Online Delivery of Cataloging and Classification Education and Instruction
Robert L. Bothmann
Metadata & Emerging Technologies Librarian
Associate Professor, Library Services, Minnesota State University, Mankato
, Robert L. Bothmann
, Robert Bothmann, News Editor
A New Cataloging Curriculum in a Time of Innovation: Exploring a Modular Approach to Online Delivery
By Heather Lea Moulaison
ABSTRACT: Cataloging librarianship has a tradition of innovation. Currently, professional and instructional innovations must be considered in a new Cataloging curriculum. Using as a framework Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation, this reflective study explores one solution being considered at the University of Missouri while revising the Cataloging curriculum. A balance between theory and practice is suggested through the establishment of a set of core theoretical topics to be covered in the first part of the Cataloging class; web-based modular elements to be covered in the second part will focus on cataloging practice in specific kinds of libraries.
KEYWORDS: Cataloging, Cataloging education, Innovation
Dr. Heather Lea Moulaison's primary research interests include emerging technologies in libraries, organization of information, and digital libraries. Dr. Moulaison also has a strong interest in international and comparative librarianship. Dr. Moulaison has published on these topics, and has presented on them at local, national, and international conferences, and her teaching interests include courses on organization of information (including Info Org, Cataloging, Indexing/Abstracting, Metadata) and on emerging technologies in libraries. Dr. Moulaison earned a doctorate in Library and Information Science from Rutgers University (USA), and an MSLIS and an MA in French, both from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (USA).
Online Cataloging Education at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
By Steven J. Miller, Hur-Li Lee, Hope A. Olson, and Richard P. Smiraglia
The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee School of Information Studies was an early adopter of teaching MLS courses online, including cataloging courses. In this paper we discuss features of our curriculum, including translating visual presentations for teaching cataloging in a physical classroom into the virtual environment; incorporating cultural diversity by consciously selecting a wider range of topics in cataloging examples for online classes for online students who are from all over the U.S. and sometimes the world; the curatorial trichotomy of resource description, cataloging, and collection management; and continuing education for working professionals.
KEYWORDS: Cataloging, Library and information science education, Cataloging education, Cataloger training
Steven J. Miller is senior lecturer in the School of Information Studies, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee. He teaches MLIS and continuing education courses in information organization, metadata, cataloging, and information architecture. He has published Metadata for Digital Collections (Neal-Schuman, 2011), given a paper at the DC-2010 international metadata conference, and developed workshop materials published by the Library of Congress. Steven has served as Chair of the ALA ALCTS Metadata Interest Group, Co-Chair of the Wisconsin Heritage Online Metadata Working Group, and a member of the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative User Documentation Task Group.
Dr. Hur-Li Lee is associate professor and MLIS Program Director at the School of Information Studies. Her research interests include classification theory, traditional Chinese bibliography and knowledge organization, role of classification in scholarship, and social and cultural aspects of information services. Currently, she teaches graduate courses in the area of information organization, e.g., 511 Organization of Information and 711 Cataloging and Classification. She received both a MLS and a Ph.D. from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey as well as a BA from National Taiwan University.
Hope A. Olson is professor in the School of Information Studies, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee. Dr. Olson's research addresses classification theory and problems of bias in subject access to information using feminist, poststructural, and postcolonial perspectives. Among her current interests are the cultural specificity of classificatory structure, structures of indigenous knowledge, searcher navigation of hierarchical structures, and the nature of consistency. She has published: The Power to Name: Locating the Limits of Subject Representation in Libraries (Kluwer Academic, 2002); and Subject Analysis in Online Catalogs 2nd ed. with John J. Boll (Libraries Unlimited, 2001) and was editor-in-chief of the journal Knowledge Organization from 2000 to 2004.
Richard P. Smiraglia is professor in the School of Information Studies, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. He has defined the meaning of "a work" empirically, and has revealed the ubiquitous phenomenon of instantiation among information objects. The Nature of 'A Work' (2001) was the first monograph-length treatment of the work.. He is working on domain-distinct approaches to basic concepts such as taxonomy, typology, and ontology. He is also working with knowledge theory, with the phenomenological aspect of social tagging, and with cultural heritage ontology for data-mining. He is editor-in-chief of the journal Knowledge Organization, published by Ergon-Verlag of Würzburg.
The Common Gaze: Conversations with Cataloging Instructors about Teaching Online at the Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
By Kathryn La Barre, K.R. Roberto and Faye Leibowitz
Past and present instructors from the LEEP online graduate education program at the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign discuss their instructional experiences. Topics include: discussion of learning activities that work and those that do not, the differences in participation rates among online students, the challenge of instruction in an environment where visual or physical cues are absent, and the ways in which instructors measure learning outcomes and encourage students to work in groups.
KEYWORDS: Library and information science education, Cataloging education, Case studies, Interviews
Kathryn La Barre is assistant professor in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her research interests include knowledge organization and access systems (historical and contemporary) and classification and concept theory with a special focus on the interactions between theoretical and practical approaches to information discovery and access. She currently teaches graduate courses in the area of information organization both on campus and online, e.g., 501 Information Organization and Access, 507 Cataloging I, 590IL Indexing and Abstracting, and 590TC Thesaurus Construction. She is currently the President of the Canada and United States Chapter of the International Society for Knowledge Organization. She received both a MLS and a Ph.D. from the School of Library and Information Science at Indiana University, Bloomington.
K.R. Roberto is serials/electronic resources librarian at the University of Denver and adjunct instructor in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is the editor of the book Radical Cataloging: Essays at the Front. Mr. Roberto received his MS in library and information science from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1999 and is ready to leap into the LIS doctoral program.
Faye Leibowitz is general languages catalog librarian at the University of Pittsburgh and Adjunct Instructor in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She received her B.A. in Russian and her MLS from the University of Pittsburgh. Faye is the co-editor of the Balance Point column in Serials Review.
One Practitioner's Perspective on Online Cataloging Education
By Douglas P. King
Adjuncts teaching cataloging is becoming increasingly popular in library science programs. This article shares the experience of one practicing cataloger invited to teach an online introductory cataloging course as an adjunct. Curricular decisions and pedagogical methods are among the topics explored in this informal article, with emphases on the benefits of learning cataloging from a practitioner and the importance of teaching the practical aspects of information organization.
KEYWORDS: Cataloging education, cataloging curriculum, catalogers, adjuncts, online education
Douglas P. King, MLIS, is special materials cataloger at the Thomas Cooper Library, University of South Carolina. Prior to coming to USC in 2004, Doug spent four years as a cataloger at Georgia Tech. He attended the University of South Florida, earning a BS in English Education (1995) and MLIS (2000). He is currently enrolled in the Educational Administration--Higher Education doctoral program at USC's College of Education, and expects to receive his PhD in 2013. Doug's dissertation research is on American history professors' use and perceptions of digitized primary sources.
Using the Quality Matters Rubric to Improve Online Cataloging Courses
By Gretchen L. Hoffman
Quality Matters is a program that certifies online and hybrid courses. For a course to earn Quality Matters certification, it must meet eight standards of online course design and pass a rigorous peer-review process. In fall 2008, this author's online Cataloging and Classification course went through the Quality Matters peer-review process and was awarded Quality Matters certification. It is the only cataloging course in the nation to earn this certification. The author's Quality Matters peer-review process is discussed as is the potential of the Quality Matters rubric to improve online cataloging courses.
KEYWORDS: cataloging education, Quality Matters, design of online cataloging courses, online education
Gretchen L. Hoffman is assistant professor at Texas Woman's University in Denton, Texas. Her research and teaching interests center on the organization of information, specifically library cataloging. She focuses on issues surrounding the work of catalogers, the cataloging process, and the administration of cataloging departments, with the broader goal to understand how work is performed in libraries. Dr. Hoffman is the Chair of the Cataloging and Metadata Round Table of the Texas Library Association for 2011/12.
"Here be Dragons": A Wayfinding Approach to Teaching Cataloguing
By Lorraine F. Normore
Teaching cataloguing requires the instructor to make strategic decisions about how to approach the variety and complexity of the field and to provide an adequate theoretical foundation while preparing students for their entry into the world of practice. Accompanying these challenges are the tactical demands of providing this instruction in a distance education environment. Rather than focusing on ways to support learners in catalogue record production, instructors may use a problem solving and decision making approach to instruction. In this paper, a way to conceptualize a decision making approach that builds on a foundation provided by theories of information navigation is described. This approach, which is called "wayfinding", teaches by having students learn to find their way in the sets of rules that are commonly used. The method focuses on instruction about the structural features of rule sets, providing basic definitions of what each of the "places" in the rule sets contain (e.g., "formatting personal names" in Chapter 22 of AACR2R) and about ways to navigate those structures, enabling students to learn not only about common rules but also about less well known cataloguing practices ("dragons"). It provides both pragmatic and pedagogical benefits and helps develop links between cataloguing practices and their theoretical foundations.
KEYWORDS: cataloguing education; distance education; information navigation; wayfinding
Lorraine Normore received her MLS from the University of Toronto and her Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology from the Ohio State University. She worked at Chemical Abstracts Service's Research Department and at OCLC's Office of Research before beginning her teaching career at the University of Tennessee' School of Information Sciences. Both her research and teaching have focused on metadata creation, user concerns in online information system design, and information seeking and use in scientific and technical communities.
From the Comfort of Your Office: Facilitating Learner-Centered Continuing Education in the Online Environment
By Morag Boyd
Continuing education for library cataloging is increasing available. Instructors who are developing and facilitating these education opportunities can adopt a learner-centered approach. This approach uses a variety of techniques that place the learner need at the center of the course design, enabling online education to meet the diverse needs of the participants.
KEYWORDS: Training, Cataloging education, Online continuing education, Learner-centered education, Cataloging administration/management
Morag Boyd is head of special collections cataloging at The Ohio State University Libraries. She is an active continuing education instructor, both in-person and online. Morag is also an adjunct instructor for the Kent State University School of Library and Information Science where she teaches Organization of Information and cataloging courses. She holds an MS in library and information science from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and an MA in global politics and cultures from Illinois State University.
Metadata & Emerging Technologies Librarian
Associate Professor, Library Services, Minnesota State University, Mankato
The teaching of cataloging and classification to library and information science (LIS) students and professionals may be one of the most popular topics in the entire cataloging and classification literature. As a culture we catalogers and classifiers have agonized over it, lauded it, opined it, chastised it, called for action about it, and the list goes on. Search any library science related index for "cataloging education" and you will be overwhelmed with results that treat the topic in some manner. Clearly our education and training has a deep existential significance that has yet to be fully established or defined (a topic which in and of itself may be worthy of further research).
The number of students enrolled in a LIS program has steadily increased over the past decade from 14,043 in 2001 to 19,413 in 2009 (the most recent date for which data are available). Add to this the increasing number of students enrolled in online programs or courses and anyone can see that the challenge of effectively teaching cataloging and classification to students may be even more difficult given the variety of online distance learning delivery platforms, systems, and modes (e.g., asynchronous).
Teaching students the principles of cataloging and classification typically involves teaching the theory in conjunction with practical application following the second edition of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2), MARC 21 standards, both the Library of Congress and Dewey Decimal classification systems, and Library of Congress Subject Headings. To prepare students for future changes and to demonstrate that theory is not limited to the current standards, instructors are all the while slipping in elements of RDA: Resource Description and Access rules, Dublin Core or other metadata encoding schema, and possibly some other classification schema, further adding to the complexity of teaching an already difficult subject. Add to this a fully or partially asynchronous online delivery mode and this most challenging of library and information science courses effectively becomes even more challenging.
The genesis of this theme issue began two years ago after receiving my first course evaluations for teaching an online graduate-level cataloging and classification course. The first question on the evaluation asks the student to rate the effectiveness of the instructor. While the majority of the responses came back with a positive rating, a few were not so positive. Having taught many in-person professional workshops during my career as well as some webinars and other online graduate cataloging courses, I am very familiar with evaluations in general and the fact that there are generally only a few open-ended comments that really provide useful feedback. However, without an indication of how "effective" is defined in the minds of students, I was left wondering not only how the student interprets the term, but also how I should address any ratings with a lower effectiveness score for future offerings of online courses.
My search for an answer naturally led me to the library where I perused the online learning section of the stacks and various library literature indexes. Several articles in the literature address approaches to teaching cataloging and classification in person and even one for distance education, but otherwise the literature is lacking for teaching and learning in the online environment. While my search of the stacks for books, particularly at LB1044.87, was more fruitful and the content of many of these general online education books have a lot of practical information, the general nature of these texts do not offer many transferrable ideas for effective delivery of content that is as complex and rule-based as cataloging and classification.
I felt the best way to get good answers to the question of how to offer effective delivery of cataloging and classification instruction in the online environment was to ask the experts. The result is this theme issue, which I look at as the beginning of a new body of literature addressing the delivery of cataloging and classification instruction in the online environment. While cataloging and classification education is commonly associated with LIS instruction, the continuing education of professionals beyond the LIS programs is equally important. When you consider the variety of emerging technologies challenging established descriptive cataloging practices, the pending change from AACR2 to RDA, new or revised best practices from OLAC or the Monographic Bibliographic Record Program (BIBCO) of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC), the anticipated change from MARC 21 to some new encoding standard, and so on, the need for professional continuing education is obvious and critical.
With shrinking budgets and more for professionals to learn, the trend in post-LIS professional education is also moving toward webinars, online courses, and other online delivery methods. Minitex, Lyrasis, National Information Standards Organization (NISO) and other organizations have been providing webinars for several years now. The On-Line Audiovisual Catalogers, Inc. (OLAC) recently surveyed its membership and found a distinct desire for online education opportunities (at the same time preserving and developing the face-to-face learning and instruction given at the biennial conferences). The Association for Collections and Technical Services (ALCTS) has also recently revamped its continuing education offerings in the past year with a variety of webinars and four-week courses to meet the needs of members’ continuing education needs. This important facet of cataloging and classification education is certainly deserving of more research to explore the needs of professionals, preferred learning styles, effective teaching and learning strategies, among other possible research avenues.
This theme issue is divided into four general sections addressing the LIS curriculum, the LIS instructor's view, effective approaches for course delivery, and finally the post-LIS learner. The opening article and first of the two on LIS curriculum is Heather Moulaison's "A New Cataloging Curriculum in a Time of Innovation: Exploring a Modular Approach to Online Delivery." Dr. Moulaison provides an interesting history of innovation and its relationship with cataloging, setting-up the perfect theme for the general topic of this issue. It is followed by Steven Miller, Hur-Li Lee, Hope A. Olson, and Richard P. Smiraglia's manuscript "Online Cataloging Education at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee." Miller et al. provide a holistic view of translating a variety of courses from in-person to online delivery in an asynchronous environment, covering not only the essentials of the curriculum, but also Americans with Disabilities Act compliance and the incorporation of cultural diversity; two components that can be easily overlooked.
Kathryn La Barre, K. R. Roberto, and Faye Leibowitz present the interview research article "The Common Gaze: Conversations with Cataloging Instructors about Teaching Online at the Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign" that transitions into the instructor-focused section of this issue. Not only does this manuscript document the experiences of instructors who pioneered some online cataloging education courses, it contributes several ideas for effective instructional practices. Likewise Douglas P. King's contribution "One Practitioner's Perspective on Online Cataloging Instruction" offers several ideas for effective delivery and course construction. King's contribution is unique as it provides the literature with the perspective of the new adjunct instructor, a position that more and more professional catalogers find themselves in as LIS programs look beyond their faculty to meet the demand for teaching cataloging courses.
The effective delivery of cataloging and classification content, while addressed in some meaningful way in all of the articles in this issue, are perhaps uniquely embodied in the following two manuscripts. The first is Gretchen Hoffman's "Using the Quality Matters Rubric to Improve Online Cataloging Courses." Dr. Hoffman presents the journey in curriculum re-design she took to earn the prestigious Quality Matters moniker and provides a plethora of ideas and methods for any type of instructor to improve their online course. In "'Here be Dragons': A Wayfinding Approach to Teaching Cataloguing," Lorraine F. Normore presents her method of instruction that focuses on the use of problem solving to reinforce the "dragon" of learning cataloging rules.
The final article, "From the Comfort of Your Office: Facilitating Learner-Centered Continuing Education in the Online Environment" by Morag Boyd is the only manuscript in this collection to address non-LIS education and focuses on learner-centered teaching in continuing education. Ms. Boyd's contribution provides a variety of useful tips and approaches for teaching professionals in the online environment.
This collection of manuscripts is the beginning of a new branch of literature begging for more attention, particularly on education topics related to post-LIS professional development and continuing education. These contributions will definitely be useful to current educators and provide future researchers with documentation of how cataloging and classification curricula looked at this pivotal moment in time. I look forward to seeing this branch grow and develop as it looks at the andragogical, delivery, ethical issues related to cataloging and classification education.
Robert L. Bothmann is metadata & emerging technologies librarian at Minnesota State University, Mankato. He is also an adjunct instructor for the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Graduate School of Library and Information Science, as well as for the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee School of Information Studies, where he has taught cataloging and classification, advanced cataloging, and cataloging of nonprint materials. Mr. Bothmann has also taught several workshops on cataloging topics for OLAC and various libraries around the country. He is an assistant author for Nancy B. Olson's Cataloging of Audiovisual Materials and Other Special Formats, fifth edition and the 2007 recipient of the Esther J. Piercy award given by the Association for Collections and Technical Services for division of the American Library Association for outstanding contributions to librarianship in the field of technical services. He earned a MLIS from the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee in 2001 and a MS in geography and English technical communication from the Minnesota State University, Mankato in 2005.
Welcome to the news column. 'Its purpose is to disseminate information on any aspect of cataloging and classification that may be of interest to the cataloging community.' This column is not just intended for news items, but serves to document discussions of interest as well as news concerning you, your research efforts, and your organization.' Please send any pertinent materials, notes, minutes, or reports to: Robert Bothmann, Memorial Library, Minnesota State University, Mankato, ML 3097, PO Box 8419, Mankato, MN 56002-8419 (email:, phone: 507-389-2010. News columns will typically be available prior to publication in print from the CCQ website at .
We would appreciate receiving items having to do with:
Research and Opinion
ISBD: International Standard Bibliographic Description, Consolidated Edition 2011
Report by Elena Escolano Rodriguez, Chair, ISBD Review Group
Almost four years after the publication of the preliminary consolidated edition of the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) in 2007, the consolidated edition of the ISBD, prepared by the IFLA ISBD Review Group, and approved by the IFLA Cataloguing Section Standing Committee on 31 January 2011, is now being published.
This edition is the result of coordinated work of the ISBD Review Group and its current study groups. First approved and published in 2009, the new area 0 proposed by the Material Designations Study Group to replace the general material designation, has been included in this edition, changing the traditional structure of the ISBD, and putting this new area at the beginning of the record. The Examples Study Group is updating the on-line examples publication to show the application of the ISBD and all its changes and adaptation to the new area 0. Its work has raised many issues for discussion as changes to the ISBD are put into practice. The ISBD-XML Study Group has influenced many decisions on changes taken in order to adapt the standard as a semantic web tool.
The preliminary consolidated ISBD was intended to serve as a single text for description of all types of published resources by merging the stipulations coming from the specialized ISBDs, simplifying the cataloguing of resources that shared characteristics of more than one format. It was also intended to facilitate and speed up the work of keeping the ISBD updated and consistent in its stipulations. Working on this basis, it has been possible to address many more conceptual issues, taking also into account suggestions received from the worldwide review of the preliminary consolidated edition that were not pursued at that time as well as many other issues.
In all of these debates and considerations, on-going work and consultation with the ISBD-XML Study Group have been necessary validating the decision of the ISBD Review Group to create this group in 2008. One of its aims was to support the updating of the current edition of the ISBD. The first result of the Group's activities is the list of ISBD elements represented in the RDF (Resource Description Framework), and published as part of the new edition of the Consolidated ISBD. Some adjustments to area 0, as approved and published independently in 2009, are due also to recommendations coming from the ISBD-XML Study Group to make explicit any attribute that cannot be deduced from the named categories, in order to make the standard more useful for all kinds of users without distinctions for example by including always the qualification that a text can be visual or tactile, facilitate the retrieval of resources for those who are visually impaired.
The current edition provides for the description of all kinds of resources that are in our catalogues in a way that can be presented consistently in different environments with different accessibility and greater understanding, making the description of new digital resources consistent and interoperable with the not-so-recent resources; but it will never mean breaking with the past, On the contrary, it means breaking the barriers that were being built, differentiating between past and future resources, print and electronic resources, digital and analogue resources, direct and remote access resources, and between the possibilities of access to one type of catalogue or another, offering the option that best suits the development of the catalogue.
While recognizing the tremendous effort, time commitment, and level of care and detail that the current and past members of the ISBD Review Group have committed to this Consolidated ISBD, noting, in particular, the exemplary work of editor, John Hostage, it must be added that this edition is the result of open discussion in which international and national associations and rules committees have participated. Through their representatives' contribution, many more issues have been suggested, debated and agreed on. The representatives have also worked hard, which is the reason why the list of contributing members to the ISBD is so large.
Personally, the Consolidated ISBD represents for me a lesson and a pleasure to see the results of a very large team effort, with the recognition that, through dialogue and debates, different positions and interests have come closer and solutions have been accepted when they were considered reasonable, counteracting any biased position that could exist in relation to an international standard from IFLA.
I am very happy to have been working with them all and want to thank them.
OCLC releases FAST (Faceted Application of Subject Terminology) as Linked Data
Submitted by Bob Murphy, OCLC
DUBLIN, Ohio, December 14, 2011--FAST (Faceted Application of Subject Terminology), an enumerative, faceted subject heading schema derived from the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), is now available as an experimental Linked Data service () and is made available under the .
The FAST authority file, which underlies the FAST Linked Data release, has been created through a multi-year collaboration of OCLC Research and the Library of Congress. Specifically, it is designed to make the rich LCSH vocabulary available as a post-coordinate system in a Web environment.
"Linked Data" is an approach to publishing data on the Web which enhances its utility by making references to persons, places, things, etc. more consistent and linkable across domains.
The release of FAST as Linked Data provides FAST headings that support both human and machine access. FAST incorporates links to corresponding LCSH authorities. In addition, many of the geographic headings have links to the GeoNames geographic database ().
"The response to VIAF (Virtual International Authority File) as Linked Data has been very positive," said Lorcan Dempsey, Vice President, OCLC Research, and OCLC Chief Strategist. "We are now pleased to be making this very extensive resource available in this way."
With the addition of FAST, the universe of library-oriented controlled vocabularies available as Linked Data is notably expanded. OCLC has previously released Dewey.info () an experimental space for linked Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) data, and also made available as Linked Data the VIAF ( ), a joint project that explores combining the name authority files of participating institutions into a single name authority service. Furthermore, the Library of Congress (see for example, ) and several other custodians of important controlled vocabularies have released Linked Data versions of their schemes.
This release of FAST is the latest in a series of activities by OCLC to make FAST more accessible and useful. OCLC Research released mapFAST (), a map-oriented interface that leverages FAST to present library resources based on the geographic focus of the content of material and made available the FAST Converter ( ), a demonstration LCSH-to-FAST conversion tool. Most recently, OCLC Research has updated its web search interface to FAST ( ).
More information about FAST Linked Data is at. A sample record can be found at . See the FAST activity page at .
DC-2012 Call for Participation
International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications:
"Metadata for Meeting Global Challenges"
3-7 September 2012, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia
DEADLINES & IMPORTANT DATES:
Submission Deadline: 23 March 2012
Author Notification: 25 May 2012
Final Copy: 29 June 2012
DC-2012 will explore the global, national and regional roles of metadata in addressing global challenges such as food security, the digital divide, and sustainable development. Metadata plays a significant role globally in information systems shaping how we know, monitor and change social and governmental systems affecting everything from the environment, human rights and justice to education and peace. DC-2012 will bring together in Kuching the community of metadata scholars and practitioners to engage in the exchange of knowledge and best practices in developing languages of description to meet these global challenges.
Beyond the conference theme, papers, reports, and poster submissions are welcome on a wide range of metadata topics.
Report of 2011 Meetings of the IFLA Permanent UNIMARC Committee
Submitted by Jay Weitz, Vice Chair of the PUC
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Dublin, Ohio, USA
On 2011 March 14-15, IFLA's Permanent UNIMARC Committee (PUC) gathered at the National Library of Portugal in Lisbon, for its Twenty-Second Meeting. On 2011 August 15 and 18, the PUC held its traditional informal meetings during the IFLA Congress in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
"FRBR in UNIMARC: New Change Proposals from the CfU" by Mr. Philippe Le Pape
In March, Mr. Philippe Le Pape (ABES, France) presented the PowerPoint "FRBR in UNIMARC: New Change Proposals from the CfU" as an overview of the Comité français UNIMARC's understanding of the issues and ideas for dealing with them. Among the main points:
"UNIMARC and Linked Data" by Mr. Gordon Dunsire
In August, Mr. Gordon Dunsire (UK),addressed the committee on the ISBD/XML Study Group's work on UNIMARC representation in Resource Description Framework (RDF). A preliminary analysis of UNIMARC/Bibliographic is completed, finding that it is not merely feasible, but would be less complicated than the RDF representation of MARC 21. Ms. Mirna Willer (University of Zadar, Croatia) has offered pointers toward a similar analysis of UNIMARC/Authorities. Each separate data element would require a unique RDF identifier. Because they would be based on UNIMARC encoding, they would be fairly obvious. The study group also looked at ISBD equivalencies, recommending that ISBD and UNIMARC namespaces remain separate but related. Application profiles allow for a structure that correctly relates data elements (such as place, publisher, date). The value of UNIMARC data would be better realized by other communities if UNIMARC coded descriptors were defined. This would be a two-to-three-year project of creating definitions and defining all UNIMARC elements. RDF is designed for a multilingual environment, taking advantage of existing Web structures and capabilities to allow easy translation among languages of coded data and/or elements. RDF emphasizes individual data elements, not records. In discussing Mr. Dunsire's proposal, the importance of keeping all IFLA standards in synch was noted, as well as the need to transform legacy data for access on the Semantic Web. This effort will need IFLA funding. Ms. Inês Cordeiro (Biblioteca Nacional, Lisbon, Portugal) will discuss with Mr. Dunsire what exactly needs to be done and what it may cost. Because multilingualism is one of IFLA's main principles, adding all existing UNIMARC translations will be an important task.
ISMN Report 2011
Submitted by Hartmut Walravens, International ISMN Agency
ISMN -- the International Standard Music Number -- is ISO Standard 10957; the registration agency is located in Berlin, Germany.
The previous Annual General Assembly of the ISMN community took place in Lisbon, Portugal, on September 14-15, 2010, on invitation of the Biblioteca Nacional. It was an excellent meeting, for two reasons: It followed immediately the AGM of the International ISBN Agency at Estoril, on the outskirts of Lisbon. This allowed for a closer contact of representatives of both communities and cut costs as in not a small number of cases the same persons / departments are responsible for ISBN and ISMN. Thus the attendance of the ISMN AGM was larger than usually, and it was decided, to also have the Pretoria AGM aligned timewise. The other reason, of course, was the wonderful hospitality of colleagues at the National Library: Ms. Inês Cordeiro and her staff did their best to make colleagues feel welcome; it also turned out that there was actually more music publishing in Portugal than previously assumed.
The 2011 AGM took place in Pretoria, in the National Library of South Africa, on Sept. 13, 2011 -- another successful meeting, owing to the efforts of John Tsebe, the national librarian and his efficient staff. The new library building is remarkable and certainly sets accents in the library development of the African continent. For ISMN it was the first meeting in Africa -- a good means of establishing contacts with colleagues and making the identifier known outside of Europe and America.
There has been some discussion whether it makes sense to travel all the way to South Africa for such a meeting, to a country which cannot compare in music production with Europe and North America. On the other hand, as the standard claims to be international, the impression should be avoided that it was just something for Europeans ... Actually, South Africa was not yet an ISMN member; but our kind host, the national librarian, surprised us by signing the ISMN contract at the beginning of the meeting! Also, during a workshop for African participants, several colleagues expressed their interest in joining the ISMN system. In the meantime the contract with Kenya was signed.
While the music production in African countries is very low compared with Europe and North America, the local music is very rich, and much sought after. One of the major challenges is to record and transcribe as much as possible as the oral tradition seems to come to an end. The ISMN is an ideal tool to identify the notated music and make it available worldwide.
The ISMN standard is again up for review -- as a matter of the usual routine -- but in the light of the last revision no major adjustments are expected.
There are now 54 ISMN agencies; one of the latest members is The Netherlands (Muziek Centrum Nederland) which makes Europe completely represented by ISMN, except for Albania, Belarus and a few other small countries. without any remarkable music production. Unfortunately, as part of a national budget cut, culture and especially also music will suffer; hopefully the Muziek Centrum will survive!
A major breakthrough was signing a contract with the Library of Congress which will act as a US ISMN agency so that this vast music market will finally be able to profit from the benefits of the ISMN. The US boasts three music publishers associations and a considerable music production. The Library of Congress seems an excellent institution for administering the standard as not a small percentage of sheet music is produced by individuals and organisations, often not for profit, and a commercially based agency might find it difficult to cover all these items.
Currently negotiations are under way with China where the introduction of the ISMN is planned.
It should be emphasized that according to the ISO standards ISBN must not be used for notated music. This is not an arbitrary ruling but books and notated music have their different ways of productions and distribution. Also, many people are music illiterate, and therefore bookshops are often not interested in music. With regard to databases, trade catalogues and national bibliographies, the ISMN limits searches automatically to music and saves the user from thousands of unwanted hits.
A directory of music publishers with their ISMN prefixes was installed on the International Agency's website, in agreement with the stipulations of the ISO contract to make the members' metadata internationally available.
ISMN has not yet reached the stage where the whole sheet music sector is geared to the ISMN -- as the book sector to ISBN. The German/British Music in Print catalogue (IDNV), however, is growing (currently around 500,000 bibliographic records).
In Australia, Music Australia; the music information system of the National Library, now integrated in TROVE, has made much use of the ISMN, and it has been suggested to apply it retrospectively in order to have the country's whole music production in one homogenous system.
The National Library of Norway entertains similar ideas.
An intern has been working for six months at the International Agency to design improvements for the ISMN website and devise an action plan. The News section now covers a wider range of issues relevant to the music industry in general. It is updated regularly. The FAQ and the Link section have been improved, as well.
The publication of an informative brochure about ISMN and its application is under way. This will be more general than the ISMN Manual and targeted at a wider audience within the music and trade sectors.
International UDC Seminar, 2011
Submitted by Marie-France Plassard, associate editor for Cataloging & Classification Quarterly
The third International UDC Seminar was held at the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (Royal Library) in Den Haag, The Netherlands, September 19-20, 2011. The theme of the seminar was "Classification & Ontology". One hundred and forty one delegates from 30 countries were present. Twenty one papers in 7 categories were presented and 3 poster sessions were held. The papers have been published in the proceedings available from Ergon Verlag and can be purchased online at. Slides and audio recordings can be accessed from the conference programme page.
Although referred to as a "UDC Seminar" this term identifies the sponsorship, while the overall theme was much broader than UDC. The papers were organized into the following categories: the role of classification on the web; classification and ontologies on their own terms; classification meets the web; classification and ontology of special subject; categories and relations: key elements of ontologies; modelling concepts and structures in analytico-synthetic classifications; and transforming and extending classification systems. The three poster sessions held during the seminar depicted the evolution of knowledge and its representation in classification systems, visualized universes of knowledge using designs and visual analysis of UDC, and used UDC as a knowledge framework for building a civil engineering ontology. A detailed analysis of the seminar will appear in a forthcoming issue of Knowledge Organization. It is intended that these seminars be held every two years and if this one is any indication, future offerings will be of interest to audiences broader than the users and developers of UDC.
Navigating the New Normal: Summary of the New England Technical Services Librarians Programs from NELA's Annual Conference
Submitted by Jennifer Eustis, Catalog/Metadata Librarian, University of Connecticut Libraries, Storrs, Connecticut
The New England Library Association recently held its annual conference in cooperation with the Vermont Library Association, entitled "Navigating the New Normal" from Oct. 2-3, 2011. NETSL, the New England Technical Services Librarians, sponsored three programs this year: Mysterius The Unfathomable: RDA Cataloging at the Clark, The Miscellany Collection at Tufts, The Future is On Demand: Just In Time and Patron Driven. Thehave already been posted online by NELA. Don't forget! If you're a fan of NETSL, their Annual Spring Conference takes place May 3, 2012. Now on to a short summary of each session for NETSL's programs at NELA.
"Mysterius the Unfathomable: RDA Cataloging at the Clark"
Presented by Christopher Geissler and Penny Baker.
was one of the 23 formal test participants of the official RDA Test held by the 3 national libraries: the Library of Congress, the National Library of Medicine, National Agricultural Library. The presenters shared their experience of the RDA test, beginning with a short introduction on the "birth" of RDA. The presenters continued with a summary of how they prepared for and completed the test. They concluded with their general impressions on RDA.
The Clark began preparing early for the test. Staff came together informally to work on the draft of RDA to get a sense of what would change or not. Next, staff met formally for a one day training by the Library of Congress. At that point, training at the Clark continued both informally and formally. As a test partner, Clark had access to "Basecamp", a content management system that facilitated communication between formal testers. Not all the staff participated in the test. However, those that did found that many of the surrogates sent for the test were not the type of items that the Clark would normally catalog. It was really at the end of the test where staff played with unusual items like a salami! The record in RDA for this salami can be seen if youhere. In short, Clark staff involved in the formal RDA test noticed several things. There were more changes to authority records than bibliographic. Results from the surveys indicated that people found that the RDA records didn't look much different from the AACR2 ones. The lack of GMD didn't seem to bother anyone. Consequently, the Clark continues to do originally cataloging in RDA and receive feedback from Judith Kuhagen on their authority records.
"The Miscellany Collection"
Presented by Alex May and Alicia Morris.
at Tische Library, Tufts University, is a small digital collection built in part by Alex May, a recent graduate from Simmons College. Beginning with 3 records, Alex presented how he created a popular digital collection. With skills such as xml, RDF, xslt, HTML, CSS, he was able to get a small collection on the web and indexed through Google. As the project advanced, it was an opportunity for the department at Tische Library to re-evaluate the role of technical services. This is where Alicia Morris, the head of the department, presented that technical services can no longer be a "backroom operation". Technical services librarians need to gain skills like xml, xslt, html, metadata schemas, etc. They also need to collaborate with other units in the library and their community. Otherwise Technical Services will die. This was one of the more interesting presentations thanks to Alicia's comments and Alex's detailed explanation on the Miscellany Collection.
"The Future is On Demand: Just-in-Time and Patron Driven"
Presented by Laura Crain
Laura presentedexperience with patron driven acquisitions. The PDA program was initiated in 2008. It was found that their users prefer print rather than eBooks. Laura added that this might be different now in 2011 if a new survey would be taken. The PDA program was started with a service called MyiLibrary. Recently, Ebrary's eBook service was added. The advantage is that eBooks are either purchased or rented depending on the model of the services and contract negotiated. The PDA program has definitely affected collection development, which is now based on circulation statistics. The advantages are that users can find more books, there's more space, and the process is transparent. The disadvantages are that content doesn't always stay in the library, not collecting materials for prosperity, no sharing of eBooks and econtent. Laura explained that even though their users prefer print materials, they are increasing the number of eBooks available through MyiLibrary and Ebrary. The focus is now oriented towards what patrons what and less on what the library feels these patrons want.
Reported in a previous column as forthcoming, the title Cole, Jim., Wayne Jones, Priscilla J. Matthews, and Elizabeth M. Schobernd. Handbook for Technical Service Librarians. New York: Routledge, 2011. ISBN: 978-0789018052. has been cancelled.
Jin, Qiang. Demystifying FRAD: Functional Requirements for Authority Data. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Libraries Unlimited, 2012. Due 30 May 2012.
Kent State faculty receive $219,000+ federal grant to improve access to digital resources
Two faculty members in the School of Library and Information Science (SLIS) at Kent State University, Professor Marcia Lei Zeng, Ph.D., and Assistant Professor Karen Gracy, Ph.D., have received a National Leadership Grant in the amount of $219,386 from the federal Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). The funds will be used to help improve access to digital resources within and beyond the library world through what is known as "Linked Open Data (LOD)."
"With Linked Data technologies, libraries can efficiently reach a much wider range and more diverse data universe, and more effectively provide services to their users. Libraries can enhance their existing digital collections and services with linked data technologies and LOD resources without significantly increasing the library's workload or requiring them to reengineer their existing bibliographic databases and websites," Zeng said.
Zeng and Gracy's project will develop effective strategies and prototype tools to help libraries and museums connect to the unfamiliar data and metadata resources in the LOD world. In particular, their research will address the question of how libraries can benefit from resources that have been made available in the Linked Open Data (LOD) universe.
"In this project, Dr. Zeng and I will be aligning metadata terms from different and diverse namespaces, which means that we will be analyzing semantic relationships among many different metadata schemas to identify areas of overlap and degrees of similarity," Gracy explained. "Our primary goal for this study will be the development and testing of a tool, the Metadata Vocabulary Junction, that will help librarians and archivists understand unfamiliar metadata schemas and discover new data sources. These librarians will then be able to help users discover and use the rich information found in the Linked Open Data universe by following the paths that we will be creating through the M-V Junction."
The resulting resource thus will encourage all libraries, regardless of their size and technical status, to tap into the riches of Linked Open Data.
IMLS Director Susan Hildreth said, "We look forward to much exciting work from this round of [National Leadership Grant] awards, including projects that will support learning and 21st-century skills relevant to a new generation of digital natives, enhanced access and ability to interact with digital content, and providing innovative services for existing and new types of library and museum users. We believe that each of these grants will advance the museum, library, and archive professions through new research and the creation and dissemination of innovative tools, models, and activities that can be shared broadly."
Kent State University's School of Library and Information Science (SLIS) has the only American Library Association-accredited Master of Library and Information Science (M.L.I.S.) degree program in Ohio. SLIS is recognized by U.S. News and World Report as one of the nation's top 20 graduate schools in the field, and the youth librarianship program is ranked 13th. For more information about the school, visit.
The Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) is the primary source of federal support for the nation's 123,000 libraries and 17,500 museums. The institute's mission is to create strong libraries and museums that connect people to information and ideas. The institute works at the national level and in coordination with state and local organizations to sustain heritage, culture, and knowledge; enhance learning and innovation; and support professional development. For more information about the IMLS, visit.
Flo Cunningham, M.A.
Marketing Communications and Public Relations Director
Karen Gracy, Ph.D. Assistant Professor
Marcia Lei Zeng, Ph.D. Professor