a problem that patrons, in the electronic age, no longer perceive to exist. We need to be cognizant that the future of the library will be decided by what patrons believe and what they do. Among the sacred cows he thinks we must consider potentially ending are approval plans, bibliographer-driven selection, big deals, journal subscriptions (medium deals), comprehensive just-in-case collecting generally and title-level serial cataloging. His vision of the future for the library includes online access to huge numbers of electronic books via Google Books/Hathi Trust, increasing availability of resources online, small core collecting reflecting local emphases/strengths, more throughput and less gathering. There will be fewer libraries and fewer publishers and he envisions smart phones becoming the next major application for doing research.
There were three concurrent sessions in the morning:
"Repurposing: New Activities for Established Staff," was conducted by Mary Jane Conger, head of cataloging, and Christine Fischer, head of acquisitions, both from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. They shared practical suggestions for reallocating staff and how to do more with the same or less staff. Change creates a lot of stress for staff and it helps to emphasize the positive aspects, such as the opportunity to learn, the sense of contributing to library goals and exploring new ways to work. Managers need to be upfront about what is coming and encourage staff to ask about any rumors they may be hearing. They should also listen to staff ideas and concerns and help staff to manage an environment of constant change.
Margaretta Yarborough, head, Resource Description & Management, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and Tim Bucknall, assistant dean for electronic resources and information, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, presented "The Future of the Catalog." Tim gave a brief history of the catalog. It used to be a one-stop shop, but we must stop thinking about it that way because there are just too many resources out there now. Discovery tools can be used to search the catalog and multiple other resources. Users want direct access to a resource and find MARC records to be a barrier, especially for print items. Margaretta reported that 0% of students surveyed started their search in the catalog, although one-third eventually got there. The catalog of the future should be accessible, shouldn't require special knowledge, be a one-stop shop, have good authority control, allow user-added tags, include free resources and data sets, be available through WorldCat Local, have Documents without Shelves and allow crowdsourcing. Users will go elsewhere if we don't make it easy for them. The catalog will not disappear, but it will change.
"FixZak: a Collaborative Approach to Electronic Resource Maintenance" was presented by Christian Burris, head of serials acquisitions, and Steve Kelley, head of resource maintenance and serials cataloging librarian, both from Z. Smith Reynolds Library, Wake Forest University. There was a lot of confusion concerning who was doing what with the activation and maintenance of the library's electronic resources. The workload was distributed unevenly and communication was lacking. Both departments worked together to develop a troubleshooting e-mail discussion list, FixZak, for reporting and tracking issues. With the use of Google Docs to track information and to share with the group, they were able to minimize the problem of too much information being available to only one member of the group. They also kept a spreadsheet document of all information received and the activity taken on the problem to the point of resolution. This provided clarity and prioritized problems as well as provided a way to identify common problems that needed to be addressed on a vendor level. A Wiki was also created as a catch all for resources and information that addressed common and basic questions and troubleshooting should this problem be identified in the future.
The whole group came together to hear a presentation by Bryna Coonin, reference librarian, Joyner Library, East Carolina University, "The Authors' Perspective on Open Access: Cutting Edge, Mainstream, or Fringe?" While mandated grants have cause some open access publication, the culture within a discipline has a very powerful influence on authors' views of open access. There are at least ten flavors of open access and it is very confusing to authors. They are of two minds about open access, loving it when they're doing research, but cautious about it when they publish their own stuff. They have some concerns about the prestige factor when publishing goes completely electronic, but open access is gradually becoming more mainstream. A discipline's culture determines if open access is a viable place for authors to publish their research. A panel discussion followed, moderated by Tim Bucknall, during which Kevin Smith, scholarly communications officer, Duke University, and Bob Schatz, North American sales manager, Bio-Med Central, presented very different views on scholarly communications.
Lunch was followed by three more concurrent sessions, a repeat of 'The Future of the Library Catalog' and two new sessions.
"Enhanced E-Resources," presented by Sylvia Miller, director of LCRM Project, UNC Press, explored new enhanced e-books. She discussed a variety of e-book enhancements and described some projects aggregating groups of such e-books. Publishers consider enhanced e-books to be e-books enhanced by media. The basic enhanced e-book allows users to toggle between the text and audio. More enhanced features are beginning to emerge with more interactive books. The presenter showed the example of a book title, Cathy's Book. This book could be read on a phone and includes doodles that come alive, animation, and an interactive mystery. Magazines also can include features such as embedded videos, 360 degree pictures and additional informational links. The presenter described the UNC Press project the Billy E. Barnes Collection and its social media interaction, embedded links, and audio and video features with an additional links. The vision is to create interactive and enhanced textbooks.
Patrick Carr, head of electronic and continuing acquisitions, East Carolina University, discussed, "Assessing Return on Investment for E-Resources: a Cross-Institutional Analysis of Cost-Per-Use Data." He compared CPU data from four North Carolina universities on varying returns for their subscriptions and considered how such an analysis could be used to increase returns on their investments.
Evelyn Council, associate director for collection development, Chesnutt Library, Fayetteville State University, and Carol Avery Nicholson, associate director for technical services, Katherine R. Everett Law Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, both veterans of many NC Serials Conferences, gave a lively and amusing retrospective look at the past twenty years of the conference.
Dr. Moshe Pritsker, CEO and co-founder, Journal of Visualized Experiments (JoVE), presented "Online Video Journals and Databases as a New Generation of Electronic Resources," a fascinating overview of the development of a new niche product. Based on the premise that "a picture is worth a thousand words," he and a colleague developed a video e-journal that allows students of the sciences to actually see an experiment performed along with reading the text of that experiment.
The conference was wrapped up with closing remarks by Nancy Gibbs, head, acquisitions department, Duke University Libraries, on "Why It's Great to be a Serialist!" Presentations and other materials are posted at the NCCU School of Library and Information Sciences Continuing Education Web page ().
Head, General Collections Cataloging
Joyner Library, East Carolina University