, Robert L. Bothmann, News Editor
Understanding RDA as a DC Application Profile
ABSTRACT: The applicability of Dublin Core Application Profiles (DCAP) and the Singapore Framework for DCAPs to Resource Description and Access (RDA) were assessed. First, a draft RDA application profile is outlined, which reveals their applicability to RDA as a whole. Then, the current situation and issues involved in defining and specifying the RDA vocabularies, description structures, and syntaxes, all of which form the RDA application profile, are reviewed, for four levels of the RDA description structure; that is, the levels of aggregates and components of statements forming an RDA description.
KEYWORDS: Resource Description and Access (RDA), Dublin Core Application Profile, Singapore Framework, metadata standards, cataloging research
Four Views of a Novel: Characteristics of Novels as Described by Publishers, Librarians, Literary Theorists, and Readers
ABSTRACT: Publishers present novels with summaries, librarians provide subject headings, classification numbers and annotations, literary theorists write reviews. Readers share opinions and tags in social networks. These groups share interest in the same novel and possibly in the same library catalogs. I analyze the descriptions of novels written by these four groups to propose the enhancement of library catalogs. Results show that the story, information about the author, genre, personal experience with reading the novel, and an evaluation (awards, personal evaluation) are consistently presented by all four groups and should become standard elements for the subject description of fiction.
KEYWORDS: subject access, fiction, library catalogs, publishers, librarians, literary theorists, readers
Examining Scientific Vocabulary: Mapping Controlled Vocabularies with Free Text Keywords
ABSTRACT: Scientific repositories create a new environment for studying traditional information science issues. The interaction between indexing terms provided by users and controlled vocabularies continues to be an area of debate and study. This article reports and analyzes findings from a study that mapped the relationships between free text keywords and controlled vocabulary terms used in the sciences. Based on this study's findings recommendations are made about which vocabularies may be better to use in scientific data repositories.
KEYWORDS: controlled vocabularies, free text keywords, scientific data repositories, Dryad Digital Repository, evolutionary biology, data sets
Job Satisfaction among Cataloger Librarians in University Libraries in Nigeria
Emmanuel E. Baro, Biokuromoye Fyneman & Timi Zoukemefa
The aim of the article is to investigate the level of job satisfaction among cataloger librarians in university libraries in Nigeria. Eighty-six catalogers from 29 university libraries in Nigeria participated in the survey. A questionnaire was used for data collection, which was e-mailed to catalogers. Overall, 86% of the catalogers surveyed were very or somewhat satisfied with their current job. The findings revealed that catalogers in university libraries in Nigeria are dissatisfied with dimensions such as roles and responsibilities, workplace culture, rewards (salaries/benefits), and professional development. On the other hand, they are satisfied with administration and supervision, performance evaluation, and opportunities.
KEYWORDS: catalogers, job satisfaction, university libraries, librarians, Nigeria
Correlations between Title Keywords and LCSH Terms and Their Implication for Fast-Track Cataloging
Budget pressures and increased workloads are causing cataloging departments to look for ways to capitalize on the resources they have. This study applied a rubric to books in the areas of religion, theology, and biblical studies to determine if content-level designation or publisher are good indicators of which books could be fast-tracked through cataloging without compromising quality. Findings indicated that while neither content-level nor publisher were indicators of materials suited to fast-track cataloging, Bible commentaries had a 97% match rate giving a higher level of confidence to fast-track cataloging of these materials.
KEYWORDS: subject cataloging, cataloging administration/ management, data models, Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), subject access, books
Robert L. Bothmann, News Editor
Welcome to the news column. Its purpose is to disseminate information on any aspect of cataloging and classification that may be of interest to the cataloging community. This column is not just intended for news items, but serves to document discussions of interest as well as news concerning you, your research efforts, and your organization. Please send any pertinent materials, notes, minutes, or reports to: Robert L. Bothmann, Memorial Library, Minnesota State University, Mankato, ML 3097, PO Box 8419, Mankato, MN 56002-8419 (email:, phone: 507-389-2010.
We would appreciate receiving items having to do with:
Research and Opinion
The Web site also provides services that permit librarians interested in what bibliographic resources might look like conforming to the BIBFRAME data model to view MARC/XML records from the Library of Congress's main database alongside BIBFRAME resources resulting from the most current transformation. Another tool allows users to submit their own MARC/XML records for transformation. The data resulting from these transformations are also displayed with Exhibit3 and available for download.
The BIBFRAME team encourages constructive feedback on the draft vocabulary and data transformations, which can be submitted and discussed on the BIBFRAME discussion list ().
Submitted by Liliana Melgar-Estrada, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
(Editor's note: The videos and documents of the symposium are available at)
Two events, a symposium and a workshop, focusing on Linked Open Vocabularies (LOV) took place at the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M) in Madrid, Spain, June 18, 2012. These activities emerged from the collaboration between the TECNODOC (Tecnologías Aplicadas a la Informa ción y la Documentación) UC3M () and the Metadata Research Center ( ), School of Information and Library Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (SILS UNC/CH). Both events explored different dimensions (practical, philosophical, technological) that frame the use of controlled vocabularies in the context of the curation of digital collections in the age of Linked Open Data (LOD).
The "LOV (Linked Open Vocabularies) Symposium"
The LOV Symposium was a daylong meeting that addressed challenges, solutions, and research specific to linking and opening vocabularies on the global Web, organized under the direction of Dr. Eva Méndez, associate professor at Universidad Carlos III. The Symposium began with invited talks on Linking and Opening Vocabularies. Tony Hernández, director of TECNODOC, and Jane Greenberg, chair of excellence at Universidad Carlos III and director of the SILS Metadata Research Center at UNC/CH delivered the opening remarks.
Panel 1: Opening, overview, and special remarks on Linking and Opening Vocabularies. The first presentation was given by Dr. Stefan Gradmann, professor of Library and Information Science (LIS) at Humboldt University at Berlin, School of Library and Information Science, as well as leader of the semantic infrastructure of Europeana and of the development of the Europeana Data Model (EDM). His presentation, "'Semantic' Libraries: For Which Purpose?" explored the question of why we build semantic libraries. Dr. Gradmann emphasized that libraries have had a traditional role in mediating access to information objects via catalogs. However, the gradual disintegration of "monolithic" container formats is transforming the ideas of catalogs, records, and collections, and also the traditional focus on describing container attributes. These changes "from catalogs to graphs" are already happening. For example, in Europeana, instead of designing a catalog, they have chosen to migrate to EDM-based operations that can be part of the Linked Open Data Cloud. This perspective is further elaborated upon by testing a new platform that will enable digital scholarship by combining EDM Resource Description Framework (RDF) metadata, digital surrogates, and Linked Data.
Asunción Gómez Pérez, Head of the Ontological Engineering Group, Department of Artificial Intelligence, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, followed with a presentation entitled "Publishing Linked DataThere is no One-Size-Fits-All Formula." She provided a theoretical background for defining Linked Data, and reviewed the process of creating and publishing it. Dr. Gomez provided these common requirements for publishing LOD vocabularies:
In conclusion she stated that in order to avoid semantic silos, the various standards organizations should release mappings of LOD vocabularies at the conceptual level.
The opening talks finished with a discussion about the validity of models that are top-down and purportedly suitable for all. An important conclusion is that in the LOD environment, there is and should be room for diversity and heterogeneity but within a framework of a common effort for alignment. Lastly, there was also discussion regarding the need for approaches for evaluating models and for making provenance information about the published vocabularies explicit.
Panel 2: Lightning talks. The next session included "lightning talks" by six presenters on the following topics:
The panel concluded with a brief presentation by Dianne Sonnenwald, president of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, who explained the opportunities this association offers to graduate students.
Invited talk: Vocabulary commons: Sustainability and responsibility. Pierre-Yves Vandenbussche, from the French company Mondeca, explained what "vocabularies" are in the context of the Semantic Web, where they are synonymous with ontologies. He introduced the LOV project, which is based on the idea of being an observatory of the Vocabulary Commons. That is, vocabularies, which in the LOD context become elements in a rich ecosystem that is growing organically, as a node in a web of durable dependencies.LOV aims to provide easy access methods to this ecosystem of vocabularies, and in particular, by making explicit the ways they link to each other and by providing metrics on how they are used in the Linked Data cloud, to help improve their understanding, visibility and usability, and overall quality.
Panel 3: Experiences on linking and/or opening vocabularies. Charles McCathieNevile, Chief standards officer at Opera Software, moderated a panel of three on LOD/LOV experiences.
Panel 4: Analysis and research regarding vocabularies. The last panel, chaired by Dr. Emma Tonkin, technical innovation coordinator at UKOLN (formerly known as The United Kingdom Office for Library and Information Networking), University of Bath, UK, included three presentations reporting on analysis and research regarding vocabularies:
The symposium concluded with a talk by Diane Hillmann, who holds a leadership position in the Dublin Core Community and is the vocabulary maintenance officer of the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI). She introduced the DCMI Vocabulary Management Community, a forum and collaboration space for those interested in defining and documenting best practices for vocabularies. It also provides guidance for new practitioners and promotes responsible change management. In addition, the Community addresses design and quality issues in vocabularies and mappings in the Semantic Web environment. The symposium finished with important questions to Hillmann on the future work of librarians and the costs and needs of having multiple communities doing vocabulary management.
The Workshop "SKOS-2-HIVE: Helping Interdisciplinary Vocabulary Engineering"
The second event was a one-day workshop that targeted the use of Semantic Web technologies for representing and describing collections using multiple controlled vocabularies. It focused on providing the attendees with a basic understanding and usage of W3C's SKOS, Linked Data, and the HIVE library of open source applications.
The project Helping Interdisciplinary Vocabulary Engineering (HIVE) (), funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), uses Semantic Web enabling technologies and machine learning to provide a solution to the traditional controlled vocabulary problems of cost, interoperability, and usability. HIVE vocabulary partners include the Library of Congress, the Getty Research Institute, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Library of Spain. The first part of the workshop focused on the foundational concepts and HIVE basics addressing the conceptual design of structured vocabularies, including a range of semantic relationships; domain representation and issues central to identifying useful vocabularies; the application of basic SKOS tags; and basic techniques underlying the HIVE vocabulary server for enriching digital resource descriptions. The second part allowed the participants to get into the more technical aspects of HIVE, including steps for implementing a HIVE server, an overview of the underlying algorithm, and more hands-on activities about indexing documents using the HIVE system.
Conclusions and Future Work
These two events were the starting point for further work to align efforts and create communities for linking open vocabularies, especially within the Spanish language community. Furthermore, they are the beginning of the work with HIVE-ES (), an initiative to extend the HIVE model and system created at the Metadata Research Center, SILS, UNC/CH, in collaboration with the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent) in Durham, North Carolina.
The work with the initial HIVE project involved converting different vocabularies such as the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) thesaurus, the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), and the Thesaurus of Geographic Names (TGN). This work has demonstrated that each of these vocabularies has different requirements for conversion to SKOS.
HIVE-ES is being launched by converting subject heading lists into SKOS, specifically the Encabezamientos de Materia de la Biblioteca (EMBNE), which is the Spanish version of the Library of Congress Subject Headings. National libraries are one of the main institutions using this type of controlled vocabularies and are thus undertaking this endeavor. As the project progresses, HIVE-ES aims to include other languages related to the Hispano-American culture, but mainly to explore the potential support of a sustainable service, and to help Spanish (Hispano-American) libraries, archives, and museums to experiment with and use Linked Data vocabularies.
Submitted by Mirna Willer, ISBD Review Group chair, University of Zadar, Department of Information Sciences, Zadar, Croatia
(This report updates the ISBR Review Group draft Minutes, submitted on September 17, 2012, found at)
The International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) Review Group (RG) of IFLA's Cataloguing Section (CS) met for its annual meeting August 13–15, 2012 in Helsinki, Finland during the 78th IFLA General Conference and World Library and Information Congress (WLIC). The meeting of the Group focused on three central topics: CS's ISBDStrategic Plan, report on the activities in the period from August 2011 to August 2012, and future activities and identification of issues for project proposal for 2013.
Cataloguing Section's ISBD Strategic Plan
After the August meeting in San Juan in 2011 the ISBD RG adopted its Plans for activitiesaligned with the CS's Strategic Plan ( ), and subsequently proposed a three-part project Interoperability of ISBD within Linked Data Environment ( ) for 2012. The project was not funded, and the chair of the CS was asked by the Professional Committee (PC) to "develop a strategic plan to address the maintenance and development of ISBD so that the PC has a clear understanding of the priorities, resources, needs, and outputs." The Strategic Plan was adopted by the ISBD RG and CS's Standing Committee. The plan takes into account the CS's revised action plan for 2013 adopted at its 2012 meeting: (1) consolidation of the FR family of models; (2) alignment and interoperability of namespaces of ISBD, Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR), Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD), and Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data (FRSAD); (3) ICP: International Cataloguing Principles–review. Furthermore, the plan is defined in the framework of the preparation of the documentation for the revision process of the ISBD, to take place in four years time after the publication of the ISBD (2011–2015).
Report on the Activities in the Period from August 2011 to August 2012
Françoise Leresche, chair of the ISBD/XML Study Group reported on the SG's activities, () and specifically pointed out the following:
Elena Escolano Rodríguez, corresponding member, and coordinator reported on the work in progress of ISBD/RDA Profile: mandatory level element set mapping, which is part of the project IFLA ISBD RG and JSC/RDA meeting on alignment and interoperability of standards (). This work is in line with the outcomes of the meeting related to RDA Appendix D, which will "be developed into an application profile by the addition of guidelines regarding mandatory elements and choice of alternatives and options" ( ). This document is considered important also as a methodological one for mappings of the ISBD with other national cataloguing rules based on it.
Alignment of the ISBD: International Standard Bibliographic Description element set with RDA: Resource Description & Access element set was approved by the ISBD RG and CS's Standing Committee, and sent to JSC/RDA for comments.The reverse alignment of RDA with ISBD element sets not dealt with in the ISBD RG, but the Group would appreciate if a constituency of the JSC/RDA would take that action.
Translations of the ISBD consolidated edition were reported as follows: Bulgarian, Chinese, and Italian. Reported translations in progress are: Croatian, Finish, French, Slovenian, and Spanish. Translations of Area 0: Serbian, Spanish, Russian, and Chinese (although, the text translated is not the same as in the published edition). A translation of Guidelines for the application of the ISBDs to the description of component parts has been made available in Bulgarian.
Presentations, Publications, and Meetings
In spite of the lack of funding, the members of the ISBD RG and ISBD/XML SG gave presentations related to the ISBD at the following conferences/seminars:
Status of Projects and Issues Arising during IFLA Meetings
Gordon Dunsire, chair of the Namespaces Task Group, reported on the status of the Namespaces TG in the organizational structure of the divisions and sections, which functioning is relevant for the future development of the ISBD namespaces, and mappings to other standards. He drew attention to the session organized by the Semantic Web Special Interest Group (SIG) () during IFLA, and relevant to the uses of standards representations in RDF.
Pat Riva, chair of the FRBR Review Group, reported on the consolidation process, which dealt first with user tasks of the three modelsFRBR, FRAD, and FRSAD, and entity person (London meeting, April 2012),to be followed by consolidation of entities and basic relationships (Helsinki meetings, August 2012). The consolidation process will have an impact on the ISBD elements, as well as on the ISBD/FRBR mapping particularly in the phase of its work on models' attributes.
Maria Ines Cordeiro, director of the UNIMARC [UNIversal MARC] Core Activity reported on the Permanent UNIMARC Committee (PUC) meeting that took place in Helsinki, during which it was decided to propose the two-year project for funding the development of a UNIMARC namespace. ISBD/XML SG will actively monitor the development, specifically in the phase of defining alignment between ISBD and UNIMARC namespaces.
The main issue for the IFLA Committee on Standards was considered to be online free-of-charge publication of the ISBD consolidated edition. The social responsibility of IFLA in respect to its standards was particularly emphasized.
Future Activities and Identification of Issues for Project Proposal for 2013
Activities for 2012–2013 were recognized as the following:
Cataloging News will begin publishing lists of publications that have been received. Review copies have been received for those in the first list, and book reviews can be expected in future issues of the journal. The second is a list of known forthcoming publications.
1. Broughton, Vanda. Essential Library of Congress Subject Headings, New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, 2012.
2. Fox, Edward A., Gonçalves, Marcos André and Shen, Rao.Theoretical Foundations for Digital Libraries: The 5S (Societies, Scenarios, Spaces, Structures, Streams) Approach. Synthesis Lectures on Information Concepts, Retrieval, and Services. San Rafael, Calif.: Morgan & Claypool Publishers.
3. Gao, Fang Huang, Tennison, Heather and Weber, Janet A. 2012. Demystifying Serials Cataloging: A Book of Examples.Third Millennium Cataloging. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Libraries Unlimited, 2012.
4. Guerrini, Mauro and Genetasio, Giuliano. I Principi internazionali di catalogazione (ICP): Universo bibliografico e teoria catalografica all’inizio del XXI secolo. Milano: Editrice Bibliografica, 2012.
5. Hider, Philip. Information Resource Description: Creating and Managing Metadata. Chicago: ALA Editions, 2012.
6. Jin, Qiang. Demystifying FRAD: Functional Requirements for Authority Data. Third Millennium Cataloging. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Libraries Unlimited, 2012.
7. Neal, Diane Rasmussen, ed. Indexing and Retrieval of Non-Text Information. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2012.
8. Welsh, Anne and Batley, Sue. Practical Cataloguing: AACR, RDA and MARC21 New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, 2012.
9. Žumer, Maja, Zeng, Marcia Lei and Salaba, Athena. FRSAD: Conceptual Modeling of Aboutness. Third Millennium Cataloging. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Libraries Unlimited, 2012.
1. Andrew, Paige G. and Laarsgard, Mary. 2013. RDA and Cartographic Resources, Chicago: ALA Editions. ISBN 978-0-8389-1131-0. $60.00 (Fall 2013)
2. Chambers, Sally. May 2013. Catalogue 2.0: The Future of the Library Catalogue, London: Facet Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85604-716-6. £49.95
3. El-Sherbini, Magda. 2013. RDA: Strategies for Implementation, Chicago: ALA Editions. ISBN 978-0-8389-1168-6. $65.00 (Spring 2013)
4. Jones. 2013. RDA and Serials Cataloging, Chicago: ALA Editions. ISBN 978-0-8389-1139-6. $60.00 (Spring 2013)
5. Lubas, Rebecca and Jackson, Amy. July 2013. The Metadata Manual: A Practical Workbook, Oxford: Chandos Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84334-729-3. $80.00
6. Maxwell, Robert L. 2013. Maxwell's Handbook for RDA: Explaining and Illustrating RDA, Resource Description and Access Using MARC 21, Chicago: ALA Editions. ISBN 978-0-8389-1172-3. $85.00 (Summer 2013)
7. Satija, M. P. June 2013. The Theory and Practice of the Dewey Decimal Classification System. 2nd ed, Oxford: Chandos Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84334-738-5. $80.00
8. Welsh, Anne. December 2013. Cataloguing and Decision-Making in a Hybrid Environment: The Transition from AACR2 to RDA, London: Facet Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85604-955-9. £49.95
9. Willer, Mirna and Dunsire, Gordon. October 2013. Bibliographic Information Organization in the Semantic Web, Oxford: Chandos Publishing. IBSN 978-1-84334-731-6. $80.00
1. Bernard Vatant, "LOV stories, Part 1: The Commons," The wheel and the hub blog, March 15, 2012.
2. Jane Greenberg et al., "HIVE: Helping Interdisciplinary Vocabulary Engineering," Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 37, no. 4 (2011, April/May): 23–26.
3. See Objectives on ISBD RG's Web site at:; Mirna Willer and Françoise Leresche, "News from the ISBD Review Group," SCATNews 36 (December 2011),
4. The documents are listed on the JSC/RDA Web site asand
5. The documents are listed on the JSC/RDA Web site asand
6. See at ISBD/XML Study Group Web site: List of presentations etc.,and ISBD RG's meeting reports, and
7. Pat Riva, "Report from the FRBR Review Group mid-year meeting, April 25, 2012, London," SCATNews 37 (June 2012),