Volume 50, no. 8, 2012


Editorial, Sandra Roe

Book Reviews

Subject Headings for School and Public Libraries, by Joanna F. Fountain.
Reviewed by Dana Aucoin Teepell

Paper Machines: About Cards & Catalogs, by Markus Krajewski.
Reviewed by Suzanne M. Stauffer



Cataloging News, Robert Bothmann, News Editor


Original Articles

Data Aggregation and Dissemination of Authority Records through Linked Open Data in a European Context
Xavier Agenjo, Francisca Hernández and Andrés Viedma

ABSTRACT: Throughout the analysis of the Polymath Virtual Library, data aggregation and dissemination of authority records through Linked Open Data are described. The aim of this virtual library is to reunite data, digital texts, and Web resources about Spanish, Hispano-American, Brazilian, and Portuguese polymaths from all times. Authors are the backbone of the system. For each author a MARC 21/Resource Description and Access (RDA) authority record has been created and enriched with biographical data. Specific attributes are categorized to enhance relationships and navigability of the site (profession, occupation, gender, memberships, birth and death dates and places, and languages) and visibility through Europeana and Linked Open Data.

KEYWORDS: authority records, data aggregation, Linked Open Data


Classification and Indexing in Yeshiva Libraries: Analysis of the Systems, Their Sources and Development
Gila Prebora and Nachum Zitterb

ABSTRACT: This article investigates the forms of classification and indexing found in yeshiva libraries in the State of Israel. The yeshiva (plural: yeshivot) is a Jewish educational institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the Talmud and the Bible. The research goal was to analyze classification and indexing systems in these libraries, examine how they evolve, and to compare the yeshiva classification systems used in practice to Jewish studies classification in other classification systems. This study can help us understand how classification systems develop and what the cognitive, philosophical, and administrative processes that lie behind them are.

KEYWORDS: classification, indexing, yeshiva libraries, Judaica classification, special libraries


Why Change to the Chinese Classification Scheme? A Case Study in an Academic Library
Maggie Liu, Lolita Kwok and Kylie Chan

ABSTRACT: This article provides a background for the change of the classification system for Chinese language materials at an academic library. It describes how the decision was made; how choices on partial reclassification or total reclassification were made; and how matters such as project planning, implementation, and vision for the future are being handled. It is hoped that the authors' experience can offer tips for other libraries contemplating reclassification projects. By making use of the Chinese Library Classification (CLC) numbers from various sources in Mainland China, the authors envisage increased cataloging efficiency and cost saving in the long run.

KEYWORDS: reclassification, Chinese Classification Scheme, Chinese Library Classification, cataloging, classification scheme


PCC Practice for Assigning Uniform Titles for Motion Pictures: Principle versus Practice
Peter H. Lisius

ABSTRACT: Library of Congress Rule Interpretation (LCRI) 25.5B, Appendix I contains Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC) principles for constructing uniform titles for motion pictures, television, and radio programs, and functions as a rule interpretation to Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd ed. (AACR2) 25.5B. It was originally designed for PCC Libraries in providing uniform title access for these materials. Focusing specifically on uniform title access for motion pictures, this article will show that these PCC principles have largely been unapplied. The article concludes with a discussion on the future application of these principles for preferred access points in Resource Description and Access (RDA).

KEYWORDS: authority control, Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2), Resource Description and Access (RDA), OCLC WorldCat, video recordings


A Cataloger's Resolution to Become More Creative: How and Why
Sarah Theimer

ABSTRACT: Creativity is now a core requirement for successful organizations. Libraries, like all organizations, need to produce and utilize new ideas to improve user service and experiences. With changes in cataloging such as Resource Description and Access (RDA), the opportunity to rethink cataloging practices is here now. Everyone has creative potential, although catalogers may have both a personality and work environment that make it more difficult. To be able to maximize creative capacity, catalogers need the proper work environment, support from their organization, and a plan for accomplishing creative goals. Given that environment, catalogers may create ideas that will shape the future. (RDA).

KEYWORDS: creativity, cataloging, training, innovation, work environment, change


Uniqueness Matters: Author-Supplied Keywords and LCSH in the Library Catalog
Theda Schwing, Sevim McCutcheon and Margaret Beecher Maurer

ABSTRACT: This study concerns the overlap between author-supplied keywords and Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) in Electronic Thesis and Dissertation (ETD) bibliographic records in the library catalog. The article provides a discussion on uniqueness, matching, and complementariness based on a replication of Strader's methodology and rubric from a 2009 article. Findings support most of Strader's conclusions, including the complementary nature of keywords and controlled vocabularies. Both keywords and LCSH provide unique terms that enhance access. Researchers also broke new ground regarding partial matching, particularly within LCSH. The fact that uniqueness matters has implications for the continued use of LCSH, for LCSH maintenance, and for further research.

KEYWORDS: Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), subject access, electronic theses and dissertations, keyword indexing, cataloging evaluation, cataloging quality analysis, ETD


Viewing RDA from FRBR and FRAD: Does RDA Represent a Different Conceptual Model?
Shoichi Taniguchi

ABSTRACT: Resource Description and Access (RDA) was analyzed through a comparison between the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) and Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD) models and the model that RDA directly reflects. First, it was clarified that RDA adopts the FRBR entities but with some differences, such as the relationship between work and manifestation and the treatment of "title of the expression." Second, for the FRAD scope, a slightly different model that reflects RDA directly was proposed, incorporating the decomposition of FRAD entities as well as a new entity "description."

KEYWORDS: RDA, FRBR, FRAD, conceptual models, entity-relationship modeling



The 2012/2013 academic year has begun and classes have been in session for two weeks, but I am still thinking often of my new colleagues; our bicycling tour through Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia; and the unconference we made together, Cycling for Libraries 2012 (or more simply, C4L).1 The unconference concept was explained to me for the first time by Mace Ojala during the 2011 IFLA World Congress as we stood together in front of his poster, "Cycling for Libraries-The first cycling unconference for librarians." Ojala and Jukka Pennanen are the two organizers of C4L, first held in 2011 and again in 2012. Their enthusiasm for the idea that a long bicycling journey is a fantastic structure for a professional event is quite infectious. C4L is defined as "a participant-driven meeting without a traditional conference structure" by Rebecca Allsopp, one of this year's C4L participants. Allsopp goes on to cite the objectives of this particular unconference as "a forum for discussion and problem solving, a medium for publicity and library advocacy, a promoter of international cooperation, and a supporter of the physical and mental health of librarians."2 This year's event was certainly all of those things, and more. I hope that this brief description will encourage you to find out more about unconferences, or better yet, to find a way to step out of your own workplace for a time and participate in something that shares its objectives so that you might return to your workplace recharged to tackle your problems with optimism.

In this, the final issue of 2012, I want to mention a few changes to the editorial board. We are fortunate to have new individuals willing to share the work that goes into the recruitment and review of articles, and to generally help shape the direction of the journal. Those beginning new terms on CCQ's editorial board are Ben Gu, Director, Foreign Acquisitions and Cataloging Department, National Library of China; Corey Harper, Metadata Services Librarian, New York University Libraries; Mirna Willer, Professor, Department of Information Sciences, University of Zadar, Croatia; and John DeSantis, Cataloging and Metadata Services Librarian, Dartmouth College Library. I look forward to their influence in the coming years. Finally, I want to acknowledge and to thank those editorial board members who are coming off the editorial board at this time. They are Kathryn Luther Henderson, John R. James, Jeffrey Beall, and Suzanne M. Stauffer.

Sandra K. Roe


1 Cycling for Libraries: Cycling Unconference for Librarians and Library Lovers, July 28-August 7, 2012, http://www.cyclingforlibraries.org/ (accessed August 30, 2012).

2 Rebecca Allsopp, "Cycling for Libraries 2012-Librarians Take to the Baltics by Bicycle," Library Journal, August 2012, http://lj.libraryjournal.com/2012/08/shows-events/cycling-for-libraries-2012-librarians-take-to-the-baltics-by-bicycle/ (accessed August 30, 2012).


Cataloging News
Robert Bothmann, News Editor

Welcome to the news column.  Its purpose is to disseminate information on any aspect of cataloging and classification that may be of interest to the cataloging community.  This column is not just intended for news items, but serves to document discussions of interest as well as news concerning you, your research efforts, and your organization.  Please send any pertinent materials, notes, minutes, or reports to: Robert Bothmann, Memorial Library, Minnesota State University, Mankato, ML 3097, PO Box 8419, Mankato, MN 56002-8419 (email: robert.bothmann@mnsu.edu, phone: 507-389-2010.  News columns will typically be available prior to publication in print from the CCQ website at http://catalogingandclassificationquarterly.com/.

We would appreciate receiving items having to do with:

Research and Opinion

  • Abstracts or reports of on-going or unpublished research
  • Bibliographies of materials available on specific subjects
  • Analysis or description of new technologies
  • Call for papers
  • Comments or opinions on the art of cataloging


  • Notes, minutes, or summaries of meetings, etc. of interest to catalogers
  • Publication announcements
  • Description of grants
  • Description of projects


  • Announcements of changes in personnel
  • Announcements of honors, offices, etc.


Research and Opinion

Library of Congress RDA Training Plan for 2012-March 30, 2013

The Library of Congress (LC) training plan for implementation of RDA: Resource Description and Access (RDA), last updated on June 15, 2012, is available from the main RDA information page at the LC Web site http://www.loc.gov/aba/rda/ under the Training heading as "LC RDA Training Plan," or available directly from: http://www.loc.gov/aba/rda/pdf/RDA_Long-Range_Training_Plan.pdf.

This eight-page document includes the curriculum that LC is using for their staff and spells out in detail the phases of training, the names of the courses, the modules and their sequences, and length of time for each. The plan also provides a sample training schedule for others to consider. It is continuing to evolve as LC deploys this plan through the various groups.

It is advisable for cataloging units at other libraries to monitor this plan, check for updates as they should be frequent, and use the plan as a model for their own training and implementation of RDA.


Cherokee Romanization Table

By Bruce Chr. Johnson, The Library of Congress, Policy & Standards Division

The ALA-LC Romanization tables are developed jointly by the Library of Congress (LC) and the American Library Association (ALA). Romanization schemes enable the cataloging of foreign language materials. Romanized cataloging in turn supports circulation, acquisitions, serials check-in, shelflisting, shelving, and reference, particularly in library catalogs that are unable to display non-roman alphabet information.

The ALCTS Committee on Cataloging: Description and Access (CC:DA) recently reviewed and approved a proposal from LC for a new Cherokee romanization table. It has been subsequently approved by the Cherokee Tri-Council meeting in Cherokee, North Carolina. (Press coverage of the meeting is available online at http://theonefeather.com/2012/07/cherokee-tribes-come-together-for-tri-council/.) This is the first ALA-LC romanization table for a Native American syllabary.

The Cherokee romanization table is now available for downloading from the ALA-LC Romanization Tables Web page, http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/roman.html. Please direct any questions about romanization tables to Bruce Johnson, Policy and Standards Division (bjoh@loc.gov).



North Carolina Serials Conference 2012 Report

By Jan Mayo, with contributions from Virginia Bacon, Patrick Carr, Eleanor Cook and Joseph Thomas,
East Carolina University

The 21st Annual North Carolina Serials Conference (http://nccuslis.org/conted/serials2012/1_2_Overview.html) was held on Friday, March 16, 2012,at the Friday Center in Chapel Hill, NC, and drew approximately 170 attendees. The theme this year was: "D´ej`a vu All Over Again: Familiar Problems, New Solutions."

The conference's morning keynote speaker was Kristin Antelman, Associate Director for the Digital Library at North Carolina State University Libraries. Antelman described the "path forward with five ironies," OR, in the pattern of nineteenth-century novels, "From euphoria to realism with a stop at obsession in between." Her first irony is that what librarians care about is not what our users care about; she concentrated here on access to scholarship versus management issues, particularly issues of data and metadata quality. Antelman predicted that next-generation integrated library systems (ILS) will be knowledge base-centered rather than bib-centric; focused on metadata statements rather than records in ways that will make them amenable to being pushed out as linked data. Her second irony stands on its own: just when we need to manage things as they really are, there are no things-that is, our materials are more and more electronic, at the same time that our work is becoming more complex. Antelman raised another intriguing point during the discussion of her third irony: is search objective (for vendor-created content, hosted content, or between companies having close agreements)? Another irony she explored was that young tech-savvy scholars are the most conservative when it comes to publishing. Antelman is a good speaker, and provided a thought-provoking kick-off speech.

Following Antelman's presentation were three concurrent sessions. One of the concurrent sessions, "Serials Staffing Challenges from the Paraprofessional Perspective," was offered in the morning and the afternoon. It was presented by Katherine Moran and Sara Newell, two library science students who are conducting a study on how the proliferation of electronic resources has affected paraprofessionals who work with serials. First, they gave a brief overview of previous studies found in the literature. They discovered that most studies do not address paraprofessionals at all; those that do find that they struggle with having to perform complex new tasks with inadequate staffing and that the line between what professionals and paraprofessionals do has blurred. The attendees were asked to serve as a focus group for the presenters' study and were asked a series of questions and encouraged to make comments. Attendees echoed what had been found in previous studies, as well as expressing that they feel undervalued and undercompensated. They often do not get a say in what duties they are asked to perform or much, if any, training. In most libraries, professionals still tend to handle novel tasks or duties that require higher levels of responsibility, such as licensing. However, in a few places, professionals and paraprofessionals perform exactly the same set of tasks, a situation that causes dissension and discontent for everyone.

Also offered was "Bundles, Big Deals and the Copyright Wars: What Academic Librarians Can Learn from the Record Industry Crash," presented by Edward Keane, Electronic Resources Librarian, Long Island University. Copyright wars are very political, which is what interested him about this topic. He sees the current reluctance of academic publishers to provide affordable and convenient content outside of big bundled deals as analogous to the music industry's earlier strict adherence to format. The music industry's decision not to bend to users' wants gave rise to Napster, whose concept was eventually legitimized as iTunes. If the record industry had cut a deal earlier than they did, they would not have lost so much in revenues to Napster, but they wanted to retain music as CDs because they are a convenient bundle. However, librarians see the situation with scholarly publication as being somewhat different than watching pirated DVDs. Would it be possible to have an iTunes-like solution for articles? Pay per view does not seem to provide a clear answer.

The final morning session, "Built to Suit: A Database Designed to Efficiently Collect Usage Statistics Came with a Bonus," was presented by Jane Bethel, Electronic Resources Librarian, and Elizabeth Coleman, Cataloging intern, from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The presenters discussed the creation of a local database, the "RTP [Recreational Trails Program] Built to Suit (BTS) Database," to collect usage statistics and aggregate other information needed to keep track of and provide access to their electronic resources.

The next item on the agenda was a panel discussion entitled "Responding to Change: Creative Approaches to Current Serials Challenges." The first speaker was Denise Branch, Assistant Head of Acquisitions and Serials Librarian at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU). Branch's presentation focused on VCU's e-resource access problem reporting system. Library users can report problems through an online form that automatically populates a database which can then be used to track the resolution of the problem and analyze patterns in access problems. The second panel speaker was Cheri Duncan, Director of Acquisitions and Cataloging at James Madison University (JMU). Duncan explained how JMU's acquisitions department has changed its organization over the past several years to keep up with changes in workflows due to the expansion of work related to electronic resources. Sarah Brett, the E-Resources/Serials Manager from JMU, followed up with a more in-depth discussion of electronic resources workflows in her department, addressing topics such as how they use Serials Solutions and how electronic resource problems are reported internally. The final panel speaker was Patricia Hudson, the Senior Marketing Manager from Oxford University Press (OUP). Hudson described how OUP is rethinking and changing some of its journal practices in response to issues facing serials librarians today. She also introduced a new discovery tool that brings together all of OUP's electronic resources so that they can be searched from one place at one time.

Prior to lunch, there was a 30-minute networking period that gave attendees the opportunity to talk with colleagues and to meet with representatives of the conference's vendor sponsors.

After lunch, there were two new concurrent sessions. Eleanor Cook, Assistant Director for Collections & Technical Services, East Carolina University, and Katy Ginanni, Assistant Professor, Western Carolina University, presented a session entitled "Weeding D´ej`a vu: New Solutions for How to Dispose of Withdrawn Materials Responsibly." In this session, the presenters discussed methods for resale, transfer, and destruction of withdrawn materials, with an emphasis on journal back files. Cook focused her remarks on some of the methods available through the State of NC Surplus process, which include auction, local surplus retail stores, "yard" sales, public sales at your library, public bids, and contract bids. These procedures are more suitable for books, and the state will take 5% of anything you make. This is a disincentive for many libraries since the paperwork is off-putting. Ginanni then covered companies that handle records destruction and companies that will take discards to send to Africa or other similar charitable uses. Unfortunately, journal back runs tend to end up in the shredder most often, but the main take away is that they do not need to go into the landfill.

"The (All Too Familiar!) Journal Cancellation Review: Proven Techniques for Eliciting Quality Feedback" was presented by Susan Swogger, Collections Development Librarian, and Christie Degener, Head, Resources Management Services, both from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill's Health Sciences Library. The presenters explained how they had developed a method for eliciting feedback from faculty who might be less than enthusiastic about the latest round of journal cancellations. They needed comments from their users for analysis in making cancellation decisions, so they worked with their IT department to set up a feedback database, which they publicized to the faculty. Faculty were asked to rate low-use journals, high-cost journals, and high-cost journals with an embargo for possible cancellation as "must keep," "keep if possible," or "can cancel." Faculty were also asked for their status and their department affiliation. Only a third of the journals were rated "must keep." Any comments the faculty made were considered when making their cancellation decisions. The journal review database made for great user engagement, refinement of the collection to better serve its users and confirmed that the library was a good steward of university and state resources. The results of the cancellation project were announced to the faculty and they were thanked for participating in the process. The presenters also introduced a mechanism for appealing a cancellation decision, as well as providing information on where faculty might find articles from the canceled journals.

The conference's afternoon keynote address was given by Kevin Guthrie, who is president of Ithaka, the parent organization of JSTOR (http://jstor.org/) and Portico (http://portico.org/). Guthrie's presentation was entitled "Will Books Be Different?" and reviewed the key factors that drove the transition from print to online journals and then considered what impact those factors are having on the current format transition underway for books. The six key factors that Guthrie identified were licensing, consortia, access formats, commercial Web sites and browsers, the consolidation of publishers, and search engines. When these factors drove the transition of journal formats beginning in the 1990s, funding was relatively robust, and Guthrie emphasized that one of the most important differences in applying the factors to the format transition of books is that today funding is, put mildly, not so robust. He then proceeded to consider the bearing of each of the six key factors on book format transitions. In conclusion, Guthrie stated that the transition of books to online formats will indeed be different. The transition is taking place in a more complex environment and, although he thinks the transition will occur more rapidly than it did for journals, he does not think it will be as comprehensive.


2012: A Linked Data Odyssey: Program Report

Northern California Technical Processes Group, 75th Annual Program, University of California Berkeley, Friday, May 18, 2012
By Julie Renee Moore, Catalog Librarian, California State University, Fresno

Speakers: Walter Nelson, Librarian and Web Designer, The RAND Corporation;
Phil Schreur, Head, Metadata Department at Stanford University Libraries;
and Karen Coyle, Library Consultant.

This Northern California Technical Processes Group (NCTPG) program was wildly successful! The speakers were phenomenal. The list of attendees was like a Who's Who of cataloging. The room was abuzz with an energized, engaged, and excited audience, thrilled to be talking with other like-minded catalogers and other technical services librarians.


Walter Nelson provided an animated discussion about the integrated library system (ILS) and why it needs to change quickly if the library is to survive. He painted a mental image of our current ILS as the digital equivalent of trudging down to the dusty basement to thumb through the old card catalog. Additionally, he explained that most research exists outside of the library. The whole notion of "integrated" refers only to the ILS being able to have an internal conversation with itself. However, the ILS is unable to talk to the rest of the Web site, other sources and discovery tools, accounting, communication, social networking, and the Internet. Nelson proclaimed, "Any system that tries to do a little of everything will do nothing well!"

The good news is that good catalogers create good, clean data, and we have consistent standards. However, the data standards must evolve to fit our current information needs.

There are new organizing principles afoot. Traditionally, libraries evolved to bring books and users together on a local level. Now, the cataloger is cataloging for the universe. In the new world, cataloging will be cloud-based. The ILS based on the book-focused, location-focused library is quickly becoming a thing of the past.

In the future, there is a new path of Knowledge Management with skill sets that will be important from now on, such as metadata and taxonomy, interface design and user experience, and Web technology. Instead of the ILS, we will have a Content Management System, which will provide access not only for what is inside but also what is outside--librarians will have the ability to have clean integration into the cloud.

Nelson said that in order for this to happen, data, interfaces, and searches must be set free. We need to be able to present one set of data in multiple ways in multiple places and in flexible formats. It is essential for us to focus on strong standards and consistent quality.

Vendors need to make it easy. In order to survive, the ILS needs to open up, participate, evolve--and they need to do it fast!


Phil Schreur provided the most academic and profound presentation of the program. He opened his presentation by throwing down the gauntlet, exclaiming, "A revolution is at hand, one that is potentially as world-altering as the development of the Web! And, as most truly transformative revolutions, it is driven by a simple concept: linked data." Schreur continued, "Linked data has the potential to change every aspect of our world of information creation and exchange, and as primary purveyors of information, the Library should be at the nexus of this revolution."

While catalogers have already linked data to a certain extent in what we normally do in cataloging, such as linking headings to authority records, linking earlier and later headings, and linking related works, this linked data is different in that it weaves our data into the Web. Schreur explained the four main principles for linked data: Using URIs (Uniform Resource Identifiers) to name things on the Web; using http URIs so people can look them up; linked information should be useful, and providing links to other URIs so other people can discover related information.

Linked data is then commonly published via Resource Description Framework (RDF), which is a model of entities and relationships that can support this linked data. Schreur explains, "The structure of an expression in RDF is what is called 'a triple,' consisting of a subject, a predicate, and an object." The example that he provided was: The Raven (Subject) has author (Predicate) Edgar Allan Poe (Object). For example, by linking to the URI for Poe's authority record, the link is explicit. By recording the information in RDF, it can be out there on the Web. By using RDF, the data can also be used and exchanged by many other applications.

Schreur said that one of the greatest assets that a library owns is its bibliographic records. These bundles of metadata make our resources discoverable. This model of building records in a relational database to describe the finite resources within the library was achievable in this closed system. However, as our users have moved to the Web for their information needs, it soon became apparent that applying our traditional cataloging mechanism for providing access to an infinite number of resources on the Web was impossible.

Linked data is based on simple statements, numerous collections of these triples. Schreur explained, "There are no discreet records to be maintained in a local ILS, no master records in a world-wide relational database. ... By bypassing the need for a record, linked data frees us from the cycle of record creation, maintenance, and deletion ... and the confines of the relational database can be broken."

Schreur insisted that this cannot be just a new way of doing the same old things that libraries have done in the past, but it must be a paradigm shift. This is a pivotal change in the whole information ecosystem. For this shift to take place, Schreur said that several changes must take place: a free and open exchange of data; a shift from the creating, maintaining, and exchanging and storing of records to the linking of individual statements of triples that are linked to one another and to the dynamic web of data; libraries must move away from the exclusive creation of records to the inclusion of data capture at the source via automated processes; and libraries will need to focus on effectively managing statements in "triple stores," not adding more records to the catalog.

Schreur announced that the next few years will be critical ... and that libraries must be leaders in this revolution!


Karen Coyle based the majority of her talk around a picture of a coffee mug that had the 5 stars of linked data--getting our Library data from here to there, there being out on the Web.

The Five Stars of Linked Data are: 1 Star: Data, not text. Coyle explained that data is designed for machines to act on; text is for human beings to read (and is ambiguous). 2 Stars: Identifiers for things. Coyle explained that identifiers must be precise. Humans can deal with ambiguity, but computers cannot. She stated, "Moving away from language moves away from all the language barriers." In the future, we will not create metadata for libraries that stays in libraries ... but we will create metadata that connects to the data in the cloud. 3 Stars: Statements not records. Coyle showed an example of a MARC (Machine Readable Cataloging) record that represents a book. Then, she showed examples of a number of statements in triples. She also spoke about graphs, and how one (or many people) can add more statements later, and can link to other statements later. 4 Stars: Machine-readable schema. There are a number of metadata elements in RDF: FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records), RDA, FRAD (Functional Requirements for Authority Data), ISBD (International Standard Bibliographic Description), and MADS (Metadata Authority Description Schema). Examples of linked bibliographic metadata include Bibliographic Ontology and Dublin Core. RDA has been developed as linked data with an open-metadata registry. 5 Stars: Machine-readable lists. There are many places for lists for personal names and subjects lists. 5+ Stars: Open access on the Web. This is where we are going. How many stars does your library data have toward linked data?

Karen Coyle provides her presentations as well as other information regarding metadata on her blog, http://kcoyle.net/presentations/.


Metadata: Foundations, Practice, and New Horizons

By Sarah Ramdeen, PhD Student, ELIME Coordinator, School of Information and Library Science,
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

From May 23-25, 2012 the School of Information and Library Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-SILS) hosted a three day workshop in Morocco entitled, "Metadata: Foundations, Practice, and Effective Planning." This workshop was in partnership with the Mohamed VI Library at Al-Akhawayn University. It was organized by a planning committee from the ELIME-21 (Educating Librarians in the Middle East: Building Bridges for the 21st Century: ELIME-21), an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) sponsored project at UNC-SILS aimed toward developing continuing education opportunities for Library and Information Science professionals in North Africa and the Middle East.

Instructors for the workshop were Dr. Jane Greenberg, professor at UNC-SILS and the director of the SILS Metadata Research Center, and Dr. Evelyn Daniel, Dean and Professor Emerita, also at UNC-SILS. Dr. Greenberg currently holds the C'atedra de Excelencia (Chair of Excellence) in the Librarianship and Information Science Department at the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid.

Attendees at the workshop included representatives from the American University in Cairo and the Bibliotheca Alexandrina in Egypt, the Smolny College of Liberal Arts and Sciences in Russia, and representatives from the Moroccan Institute of Scientific and Technical Information (IMIST) and the Mohamed VI Library at AL-Akhawayn University in Morocco.

The workshop was designed to enable participants with various level of experience to develop their knowledge on the foundations of metadata, current practices and use in knowledge management, future directions, and the importance of metadata for libraries and information service agencies. Participants were eager to expand their knowledge of metadata and relate it back to their work at their home institutions, be they digital repositories or reference services.

On the first day of the workshop, participants reviewed (or were introduced to) basic concepts of metadata and various metadata standards. The overview included discussions on expanding how people view entities, the quality of records and how one would determine quality, and authority files. This was followed by a hands-on activity focusing on advance techniques of Dublin Core Standards, particularly incorporating syntax rules in to the record.

During the second day of the workshop, Dr. Jane Greenberg lectured on metadata generation, curation, and lifecycles as well as on the issues that arise with applying metadata in digital depositories. This included common metadata errors and the application of the myriad metadata standards currently available. Participants discussed metadata issues relating to relational databases, interoperability, and legacy systems. This led to a discussion on technology, versioning, and other agents of change. Dr. Evelyn Daniel led participants through an evaluation of a case study focusing on the development of successful metadata workflows on a project-size scale. This was followed by presentations by the participants, where each organization represented at the workshop shared examples of their current metadata related projects and how these related to the themes of the workshop.

During the third day of the workshop Dr. Daniel incorporated the metadata theme into her talk about knowledge management and the material, social, and academic values placed on knowledge. Before closing, Dr. Greenberg led a discussion on common errors in metadata creation followed by a lecture on the Semantic Web and the future of metadata.

ELIME-21 hopes to build upon this successful event by hosting a workshop in Egypt in 2013. For more information about this event and future ELIME-21 events, please see their Web site, http://elime.web.unc.edu/.


ALA Annual Anaheim 2012: Transforming Our Libraries, Ourselves

By Emily Flynn, Catalog Librarian at ProQuest, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Each year American Library Association (ALA) Annual encourages swarms of librarians to converge on a city to teach and learn, connect, and inspire. For 2012, Anaheim, CA, hosted the six-day librarian extravaganza. The first two days are pre-conference with a variety of committee meetings, forums, and special events. Thursday offered limited options while Friday included a whole plethora of sessions and workshops along with the usual meetings, vendor demonstrations, and author events. Saturday and Sunday contain most of the main sessions and events, while Monday still has several going on, and Tuesday ALA Annual concludes with an official Closing Session in the morning.

This being my first ALA Annual as a professional librarian, I arrived late Thursday night and began my 2012 Annual with the all-day Friday paid workshop Creating Library Linked Data: What Catalogers and Coders Can Build. It was absolutely worth it. My Friday evening blog post during ALA described the session well: "The format helped keep the momentum going for the entire day: a key note, lightning talks, small group discussions, and reporting back to the whole group. Though the session focused on linked data, a whole range of aspects and depths were discussed. From theory to how to get started, global implications, to SPARQL queries.

The presenters represented vendors, libraries, and even LC. Each honed in on a different part of the linked data (LD) topic and yet the talks fit together well because it built a larger tapestry of the topic and issues surrounding it. The fun part was hearing and seeing examples of how LD could advance libraries but also the web more generally. Yet there are many problems and concerns that get in the way, mainly time and money. However, as the keynote speaker Eric Miller pointed out, catalogers and libraries are particularly well poised to lead the way to make use of LD and have been doing so for 40 years with MARC already: think controlled subject headings and names. All controlled fields and the accompanying authority files are linked data." Flynn, Emily. (2012, June 23). ALA Anaheim: Pre-conference and kick-off! [Blog post], http://readwritelib.com/2012/06/23/ala-anaheimpre-conference-and-kick-off/

Though the Opening Session late afternoon on Friday officially commenced ALA Annual, it truly began Saturday with the flood of sessions offered. I attended Linked data and next generation catalogs in the morning, which provided an overview of linked data and current projects using it. In hindsight, having done the all-day workshop the day prior, this session, while still good for more of the basics, was meant for people who did not attend the other event. The workshop dug into the topic more technically and philosophically on how to get started and accomplish particular tasks while this session took a broader view and had a general theoretical approach as to why linked data is useful.

The afternoon session on Saturday, Transforming Technical Services: Growing IT skill sets within Technical Services Departments covered how to train staff for library-related technology tasks. Four panelists presented on what each of them did for their institutions and gave recommendations, tips, and insights. My Saturday evening blog post summed up this session succulently: "In a nutshell, talk to the staff to find out what they use and need but remember that they don't know what they don't know, encourage and support relevant learning that will make their work easier and more effective, start with small and meaningful projects that are achievable and leave a lasting impact to increase buy-in, and work within the knowledge and abilities of the staff to draw on the best of what they can offer pairing it with the technology to increase their effectiveness." Flynn, Emily. (2012, June 24). ALA Anaheim: Super Saturday [Blog post], http://readwritelib.com/2012/06/24/alaanaheim-super-saturday/

On Monday morning, I attended the Publisher/Vendor/Library Relations Interest Group. As a Catalog Librarian at ProQuest, LLC, this session topped my list for ALA this year. Rather than conducting a business meeting, the group hosted a panel of librarians, publishers, and vendors to talk about not just the availability of MARC records for ebooks but also the quality of the records. The representatives from Springer and Project MUSE discussed how their companies outsourced MARC records for their e-books and the steps they took for obtaining customer feedback to create better records and suit their needs. On the other side of the issue, two librarians from the University of Minnesota talked about how they deal with less-than-desirable e-book records, running batch fixes, and how to do more with fewer resources and funds. During the question and answer session, one audience member mentioned Batch, a discussion list that helps libraries speed up the process of fixing batches of e-book MARC records. I joined the listserv and while the emails are infrequent, they look to be helpful. For more information, see http://listserv.vt.edu/cgi-bin/wa?SUBED1=BATCH&A=1.

Like most ALA conferences, it is impossible to attend everything. Please stop by my blog at http://www.readwritelib.com/ for posts that summarize each of my days at ALA, plus a wrap-up written after I returned, for more details. Look for me on Twitter @ReadWriteLib, on LinkedIn, or e-mail me at emilyflynn@me.com.


Publication Announcements

Blum, Rudolf. Kallimachos: The Alexandrian Library and the Origins of Bibliography. Wisconsin Studies in Classics. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 2011.

Fountain, Joanna F. Subject headings for school and public libraries. Bilingual 4th ed. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited, 2012. 978-1591586388 $85.00

El-Sherbini, Magda. RDA: Strategies for Implementation. New York: Facet Publishing, 2012. 978-0-8389-1168-6 $65.00

IFLA Cataloguing Section, Working Group on Anonymous Classics. Anonymous Classics : A List of Uniform Titles for Chinese Works. 2011.

Polanka, Sue. No Shelf Required 2: Use and Management of Electronic Books. Chicago: American Library Association, 2012. 978-0-8389-1145-7 $65.00

Revels, Ira. Managing Digital Projects. Chicago: American Library Association, 2012. 978-0-8389-1055-9 $75.00


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