Volume 50, no. 1, 2012


Editorial: Changes with 2012
Sandra K. Roe

Book Reviews

Managing Digital Content: A Practical Guide, by Margot Note.
Reviewed by Jim Cunningham

RDA Vocabularies for a Twenty-First Century Data Environment, by Marielle Veve.
Reviewed by Robert B. Freeborn

Summer School in the Study of Old Books: Zadar, Croatia, 28th September to 2nd October 2009: Proceedings, edited by Mirna Willer and Marijana Tomić
Reviewed by Sonja Svoljšak


Cataloging News, Robert Bothmann, News Editor


Original Articles

Benefits of Batch Reclamation: The Kent State University Libraries Experience
Roman S. Panchyshyn

ABSTRACT: Bibliographic records in the Innovative library catalog at Kent State University Libraries had fallen out of synchronization with the Libraries' holdings represented on OCLC's WorldCat database. The Libraries made a decision to undertake a batch reclamation project with OCLC to re-synch their holdings on WorldCat. This project was beneficial for both parties. OCLC received a clean copy of the Libraries' database, while the Libraries were able to improve the quality of their local bibliographic data and address problem areas in the catalog. This case study is intended to provide a reference for other libraries considering OCLC batch reclamation projects.

Using Internet Resources to Research Dates of Birth and Death of Relatively Obscure Individuals for Inclusion in Name Authority Records
Linnea Marshall

ABSTRACT: Adding dates to personal name headings to disambiguate individuals is not only useful for establishing distinctive name headings, they provide chronological context. However, finding the dates of birth and death of relatively obscure and deceased individuals can be difficult since these people are not well documented in published reference materials, nor are they still alive to contact directly. There is an increasing amount of information available at Internet sites on people from previous generations who lived in the United States. While genealogists are the primary audience for many of these sites, they can also aid the NACO cataloger.

RDA Simplified
Richard A. Stewart and Joy Anhalt

ABSTRACT: This article summarizes a presentation on RDA given at the Reaching Forward conference in Rosemont, Illinois, in May 2011. The presenters felt that, with all that has been written about RDA, a look at practical considerations would be welcome. After a brief look at the historical background and the reasons for developing a new code, the presentation focused on some notable differences between AACR2 and RDA in structure, terminology, the treatment of certain classes of access points, and various aspects of description as reflected in bibliographic records.

The Faceted Catalog as a Tool for Searching Monographic Series: Usability Study of Lens
Larisa Walsh

This study explored the functionality of the University of Chicago's faceted catalog, Lens, in respect to monographic series. A user study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of Lens in searching for monographic series and also to determine whether controlled series access in the catalog record improves the search results. The results of the study indicate that while Lens could be considered an adequate tool for searching series that are known to be published under the same title, some changes would make it a better search engine for a series that changes series statements from one volume to another.



Changes with 2012

I am pleased to announce that Marie-France Plassard has accepted the position of Associate Editor of Cataloging & Classification Quarterly (CCQ), beginning with this volume. Marie-France brings both editorial experience and an international perspective on our field. From 1990-2010, she was editor of International Cataloguing and Bibliographic Control (ICBC), a journal published by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA). Although raised in France, she earned her professional degree (M.L.S.) in the United States at Columbia University. Subsequently, she became the Head of the American Library in Toulouse before working for IFLA where she became Programme Officer of the Universal Availability of Publications (UAP) Programme located at the British Library in Boston Spa, United Kingdom, and then later was appointed as Programme Officer and ultimately Programme Director of the Universal Bibliographic Control International MARC (UBCIM) Programme based at the Deutsche Bibliothek in Frankfurt, Germany. A journal is collaborative effort, involving editorial board members, column and feature editors, authors, readers, production staff, and many others at Taylor and Francis. To this already large group, I welcome one more, and look forward to collaborating with Marie-France in the years to come.

Perhaps some of you have already noticed the new "Forthcoming articles" section available on the CCQ page of Taylor & Francis Online (http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/wccq20/). Once article submissions have been reviewed and accepted for publication, they now go immediately into production and are made available to the CCQ's online subscribers prior to being collected into an issue. Each "forthcoming article" is in its final form, minus pagination, and has a persistent digital object identifier (DOI). These articles are collected and published within an individual issue as usual based on CCQ's current publication frequency. The quicker time-to-publication and the stability (for citation purposes) provided by the DOI is an asset to both the authors and the readership.

Note, too, that beginning with 2012 the printed version of Cataloging & Classification Quarterly will be published twice annually in combined issues of v.50, no. 1-4 and v. 50, no. 5-8. There will be no change to the publication frequency for the online version; it will be published in eight individual issues, just as has been done since 2009. The content and pagination of the print and online versions will remain identical.

Sandra K. Roe


Return to the top of the page.


Cataloging News
Robert Bothmann, News Editor

Welcome to the news column. Its purpose is to disseminate information on any aspect of cataloging and classification that may be of interest to the cataloging community. This column is not just intended for news items, but serves to document discussions of interest as well as news concerning you, your research efforts, and your organization. Please send any pertinent materials, notes, minutes, or reports to: Robert Bothmann, Memorial Library, Minnesota State University, Mankato, ML 3097, PO Box 8419, Mankato, MN 56002-8419 (email: robert.bothmann@mnsu.edu, phone: 507-389-2010. News columns will typically be available prior to publication in print from the CCQ website at http://catalogingandclassificationquarterly.com/.

We would appreciate receiving items having to do with:

Research and Opinion

  • Abstracts or reports of on-going or unpublished research
  • Bibliographies of materials available on specific subjects
  • Analysis or description of new technologies
  • Call for papers
  • Comments or opinions on the art of cataloging


  • Notes, minutes, or summaries of meetings, etc. of interest to catalogers
  • Publication announcements
  • Description of grants
  • Description of projects


  • Announcements of changes in personnel
  • Announcements of honors, offices, etc.



Information and Resources in Preparation for RDA

The Policy and Standards Division, part of the Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access Directorate at the Library of Congress (Washington, D.C.), is launching a new website as the Library prepares for RDA. The site is located at: http://www.loc.gov/aba/rda/. There are links to training documents, presentations, exercises, and examples of records as well as to other RDA related sites. Many more links will be added as items are created, edited, and updated as preparations for RDA proceed. The page originally created for Library of Congress documentation related to the US RDA Test will no longer be maintained. Links from that site will be migrated to the new site over time as appropriate.

Questions may be sent to:
Policy and Standards Division
Email: LChelp4rda@loc.gov

First RDA Vocabularies Published

The Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA (JSC), the DCMI/RDA Task Group (http://dublincore.org/dcmirdataskgroup/), and ALA Publishing (on behalf of the co-publishers of RDA) are pleased to announce that the first group of RDA controlled vocabularies have been reviewed, approved, and their status in the Open Metadata Registry (OMR) changed to 'published.'

This status change, from 'new-proposed' to 'published' signals that the final steps have begun in reviewing the work of the DCMI/RDA Task Group and ensuring that the RDA vocabularies (both elements and controlled vocabularies/concepts) are available in a stable form for the builders of applications. Additional reviews of the controlled vocabularies are in progress, with the parties involved expecting to finalize that group before starting on the element vocabularies. Both groups of vocabularies should be complete by the end of 2011, but developers and others should expect to see rolling announcements as reviews are completed.

Alan Danskin, Chair of the Joint Steering Committee, noted, "The RDA vocabularies are a fundamental component of RDA, promoting consistent description and discovery of bibliographic resources. The Committee is committed to publishing and maintaining the content of the RDA vocabularies, synchronized with the text of RDA, in order to support their use by the resource description community and by developers of Semantic Web applications." JSC is grateful to the Task Group members and to the Open Metadata Registry for making possible the publication of RDA vocabularies as linked open data.

Gordon Dunsire, co-Chair of the DCMI/RDA Task Group, said: "This achievement is a significant waypoint on the collaborative journey initiated by the London meeting in 2007 between representatives of RDA and Semantic Web communities developing and maintaining metadata models covering bibliographic resources. We have learned much about each other along the way, and look forward to continuing to provide a bridge which supports our mutual interests to the benefit of all users of information. The RDA vocabularies represent many decades of library experience and practice which is now shared with the rest of the world."

Troy Linker, Publisher, ALA Digital Reference, said: "The publishing of the RDA vocabularies in an open registry is an important step forward in making RDA accessible to the international library community and system vendors, and, significantly, beyond the library community to the rest of the Semantic Web. Working with the JSC, the Co-Publishers for RDA are committed to ensuring synchronicity between RDA Toolkit and the registry".

The finished vocabularies can be viewed using the links below. (The links lead to the description of the vocabulary itself, the specific terms can be viewed under the tab for 'concepts').

All the RDA vocabularies can be viewed in the OMR by using this page: http://metadataregistry.org/rdabrowse.htm. Those interested in following the work of review and publication of the vocabularies can subscribe to the Registry RSS feeds linked from that page. Questions on the OMR can be conveyed using the 'Feedback' link on each Registry page.

Questions or comments on the review process or the content of specific vocabularies may be addressed to the Chair of the JSC, Alan Danskin [mailto:ralan.danskin@bl.uk]. Questions and comments on the encoding of the vocabularies or on the Open Metadata Registry may be addressed to Diane Hillmann [mailto:metadata.maven@gmail.com] or Gordon Dunsire [gordon@gordondunsire.com].

New Reports from IFLA

IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) has posted new reports by the ISBD (International Standard Bibliographic Description) Review Group and the FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records) Review Group including updated activities reports and a full set of examples following ISBD guidelines.

ISBD Review Group activities report and meeting reports

ISBD/XML Study Group activities report

A new version of Full ISBD Examples

FRBR Review Group activities report

OVGTSL Annual Conference, May 15-17, 2011 Oxford, OH, Session Reports

New Models for Metadata: Linked data and the Semantic Web.
Karen Coyle, Librarian and Consultant
(Reporter: Carrie Preston, Ohio University)

Coyle discusses the Semantic Web as a model for library metadata. Where the "regular" Web is a web of documents that point to each other, the Semantic Web is meant to be a Web of data, or "the Web as a giant database."

    Basic principles of linked data include
  • Data, not text
  • Identifiers, not words (for things and relationships)
  • Statements, not records

"Data, not text" points out that many elements of typical catalog records (for example, "23 cm." or "Based on the novel by …") are difficult for computers to parse. Description based on data would separately and unambiguously store the unit of measurement and number of units, or the title, author, etc. of a book that had a specific relationship ("based on") to a movie.

"Identifiers" take the form of a Uniform Resource Identifier (usually a URL). Identifiers can represent "things" (people, books, places, data elements, etc.) or relationships between things (has author, has subject, etc.). The URI clearly identifies the work, person, concept, etc. being referenced and may provide further information about it. Identifiers can alleviate problems of language ambiguity and can aid in internationalization (since multiple languages' words for a concept can be associated with the same identifier).

"Statements, not records" means that resources are described in terms of subject-predicate-object statements or "triples" such as "[book X] has author [person Y]", "[book X] has subject [concept Z]." Individual statements can be added or changed without having to disrupt or replace an entire "record," and statements can link resources to other resources that share some specific relationship.

Ideally, a linked data creation system would allow data to be entered without too much interaction with the underlying code (unlike MARC, which requires operators to remember arbitrary numeric codes). There is not yet a major linked data creation system for libraries, nor library software that supports it. However, many working examples exist, including databases like Open Library, Freebase, and VIAF and standards like FRBR, FRAD, and the RDA vocabularies. These and other examples are available at available at http://kcoyle.net/presentations/links.html.

DIY E-Resources: Break out and Build Your Own.
Gwen Evans & Kellie Tilton, Bowling Green University
(Reporter: Ruth A. Light, Harrison College)

Gwen Evans and Kellie Tilton of Bowling Green University offered a presentation about e-resources that are public-ready and can be used by libraries without a need for programming or specialized technology expertise. The presentation was divided into three levels: "Talented Amateur," for projects with plenty of time to plan, develop, and pick up a few new skills; "Weekend Warrior," for projects with a short timeline, but still time to develop a fuller product; and "2 Hours and No Special Tools," for those projects that need a solution as soon as possible, and do not necessarily need a highly customized user interface. Each level focused on a particular product currently available online either or free or for a small fee, and showed examples of how librarians had used the products to provide services to their patrons.

The "Talented Amateur," level focused on Omeka, a product for online digital collections. It was the most advanced resource examined, and Evans and Tilton targeted it to those who are more comfortable with working with e-resources. Omeka is built on Dublin Core, and of the products examined is the most library-similar in its workflows. Created by George Mason University, the product allows for extensive customization or can be used 'out of the box' just as well. It is very useful for museums and cultural heritage organizations in addition to libraries.

The "Weekend Warrior," level featured Wordpress, a blogging product with a large amount of customization available. Wordpress can be installed and hosted locally or a hosted version is also available. Evans and Tilton focused on the ways that Wordpress can be set up to be used as a catalog for small, specialized collections. The example catalogs made interesting use of Wordpress features, with the "categories" feature used for genre-level tagging and the "tags" feature used in a way similar to subject headings, such as directors of films. This allowed the user to browse by broad topics, but also provided the opportunity to search for more specific concepts.

The final and most basic level of e-resources examined was that for "2 Hours and No Special Tools." This level focused on the Google Docs products, e-resources that could be put together in just a few hours and could be used by anyone without many instructions. Tilton and Evans showed examples of using Google Spreadsheets and Google Forms as basic catalogs for fanzines, lab software, and slides for professors. Google Refine was also demonstrated as a tool to correct data, and Google Fusion was shown as a visualization tool.

"I'm prepared for IP rights governance:" Creative Commons licensing, media assets management, and the role of technical services as IP rights administrator.
Tom Adamich, Visiting Librarian Service
(Reporter: Carrie Preston, Ohio University)

It is increasingly common for students in grades K-20 to create student work portfolios. These may be used to support learning (formative portfolios), assessment (summative portfolios), or employment (marketing or showcase portfolios). Portfolios may contain photographs, graphics, artwork, handwritten documents, video files, and audio files. Online files may be composed of "learning objects" each of which may have its own metadata. Intellectual property rights management is a necessary part of maintaining a portfolio repository and may be integrated into the metadata associated with digital objects.

The primary goal of Global Intellectual Property Rights Governance Management is to "promote the use of common practices for rights assignment and rights access." Creative Commons "ccREL" metadata is based on Semantic Web concepts using linked data "triples." Rights metadata acts as a container for rights information and can facilitate discovery of objects bearing a creative commons license via search engines such as CC Search (http://labs.creativecommons.org/demos/search/). It should be noted that Creative Commons licenses may not align with the intellectual property laws of a particular jurisdiction, and that all intellectual property rights management must adhere to the principles established by major international organizations.

Examples of portfolio repositories using rights metadata include Worldwide Center of Mathematics (http://www.centerofmath.org/), The Orange Grove (http://florida.theorangegrove.org/og/), the Australian National Data Service (http://ands.org.au/services/register-my-data.html), and Australian Creative Resources Online (http://www.acro.edu.au/).

When developing a school-wide portfolio repository, technologies must be agreed upon and policies developed for database support, storage/hosting, materials input, and metadata. Adamich suggests presenting information on IPRGM and Creative Commons licensing to all stakeholders, and proposing a Portfolio Repository Advisory Board to govern these issues.

The Hidden Library: Share Your Worth by Marketing Your Electronic Resources.
Benjamin Rawlins, Amanda Peach, Dantrea Hampton, and Debbra Tate, Kentucky State University
(Reporter: Lisa Britt Wernke, University of Cincinnati Law Library)

When a significant percentage of a library's collection budget is spent on intangible resources, how do librarians and library staff make sure these items are not overlooked? At Kentucky State University's Blazer Library they have made marketing their hidden library a priority.

The group's presentation began with focusing on why libraries should market their e-resources. There are several reasons: first, a percentage of the library's budget is spent on e-resources, so you are improving your library's worth by drawing attention to them. Second, it is an opportunity to educate users about the information resources that are available for their research needs. Finally, marketing your resources increases the value of your collection.

Drawing attention to your collection does not have to be taxing on your budget, in fact it can be done for free or near to free. Libraries should never miss a chance to promote their resources. Some ideas for cost effective (or free) promotional ideas are creating a brochure tailored to your faculty, staff, and students and distributing them during orientation or using vendor materials, such as bookmarks and posters for displays.

Another way to market your resources to your users is through social media. Social media provides a fast and free way to make contact with students and faculty and to disseminate information immediately. Websites like Facebook, which allow libraries to link to databases from their pages, can be used for to market library functions and workshops. It also allows page administrators to see usage statistics, such as the number of times a page is viewed. In addition, creating a blog for your library can provide a lot of the same features as Facebook, but it provides a lot more space. Blazer Library has redesigned their webpage to make it more user-friendly and created a place to highlight e-resources that are available to users. Creating a "Featured Resource" spotlight on your website is a simple way to market an intangible item. They have also created a "Mobile Resources" link and brochure, so that users with a smart phone are able to access library databases and the catalog.

Gearing up to promote and market your hidden library is a group effort. Everyone employed at the library needs to know what the library has -- if you don't know your library's worth, how can you market it? When marketing your resources, you need to keep in mind who you are serving: students, faculty and staff. Users should be able to access databases easily and know where to find answers to their questions, whether it is through the website, the reference librarians, or the marketing tools you have created. Marketing the virtual in the physical is a reality for all libraries so that their hidden library can be found.

Automated Metadata Generation and the Critical Role of Catalogers and Indexers in Technical Services of the Future.
Denise A.D. Bedford, Ph.D., Goodyear Professor of Knowledge Management, Kent State University
(Reporter: Richard Wisneski, Case Western Reserve University)

Dr. Bedford's presentation was delivered via Skype. She spoke of advances in semantic analysis methods from the early 1980s through the 2000s, and natural language processing. She argued that automated metadata generation allows users to:

  • increase the number of resources that have metadata
  • decrease time devoted to creating metadata
  • improve quality and consistency of metadata
  • meet the demand for personalized views of information

However, Dr. Bedford pointed out that no single technology is suitable for all knowledge processing; each productive use of technology requires use of existing human knowledge. Technologies' results aren't necessarily good results. To process information, we need to start at the point of teaching technology experts how to understand language.

Dr. Bedford then expounded on the idea of the future being semantic. Semantic analysis, she explained, relies on formal models of representations of knowledge. Good automated metadata generation is grounded in quality semantic analysis. Catalogers, not statistical analysis, should be used for semantic analysis. Catalogers' underlying tacit knowledge must be integrated into a system that generates metadata automatically to produce high quality metadata. Simply representing a word or a concept does not assume it can be effectively used by a computer. Neither is simply plugging in a classification scheme. Further, catalogers' knowledge and ways of thinking and working will be the basis of well-designed semantic analysis applications.

Dr. Bedford emphasized that the future information landscape is inherently semantic, which aligns closely with a cataloger's tacit knowledge. Her session was well-attended and well-received.

Adding "Free E-Books": Providing User Access to Public Domain Hathi Trust Resources in the KentLINK and OhioLINK Catalogs.
Roman S. Panchyshyn, Catalog Librarian, Assistant Professor, Kent State University Libraries
(Reporter: Alice Crosetto, The University of Toledo)

Free e-books! Is there any sweeter music to a librarian's ears? Roman Panchyshyn, Catalog Librarian at Kent State University Libraries, answered that question with his presentation on loading public domain records from the Hathi Trust.

Two factors in 2009 led Kent State University Libraries to undertake the investigation of loading bibliographic records for public domain digital materials held by the Hathi Trust into both the Kent and OhioLINK central catalogs: first, the OhioLINK Reference and User Services asked the OhioLINK Database Management and Standards (DMS) Committee to load the records of five openly available e-book collections (Hathi Trust, Internet Archive, National Academies Press, Policy Archive, and Project Gutenberg); second, Jeffrey Beall's Cataloging & Classification Quarterly article detailing the loading of brief MARC records from the Hathi Trust into Denver's Auraria Library provided inspiration and guidelines. By October 2009, Roman and Mike Kreyche, Kent's Systems Librarian, began the project.

Roman described the preliminary steps undertaken before proceeding with the actual project: the cataloging utility tool MarcEdit was identified for harvesting MARC records and subsequent batch editing for loading, and a preliminary test revealed what data (MARC tags) had been intentionally omitted from the public domain records. Based on this test, Roman and Mike identified the pros and cons and from those determined what steps needed to be taken, with the need to obtain better records being the top priority. After securing permission from the University of Michigan to use its Bib API (Application Programming Interface), they began downloading records in April 2010. Roman reminded the audience that while this project was making progress, the number of records in the public domain continued to increase substantially (almost doubling to 800,000 at the time of this OVGTSL presentation) , making their initial time and cost projections in need of intermittent adjustments.

As Roman and Mike proceeded with retrieving and preparing the records to meet local and consortial standards, numerous consultations were held with public services and members of the Kent Cataloging Committee in order to resolve display and indexing issues. At the same time and beyond their control, there were changes made to Hathi Records such as, OAI (Open Archives Initiative) header numbers placed in the 001 field and the prefix (OCoLC) added to records that contained an OCLC number for the print version in the 035, which again forced them to make adjustments.

A practicum student, trained in the use of MarcEdit, was employed to make all the changes in batch to the Hathi Trust records. At this point, the total number of public domain records equaled 471,950. The next step was to assess successful matching against the Kent catalog or the OCLC Authority File. With a no-match rate of 30%, they decided to obtain quotes from authority vendors in order to move the Project along in a timely manner. After deciding upon the vendor Backstage, the Hathi Trust records were processed and returned with the month of September (2010); by November 2010, all records, now deemed of acceptable quality, had been loaded into the OhioLINK central catalog.

The evaluation of the Project revealed that they had fulfilled OhioLINK's request to add public domain MARC records in its Central Catalog. However, Roman described numerous issues that had been raised about the project over the previous six months such as, the display of title searches, the need to adjust various fields, and several comments that the catalog had become too cluttered. Yet, he did point out that librarians should keep in mind the potential use of the Hathi Trust records for weeding duplicates held at the local level.

As Roman was drawing his presentation to a close, he reminded the audience that the Hathi Trust is undergoing major changes at this time which may impact its value and future potential. He also stated that obtaining accurate usage statistics is not currently available for Hathi Trust records. Therefore, libraries need to decide the value (as well as justify the cost) of duplicating this project.

Roman's conclusions provided the audience with thought-provoking questions: what is the future of the Hathi Trust project, how selective should we be in loading public domain records, can library catalogs exist without these records, and does an effective measurement of the use and impact of these records on scholarship exist? His well-paced presentation was not only helpful in understanding the benefits and challenges of Kent's Hathi Trust Project, but also in understanding the issues and concerns that will be encountered in similar projects, i.e., loading public domain resources in local catalogs and in shared consortial catalogs.

Cooperative E-Book Cataloging in the OhioLINK Library Consortium.
Carrie Preston, Continuing Resources/Database Maintenance Librarian, Ohio University Libraries
(Reporter: Alice Crosetto, The University of Toledo)

Many believe that cataloging is of interest to only catalogers -- definitely not! Hopefully most librarians understand the importance and value of cataloging as well as the subsequent impact of having accurate and reliable records in local catalogs -- not to mention in a shared catalog such as OhioLINK's central catalog.

Carrie Preston, the Continuing Resources and Database Maintenance Librarian for the Ohio University Libraries, presented an interesting session about projects undertaken by OhioLINK volunteers that involved the cooperative cataloging of e-book collections that had been purchased by OhioLINK. Using the very creative and attention-holding zooming presentation editor, Prezi, Carrie described these cooperative cataloging projects that Ohio librarians have been working on since 2004.

Using her experience and knowledge as one of the active volunteers, Carrie not only provided the audience with a thorough background of the OhioLINK projects coordinated by OhioLINK's Database Management and Standards Committee, but also humorously addressed the challenges of working within a consortial environment. She shared the particulars that the librarians had discussed before undertaking any projects, such as setting standards for cataloging electronic monographs, factors to consider, possible pathways and finally the division of labor.

Carrie presented two case studies: the Chadwyck-Healey literature collections and the Springer Backfile. The first case study was the cataloging of Chadwyck-Healey literature collections. As of 2003, there were over 11,000 records within 15 sub-collections. The initial plan was to divide one sub-collection (English Poetry) among volunteers. Since numerous problems were identified, such as bad MARC records and inaccurate metadata, in December 2007 the librarians placed a moratorium on the project. However, by spring 2009, the project was rebooted with a new plan to divide the collections. By March 2010, this projected was completed. The second case study involved cataloging the Springer Backfile. In late 2007, over 13,000 e-books were identified for cataloging. The first sets were distributed in summer 2008. This project was successful due to the numerous lessons learned from the Chadwyck-Healey project.

Carrie then shared the challenges for undertaking cooperative e-book cataloging. By dividing these challenges into internal and external categories, she was able to provide the audience with a better understanding of the concerns encountered in the two shared case studies as well as identifying possible factors to be addressed in future projects. The internal factors included: unclear deadlines, being too dependent on specific individuals, and the lack of documentation. As for external factors, Carrie identified the following: providing neutral records (individual records that could overlay in the Central catalog), deciding to catalog e-books purchased through patron-initiated acquisitions, and addressing the requirements of mobile e-books.

Carrie's insightful recommendations for future cooperative cataloging were as follows:

  • Technology training is essential
  • Documentation of all processes must be completed
  • Clear statements of expectations, including timelines, must be stated
  • The supervisors of all volunteers need to be engaged so that workloads, time spent, etc. are understood and agreed upon in order to eliminate any conflict at the volunteer's home institute
  • Finally, but possibly the most important of all, the efforts of all volunteers engaged in the project must be recognized and acknowledged

By using Prezi, Carrie was able to present a substantial amount of information regarding the projects as well as displaying any and all possible relational concepts. For example, as Carrie discussed the "factors to consider" (one of the particulars that the librarians had discussed before any of the undertakings), she was able to show the relationships between each and among all of the following factors by using Venn diagrams: available vendor records and how hard to edit and high enough quality and OCLC records available and hard to retrieve. Humorous icons, understandable flowcharts, diverse and colorful text style and graphics, and most essential in light of the editing program -- the constant zooming motion, kept the attendees [especially this reporter] focused on the details of her session which in turn, enabled all of us to understand and appreciate the projects.

Carrie, thanks for a great session.

Validating Online Serial Holdings with Help from a WorldCat API.
James Van Mil, Collections and Electronic Resources Librarian, University of Cincinnati Libraries
(Reporter: Jennifer Bazeley, Miami University)

This presentation focused on solving the problem of keeping the University of Cincinnati's Serials Solutions knowledgebase accurate in regard to title/publisher changes and coverage dates for online journals. The task of updating this information in a knowledgebase manually is daunting and tedious. While we sometimes ask student employees to do tedious work, serial title change rules are complex, so trying to train a student employee to do this is not necessarily a good solution. For full time staff, this work often becomes low priority because it is so time-consuming. As libraries add more software and systems to their workflows (discovery layers, for example) which utilize the information in our knowledgebase, the errors in the knowledgebase begin to show up more prominently to our patrons. One of the things that inspired James was the creation of standards like KBART and PIE-J, both aimed at standardizing the way publishers communicate journal changes to libraries. While publishers are getting better at communicating change, there are still problems when titles change and coverage volumes/dates are erroneously appended to old titles. James is using an API (Application Programming Interface) from OCLC called xISSN to rectify differences between information in his knowledgebase and the information for the same titles provided to him by the publisher. He created a script which first compares the title and coverage date information in his knowledgebase with the title and coverage date information provided to him by the publisher. Using the xISSN API, the script matches titles from these two lists on ISSNs, compares coverage dates, and updates the knowledgebase holdings if a match occurs. When a problem in matching occurs, the script identifies and separates the problem titles for manual update. Problems generally occur when title changes cause coverage dates to become inaccurately applied to the old and new titles. Additionally, the script looks for titles which their institution no longer has access to, and titles with unclear relationships. The script generates two spreadsheets--one which is uploaded into the knowledgebase and a second with a list of identified problems. The system he has created isn't completely perfect--sometimes errors in ISSN data can lead to errors in the process. Because the script still creates work for staff, James recommends running a script like this one to two times per year.

Lightning Round Session
(Reporter: Sharon Purtee, University of Cincinnati)

Sharing Knowledge: Using the Wiki Tool to Instruct and Inform
Lori Dekydtspotter, Rare Books Cataloger, Lilly Library, Indiana University described her experience using a Wiki as both an interactive teaching tool as well as a training tool for job-related information. A Wiki is collaborative and allows multiple users to create content; it also fits different learning styles and fosters a sense of shared ownership and knowledge. They are also inexpensive, a good way to organize and transmit information in a timely fashion, and to maintain group cohesion, especially when working on a project. Ms. Dekydtspotter noted the following keys to making any Wiki successful: preparation, training, guidance, structure, accountability and quality feedback.

The Not-only Accidental but Reluctant, Dragged-into-it-Kicking-and-Screaming Manager: how Learning to Think like a Manager Changed my Life and Helped Me Love My Job Again
Diana Nichols, Monographs Cataloger, Ohio University Libraries, presented her talk on her personal experience transitioning from a cataloger into a middle manager due to a work redesign. Her advice and guiding principles for the first year included:
         Breathe -- don't panic. Do not become a workaholic. Take time for yourself. Do not make decisions too quickly. Redefine your relationships with co-workers if necessary.
         Ask for help. Go to conferences; attend classes on management, including management outside the field of librarianship. Find a mentor.
         Learn as much as you can. Read management texts, find out about personality types, and then apply what you learn. Build your communication skills.
         Reflect on your experience. Learn from your successes and your mistakes. All experiences are teachers.
         Enjoy your new role; empower yourself with knowledge.

Is There Value in Value-Added Cataloging?
Mina Chercourt, Unit Leader, Database Maintenance and Lauren Marshall, Database Maintenance Librarian, John Carroll University, discussed a project they conducted to identify whether adding table of contents and analytics to certain materials in the collection would increase their circulation. They selected monographic series in the Q classification that were titled separately and five or six large series in the Ps for analyzing. Their work resulted in significant increases in circulation of the materials (anywhere from 59% to 186%). Mina and Lauren indicated that the work was labor intensive, but the increased use of the materials made it certainly worthwhile.

Cataloging Remote Access Multimedia: An Open Access Virtual Guide
Marielle Veve, Interim Cataloging & Metadata Leader, Adjunct SIS Lecturer, University of Tennessee Libraries demonstrated her free online guide to cataloging remote access multimedia (http://www.newfoundpress.utk.edu/pubs/veve/). Some of the chapters have sound, but most are text guides that direct the user through the process. The guide covers materials such as podcasts, streaming video and audio, e-books, and web games.

This Relationship Isn't Working … But Hopefully We Can Still Be Friends: How to Choose and Move to a New Vendor
Jenny Kunkler, Catalog and Serials Librarian and Kathleen Baril, Collections and Electronic Resources Librarian, Ohio Northern University, presented their experiences as they discontinued their library's long-standing relationship with one serials vendor and signed on with a new vendor. Jenny and Kathleen identified a list of needs for a serials vendor, including items such as gold communication, reliability, good interface, and value for the money spent. The selected vendor worked with them by providing timelines, training for all staff involved with any part of the process, and reviewed existing licenses. Jenny and Kathleen said that two things they learned from this experience were that they should have talked to the former vendor much earlier when they were not pleased with service rather than letting their frustrations build up. It likely would not have changed the outcome, but the element of surprise ("we thought everything was OK") would have been lessened. Also, just because you have left a former vendor does not mean you don't have to continue to work with them. There are old claims and multiple year subscriptions that may still be in existence that require attention.

Charting Strange Lands: The Acquisitions of e-Books.
Kate Seago, University of Kentucky Libraries
(Reporter: Carrie Preston, Ohio University)

Seago notes that while e-journals have become something of a "known quantity," e-books remain unstandardized with wide variation in licenses, business models, and other considerations. She asserts that e-books are nonetheless here to stay and demand for them is increasing, so libraries must rise to the challenging of dealing with a volatile acquisitions environment.

E-books may be purchased outright, or leased on a subscription basis, under a variety of licenses. If purchased, the library may still own only the data, not the platform. Publishers may include terms that libraries find objectionable, such as HarperCollins' stipulation that e-books may be used only 26 times before the library is required to purchase another "copy." Interlibrary loan rights may or may not be included.

E-book purchasing models include package deals organized by subject and/or publisher, and title-by-title purchasing. Packages can be economical, but their content can overlap with that in other packages or with individual purchases. Package deals often include MARC records (of varying quality), but catalog maintenance will still be required if titles are added to or removed from the collection.

In the newer patron driven acquisitions models, MARC records for a collection of e-books are added to the library catalog. Individual titles from the collection are then purchased when a patron "uses" them (as signaled by triggers such as number of clicks or length of browsing). Though this provides "instant gratification" and ensures that items purchased are being used, it can quickly deplete funds, so safeguards should be in place to prevent overspending and duplicate purchases.

Seago also considers documents provided on CD or DVD as e-books. These are generally handled like other media items, but issues such as licensing and software compatibility may come into play.

A variety of other policy issues should be considered when purchasing e-books. New technologies such as e-readers may support the "lending" of e-books, either by lending devices or by providing temporary access to books on the patron's device; in these cases, circulation policies must be developed. Collection development issues include whether to purchase both electronic and print, and duplication of titles across e-book platforms and collections. Reference books often become more like databases or e-journals when moved online, offering convenient features but requiring attention to licensing and purchase models.

Electronic Theses and Dissertation (ETD) Initiative at Indiana State University (ISU): Where to Start and Where to Go.
Xiaocan (Lucy) Wang, Digital Repository Librarian, Indiana State University Library and Valentine Muyumba, Chair of Cataloging / Interim Chair of Acquisitions/Serials, Indiana State University Library
(Reporter: Tammera Race, Western Kentucky University)

Xiaocan (Lucy) Wang (Digital Repository Librarian, ISU Library) and Valentine Muyumba (Chair of Cataloging, Interim Chair of Acquisitions, ISU Library) discussed goals, important factors, key partners, planning, work flows, and long-term preservation needs for the ISU ETD program. The goals of the ETD initiative are to store theses and dissertations electronically, increase access to student research, and provide long-term secure storage. To address these goals, ISU formed a Digital Repository Committee in 2008. This committee included representation from the College of Graduate and Professional Studies, the Dean of Cunningham Memorial Library, and librarians from Special Collections, Cataloging & Acquisitions, Systems and Reference. The committee developed five components:

  • Storage
  • Collection from students
  • Cataloging requirements and work flows
  • Circulation
  • Preservation.

Storage. After setting a timeline ending the production of paper theses, the committee determined where the ETDs would be stored. The resulting institutional repository, Sycamore Scholars, collects, preserves and provides open access to the ISU ETDs.
Collection. ISU uses DSpace, which includes an automated ETD submission feature. ISU created a submission form template, based on NDLTD (Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations) ETD-MS schema and Dublin Core ETD metadata schema. For inclusion in Sycamore Scholars, students must agree to a non-exclusive distribution license. Students agree to provide access, and ISU promises to use best practices to ensure preservation and/or distribution.
Cataloging. ETDs are submitted from the College of Graduate Studies to the Special Collections Department. Catalog librarians review and modify the records, and the ETDs are entered into Sycamore Scholars. The WorldCat Digital Collection Gateway harvests metadata from Sycamore Scholars, and adds that information to WorldCat. OCLC transfers the records, formatting them into MARC. Patron-contributed metadata are initiated via keyword searching. Librarians maintain authority control according to the Library of Congress subject headings and name authority. Finally, records from the Gateway are submitted to the ISU online catalog.
Circulation. One of the main goals and benefits of the EDT initiative is to increase the visibility of graduate research. To this end, theses are indexed for Google, Google Scholar, OAIster (Union Catalog of Digital Resources), OpenDOAR (Directory of Open Access Repositories), and ROAR (Registry of Open Access Repositories). Full-text ETDs are openly available via the above routes, Sycamore Scholars, the ISU OPAC, and WorldCat.
Preservation. ISU became a member of the MetaArchive Cooperative in order to provide secure long-term preservation. The Cooperative functions according to the premise "Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe" (LOCKSS). As a Cooperative member, ISU ETDs are stored on secure file servers run by multiple members in multiple locations. This replication of storage distributed geographically ensures the long-term preservation of the ETDs.
Wang and Muyumba's PowerPoint presentation is available at http://techserv.lib.muohio.edu/ovgtsl11/program. Librarians beginning an ETD project will find this detailed guide very useful in implementing their own initiative.

"incorporating Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) Projects in Technical Services: an Examination of Possibilities and Potential Pitfalls."
Richard Wisneski, Head of Bibliographic and Metadata Services, Kelvin Smith Library, Case Western Reserve University, Suzhen Chen, Cataloging Librarian, Kelvin Smith Library, Case Western Reserve University, Stephanie Church, Assistant Acquisitions Librarian / Metadata Assistant, Kelvin Smith Library, Case Western Reserve University
(Reporter: Jennifer Liss, Indiana University)

Richard Wisneski opened the presentation with an assertion that library involvement in text encoding activities, which traditionally fall within the realm of digital humanities, will lead to enhanced user interface functionality and improved information retrieval. The presenters provided an introduction to text encoding and the TEI schema, described how three technical services librarians have implemented a text encoding workflow, and highlighted some of the unique challenges of text encoding. Underpinning the entire presentation was the question: what role will libraries--and technical services departments in particular--have in text encoding initiatives in the future?

For the last year, Richard Wisneski, Suzhen Chen and Stephanie Church, of the Case Western Reserve University, Kelvin Smith Library, have been involved in text encoding the archival collection, Manuscripts Relating to the Early History of the Western Reserve, 1795-1869. Wisneski, Chen and Church are responsible for text encoding 230 documents in this collection which includes, among other things, business records, government documents, diaries, correspondence, and newspaper clippings. Encoding is being performed according to the TEI P5 specification. As the project has been designated as a robust Level 4 encoding project, as described in the Best Practice for TEI in Libraries (http://purl.oclc.org/NET/teiinlibraries), technical services librarians are able to leverage their metadata expertise to enrich and give context to the texts they are transcribing. In addition to TEI metadata, librarians create Dublin Core, MODS and METS records to aid in the sharing of metadata.

Wisneski, Chen, and Church each discussed challenges of implementing a text encoding project. Among the challenges of text encoding work are new tools to learn, nuances of transcription and application of the TEI schema to consider, and contextual information to seek out to aid in encoding decisions. Barriers to implementing a text encoding workflow in a technical service department include shortage of resources (staff time, public interface development, storage and retrieval architecture, etc.) and too few opportunities for further staff training. None of these challenges are more considerable than the flagging support of library administration for time-consuming text encoding projects. The above challenges raise the questions, where does a text encoding service fit into the library's broader service model? What role should librarians be taking in text encoding initiatives?

Attendees grappled with these questions in the discussion that followed the presentation. An audience member suggested that technical services librarians pursue partnerships with digital humanities researchers who might be interested in an encoded text project. Another suggested that perhaps librarians should take an advisory role in text encoding projects. A libraries-supported text encoding service might include tasks for librarians such as designing the public interface, defining metadata specifications, providing metadata crosswalks for sharing, and offering training and support for text encoding efforts centered in other units within or outside of the library.

Closing General Session: A Library Renaissance in Technical Services.
Susan Gibbons, Vice Provost and the Andrew H. and Janet Dayton Neilly Dean of the River Campus Libraries, University of Rochester
(Reporter: Sharon Purtee, University of Cincinnati)

Dr. Gibbons introduced her talk as an opinion piece of technical services in the year 2020 and what would be happening along the way.

She opened with comments about trends in circulation rates and what they say 55% of the monographs purchased with publication date since 1990 have circulated; at Rochester, that number is only 48%. She foresees a merging of Interlibrary Loan and Acquisitions with Patron-Driven Acquisitions taking the lead.

Another trend which she sees impacting libraries and acquisitions in the very near future is Print-On-Demand. Currently the equipment is extremely expensive, but the potential exists for this to completely change the economics of the publishing marketplace.

Dr. Gibbons also addressed the fact that libraries have been buying the same material over and over -- just in different formats. For instance, a library purchased a book, now they are purchasing the electronic version, and they may well have purchased an audio version of the same title. However, there are needs and uses for all formats and she does not see that electronic is going to push print out of existence. She feels that electronic books have allowed for new forms of research to occur across literature and have opened up new and old information to broader audiences.

Her talk then tackled one of the top topics in libraries -- depositories and how many copies will be "enough?" She described the West Regional Storage Trust which is a cooperative project supported by a Mellon Grant with up to sixty plus partners involving 8,000 journal and 150,000 volumes. It is planned to be a distributive print depository service, preserving print and reducing unnecessary duplication. The agreement is for a period of twenty-five years (the partners anticipate that the technology, access and legal issues will have been sorted out by then). The coordination challenge will be to determine how many copies are enough, and who determines the quality of those copies; who will oversee the environmental quality of the sites; how will the digital copies be preserved; how trust will be preserved as the administrators change over the twenty-five years; what mechanisms will be in place to share decisions.

She then discussed other notable models of collaboration. The Five Colleges (Mt. Holyoke, UMass, Amherst, Smith, and New Hampshire), Research Triangle Park (Duke, UNC, and North Carolina State University) and 2-CUL (Cornell and Columbia) were the three that she highlighted. Each of these has provost-level support for collaboration, not just between the libraries, but where it makes sense for the university programs across the organizations.

Dr. Gibbons then addressed getting from acquisitions to discovery, or how do users find what we buy? She suggested that we study our collection users and figure out how they query and then consider adding metadata to respond to those needs and wants. How they want to use the collection should be the driving force behind our decisions, not the rules we have commonly used.

Her final topic was institutional repositories and the libraries' involvements. It makes sense for the libraries to run them and for the technical services staff to do the metadata tagging -- who understands the institution better? She also advised us to stay abreast of the NSF and NIH requirement in grants awarded to our institutions for open data.

In summary, by 2020, libraries will look very different.

  • more focus on institutional metadata and assets
  • cooperative everything; it will be a marketplace of skills
  • libraries will be user-centric and staff will provide content for the user wherever they are
  • collections will be unbalanced

To Establish or Not to Establish? Dissertation Authors, Privacy, and the Possible Complications of RDA.
Melanie McGurr, Assistant Professor, Ohio State University Libraries
(Reporter: Lisa Wernke, University of Cincinnati Law Library)

McGurr's presentation focused on the necessity of establishing name authority records for dissertation authors and the complications that arise from privacy issues and RDA implementation. As the coordinator for authority control and database management control for the Ohio State University Libraries and the coordinator for the Ohio NACO funnel, McGurr has first-hand experience with creating and training catalog librarians to create name authority control records.

One of the easiest ways to establish a unique name authority record is to include the author's birth date and until recently obtaining that date was relatively simple, since it was generally included in accompanying curriculum vita with the dissertation. In recent years, however, submitting your birth date on the accompanying curriculum vita of a dissertation has fallen out of practice, especially with the advent of electronic submissions of thesis and dissertations.

Should the birth date be included in the name authority record and if so where, then, do catalogers obtain said information? While the answer to the latter isn't always clear (perhaps from the author, the registrar's office, or the CV), McGurr is a proponent of including the birth date in the authority record. Ms. McGurr listed several pros to establishing the authority record with a birth date including: it encourages cooperative cataloging among colleagues, promotes the graduates of your university, helps patrons to identify the correct author, and it increases your OCLC statistics. On the other hand, training your cataloger to create name authority records is an expensive and time consuming process to undertake, but clearly the pros outweigh the cons in this case.

There are several complications that may arise when establishing name authority records in your system. As discussed previously, privacy issues are becoming one of the main concerns with including birth dates and other information that RDA records recommend obtaining, such as address, field of activity, affiliation, gender, family information, and so on. McGurr provided examples of authority records in her presentation that ranged from bare bones, without birth dates, to a record with meaningful information that would be helpful to future catalogers. McGurr concluded with a summary of the importance of establishing name authority records for dissertation authors; including as much information in the authority control file to make it as unique as possible is ideal. In the end, it should be considered "best practice" by catalogers to create unique name authority records in order to help both patrons and catalogers in the future.

"Birds of a Feather Session: Transforming the Non-Traditional into Traditional: Cataloging for Library Digital Collections."
Diana Nichols, Monographs Cataloger, Ohio University Libraries
(Reporter: Jennifer Liss, University of Cincinnati)

Diana Nichols of Ohio University Libraries facilitated an informal discussion of how technical services staff might support library digital collections. The attendees represented libraries of all types and varying degrees of involvement in digital collections services. Numerous challenges to supporting digital collections were discussed such as how to incorporate digital collections services into tradition workflows, how to train and transition catalogers into new metadata and technology roles, and how to describe formats unfamiliar to catalogers.

The foremost concern of the group was a practical one: how do technical services departments make time to pursue services supporting digital collections? Those attendees whose departments participate in the delivery of a digital collections service reported that reducing the amount of monograph cataloging was crucial to the successful rollout of digital services workflows. Obtaining monograph records through shelf ready or receipt processing programs have proven to be successful strategies for making time for new initiatives. Others suggested that improving cataloging efficiency would help make time for new workflows; however no specific strategies for improving efficiency were mentioned. In response to the question of how to manage rolling out a new service, an attendee recommended taking a "macro" view of project management. To manage a digital collections service workflow, those in attendance recommended using project management services such as GoogleApps (http://www.google.com/apps/intl/en/) which is free and 5pm (http://www.5pmweb.com/) which requires a subscription.

More specific problems in implementing digital collections services were expressed as the session progressed. A few present expressed frustrations that their technical services units were not being approached as planning partners when grants were being drafted to support digital projects. Many present expressed that, while their units could support digitization and metadata work, their institution lacked the staff necessary to plan and implement a technical infrastructure and delivery interface. While custom-built digital collection websites are not feasible for most institutions, a number of open source alternatives are available such as Omeka (http://omeka.org/) and WordPress (http://wordpress.org/), which were discussed in an earlier session, "DIY E-Resources: Break Out and Build Your Own" (http://techserv.lib.muohio.edu/ovgtsl11/presentations/Evans.pdf) by Gwen Evans and Kellie Tilton.

Another specific question that received more discussion was how do library technical services departments create EAD records? Archivists' Toolkit (http://www.archiviststoolkit.org/) and Archon (http://www.archon.org/) were both mentioned as archives management tools that are capable of creating EAD records. Interest was also expressed in EAD-to-MARC and MARC-to-EAD crosswalks using XSLT style sheets.

As the session drew to a close, the group listed places where this discussion could continue. A Digital Library Federation wiki was mentioned as well as the Metadatalibrarians listserv (http://lists.monarchos.com/listinfo.cgi/metadatalibrarians-monarchos.com). The OVGTSL-L listserv (http://www.lsoft.com/scripts/wl.exe?SL1=OVGTSL&H=LSV.UKY.EDU) was also mentioned as a place where resources could be shared.


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