Demystifying Serials Cataloging: A Book of Examples by Fang Huang Gao, Heather Tennison, and Janet A. Weber
Reviewed by Kevin M. Randall
Information Resource Description: Creating and Managing Metadata by Philip Hider
Reviewed by Theodore Gerontakos
Practical Cataloguing: AACR2, RDA and MARC 21 by Anne Welsh and Sue Batley
Reviewed by Suzanne M. Stauffer
Theoretical Foundations for Digital Libraries: The 5S (Societies, Scenarios, Spaces, Structures, Streams) Approach by Edward A. Fox, Marcos André Gonçalves, and Rao Shen
Reviewed by Andrew Weiss
, Robert L. Bothmann, News Editor
Analysis of FRBR User Tasks
Viktor Harej & Maja umer
ABSTRACT: FRBR, FRAD, and FRSAD models propose user tasks as a way to address and categorize functions that a catalog should support. The user tasks are not harmonized among these models, but to do that, they should first be fully understood and analyzed, especially "select" and "identify." We decided to look at the FRBR user tasks from the perspective of interactive information retrieval (IIR). Several IIR models were reviewed and Ellis' and Belkin's models were chosen for further analysis and interpretation of FRBR "select" and "identify" tasks.
KEYWORDS: FRBR, FRAD, FRSAD, user tasks, interactive information retrieval
Classifying The Pseudo-Turpin Chronicle
ABSTRACT: This study focuses on the library classification practices of The Pseudo-Turpin Chronicle. The Pseudo-Turpin Chronicle has been called an enigmatic work by scholars, and the mystery has carried into library classification. The work's language of origin is not its national language. The work's varied acceptance as fact and fiction also plays into its classification practices. For many years, The Pseudo-Turpin was believed to be a true account, so it was classed as history. While the work has standard literature classification numbers, even its literature classification practices are varied.
KEYWORDS: Pseudo-Turpin, classification, language, Latin, French, translations
User Tasks in the RDA-Based Model
ABSTRACT: I examine user tasks and their related issues in the model that reflects Resource Description and Access (RDA) directly, which complements prior studies that dealt mainly with entities and their attributes and relationships. First, the definitions of user tasks in Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR), Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD), and RDA, respectively, are reviewed. Then, mappings between attributes and relationships of the RDA entities to the user tasks are proposed for the RDA-based model; the mapping covering Group 1 and 2 entities, and that for the other entities. The resultant RDA mappings and those shown in FRBR and FRAD are compared, which reveals the superiority of the former mappings.
KEYWORDS: Resource Description and Access (RDA), entity-relationships modeling, user tasks, FRBR, FRAD
Topic Map as a Method for the Development of Subject Headings Vocabulary: An Introduction to the Project of the National Library of Poland
Subject searches in the National Library of Poland catalog are still comprised of a significant number of all searches, but understanding and exploration of the National Library of Poland Subject Headings causes many problems, not only for the end-users, but also for many librarians. Another problem in the National Library of Poland is the insufficient use of relationships between the terms. The solution could be a properly designed Web application based on a topic map using appropriate visualization that supports indexing and information retrieval in the National Library of Poland. The article presents the main stages of a planned project.
KEYWORDS: subject cataloging, user studies, controlled vocabularies, information retrieval, catalog indexing/display/design, subject access
Robert L. Bothmann, News Editor
Welcome to the news column. Its purpose is to disseminate information on any aspect of cataloging and classification that may be of interest to the cataloging community. This column is not just intended for news items, but serves to document discussions of interest as well as news concerning you, your research efforts, and your organization. Please send any pertinent materials, notes, minutes, or reports to: Robert L. Bothmann, Memorial Library, Minnesota State University, Mankato, ML 3097, PO Box 8419, Mankato, MN 56002-8419 (email:, phone: 507-389-2010. News columns will typically be available prior to publication in print from the CCQ website at .
We would appreciate receiving items having to do with:
Research and Opinion
Organized by Cybrarians, the Arabic Portal for Librarianship and Information
Submitted by Dr. Mahmoud Khalifa, Library of Congress Cairo Office
The first of April was the official implementation date for RDA: Resource Description and Access in some of the major national libraries in the world. On that same date the first conference to be held in Egypt to discuss RDA, hosted by Cybrarians, the Arabic Portal for Librarianship and Information, was attended by more than 140 delegates. The conference organizing committee carefully selected a number of expert catalogers from Egypt and other Arab countries who have practical experience using RDA.
The conference had two keynote lectures. The first was by professor Mostafa Hossam El Din, Department of Librarianship at Cairo University, who discussed the philosophy and theory of RDA. He presented the main theoretical features of RDA, including the functionality, modeling, and interdependency of data, links between data, and universality, flexibility, and integration of applications and the Web. The second keynote speaker was professor Kamal Arafat Nabhan, dean of libraries at Misr University for Science and Technology. Dr. Arafat's lecture, entitled "Relationships between Texts in Arabic Authoring," discussed Bibliogram, his theory that explains relationships between works. His research identified more than 60 types of relationships between texts (works). It surprised the audience to hear that he began this research in 1996 prior to the appearance of Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR).
The four central session topics at the conference were the theory and philosophy of RDA; translation issues and challenges of implementation in Arab libraries; RDA for descriptive cataloging; and authority records and files in RDA. Dr. Hisham Fathy Makki from Library of Congress Cairo Office began the "Basics of RDA" session with his paper entitled "Theoretical and Methodological Basics of Resource Description and Access (RDA)." He explained some of the theoretical issues in RDA and its relationship to the MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data. He also explored some problems with MARC, such as its lack of support for a relational database structure. The second speaker was Dr. Khamis Abdel Maksoud, consultant to the National Library of Kuwait, who gave an historical view on cataloging rules and their development from the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, Second Edition (AACR2) to AACR3 and the change to RDA.
The second session discussed issues of authority control in RDA. Shadia El Hanafy, head of quality assurance at the American University in Cairo (AUC), spoke on the importance of authority control in general and the problems facing catalogers who create Arabic name authorities, especially the lack of biographical data prominent in RDA. Dr. Mahmoud Khalifa, president of Cybrarians and cataloger at the Library of Congress Cairo Office, presented new features of RDA in authority records and their implementation in MARC 21. The paper explained the new fields that should be used in authority records for personal names, families, corporate bodies, and conferences.
RDA for descriptive cataloging was the topic of the third and one of the most exciting sessions. Osama Salama, senior cataloger at AUC, presented a practical paper on the cataloging of film materials using RDA. Using many example records, Salama described in detail how to catalog DVDs, the relevant MARC 21 fields, and how to catalog streaming media. The second speaker was Ayman El Masry, vice director of serials section, Library of Congress Cairo Office, who delivered the paper "Is it New Rules or New Naming?" He showed that, according to the definition of the term "rule," RDA did not bring any new rules for serials cataloging and only a few new rules for monographs. Khaled Reyad, vice director of monographs section, Library of Congress Cairo Office, was the third speaker of the session and discussed the effects of RDA implementation on cataloging productivity. Reyad conducted a survey of catalogers in Egypt who are officially using RDA (that is, those at AUC and Library of Congress Cairo Office) to explore their opinions about RDA effects. He found that 83% of catalogers find that it takes more time to create RDA records. Most respondents (55%) indicated that they have a very good understanding of RDA; 21% indicated good, 12% excellent, and 12% perceived they had a poor understanding.
The final and fourth session, RDA implementation in the Arab libraries community, began with a paper from William Kopycki, the field director of Library of Congress Cairo Office. Kopycki presented the results of a four-month RDA staff training experiment at the Cairo office. The training was performed online on an e-learning platform. He showed examples of RDA records created by Cairo Office staff. The next speaker was Eman Khairy, the Arabic cataloger at the National Library of Qatar. Eman's paper was very comprehensive and covered many points related to RDA. It discussed the new changes of RDA that will affect cataloging of Arabic resources. The paper included an implementation plan for RDA in Arab libraries, beginning with defining when a transition to RDA should be taken, and other related issues like budgets, training, and effects on the integrated library system. The last speaker was Osama Mahmoud, authority cataloger at Bibliotheca Alexandrina. The paper discussed the advantages and disadvantages of RDA, and suggested only implementing RDA for authority data as it has real changes. Osama advised libraries in Egypt and Arab countries to cooperate and exchange experiences. The paper also discussed RDA implementation challenges that may face Arab libraries.
The conference had three accompanying training workshops held concurrently. About 70 delegates attended the workshops. The first workshop was on using RDA in descriptive cataloging, presented by Dr. Mahmoud Khalifa. The second workshop, presented by Khaled Reyad, covered the use of RDA in building authority files. The third workshop was on RDA for serials cataloging, presented by Ayman El Masry.
The conference was the first event on RDA in Egypt and Arab countries and introduced basic information on RDA to the library community in Egypt. The conference committee decided to apply the following recommendations from the conference: prepare a detailed report in English about Dr. Arafat's theory on relationships between works, and post it to the international community; establish an RDA Arabic Group to lead the Arabic library community to be involved in RDA implementation; and spread knowledge about RDA in the Arab library community through meetings, mailing lists, and so on.
Cybrarians: The Arabic Portal for Librarianship and Information will be in charge of execution the outputs of the conference, and will keep in touch with the American Library Association (ALA) to negotiate an Arabic translation of RDA. More information on the conference, and some presentations available in English, may be found online at:
Submitted by Mina Chercourt, John Carroll University
The Northern Ohio Technical Services Librarians (NOTSL) held their spring conference on Friday April 5, 2013 at Cleveland State University. The title of the conference was "Getting Practical with RDA Authorities and Implementation." The program featured two guest speakers. The first was Paul Frank, a Cooperative Cataloging Specialist in the Cooperative Programs Section of the Library of Congress. He serves as acting coordinator of the two authority components of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC): Name Authority Cooperative Program (NACO) and the Subject Authority Cooperative Program (SACO). The second presenter was Christopher Cronin, the Director of Technical Services at the University of Chicago Library. He recently chaired the PCC task group that created the RDA BIBCO (Monographic Bibliographic Record Program) Standard Record guidelines.
Frank's presentation was titled "Getting Practical with RDA Authorities and Implementation." He highlighted RDA's approach to authority work: what is new, what has changed, and what has stayed the same. His workshop included handouts, examples and exercises. RDA rules specify Core and Core-If elements, as well as other elements that can be used for identification. We discussed these elements for three types of authority records: Name of Person, Name of the Family, and Name of Corporate Body. We then worked on a group exercise, creating authority records for NOTSL and for the Spring Meeting. A recurring theme throughout the workshop was reference to "cataloger's judgment." Some catalogers might do more, some might do less, and all are right. With RDA there is more freedom for catalogers to use their judgment and we need to get used to the freedom that RDA allows. Due to the increased number of elements in RDA authority records, creating these records will take more time.
March 31, 2013 was PCC day one for authority records. The PCC was idealistic, but there is still work to be done as the door cannot be closed on AACR2 one day and opened to RDA the next. The reality is the need to be practical and flexible. Now that the PCC is in a "post" implementation period, there is still the need for training to be done and policies to be created. You will not always be creating new authority records, nor will you always find the perfect record. Some repercussions of PCC Day One for RDA records are the continued existence of AACR2 records, records created with earlier RDA rules, and RDA "acceptable" AACR2 headings. Because there are so many existing authority records, many will need to be updated. The reasons for updates to existing records are to enhance it by adding new attributes, to change an existing variant access point to avoid conflict with another record, and to change an authorized access point to avoid conflict with another record. Frank ended by having us think about AACR2 authorities and the impact of the Bibliographic Framework Transition Initiative, BIBFRAME.
Cronin's presentation highlighted practical strategies and "best practices" for how libraries of all types and sizes might approach managing the implementation of RDA, without heavy or long-term compromises to normal operation. He dubbed his presentation as a "Clearinghouse of Information" as he provided many links to additional resources. As a test library, they began their training in 2010 and included all original and copy-cataloging staff. They exclusively used Library of Congress (LC) training materials. In February 2011 they had BIBCO and NACO refreshers. At this point they instituted a peer review process. Original catalogers held monthly meeting to discuss RDA issues. In June 2012, they had formal NACO RDA training through the PCC. In July 2012, they began reviewing other NACO institutions' RDA authority records. Finally in winter 2012/13, they began reviewing other BIBCO institutions' RDA bibliographic records.
Cronin identified four areas of a "Master Plan" for implementing RDA. The first is System Management. This entails configuring the Integrated Library System (ILS) and online public access catalog (OPAC), both the backend and the public displays. The system needs to be able to identify MARC records. New codes are used in the leader, and there are new MARC fields. For example, the 33X fields have replaced the general material designation (GMD). Questions to ask regarding the new 33X fields is whether or not they are going to be displayed to the public, and if so, what will the fields be called? The U.S. National Libraries' RDA Test Final Report () stated "the terms used in these fields are meant for machine manipulation rather than human eyes and that the MARC 33X fields do not need to be displayed in the user interface: they could be replaced by icons or other terms."
Staff Management and workflow management were the next items on the list. RDA impacts copy cataloging in the short term and the long term. Libraries should understand their local training needs and develop local policies. Considerations include accepting copy as-is all of the time or some of the time; what you will and will not correct in RDA copy; what level of hybridization you will accept; and whether you will "RDA-ify" existing AACR2 records. At the University of Chicago Library, the Technical Services unit presented RDA to the whole staff, not just Public Services, to demonstrate the differences in both types of records and explain how the data are displayed.
The last item on the Master Plan was Data Management: Policies, Procedures, and Documentation. He suggested that we consider local policies or at least a discussion on the topics of RDA's cataloger's judgment and how to manage that locally, the use of relationship designators, whether to record multiple 33X data in single or multiple fields, application of the 264 field, and the 37X fields in authority records.
In the last part of the presentation Cronin discussed the future of metadata infrastructures. The RDA test highlighted the need to move out of MARC due to the limitation of MARC for RDA. There will be a move from bibliographic control to descriptive enrichment. Cronin stated that our role is not to catalog, but to help users discover resources and we do that through cataloging. RDA is all about relationships and these relationships are best expressed through linked data. Cronin stated that our new task at hand is to publish local structured metadata as global linked data in the Semantic Web.
Our next steps as we prepare to implement RDA locally, he said, are to configure the ILS, understand local training needs and select from existing trusted training resources, put what you learn to the test and apply it, institute a peer review process, and decide which policies need to be developed. Above all else, Cronin stressed the need to commit to professional development. This includes following the LC-led effort to transition out of MARC.
The presentation slides for the NOTSL Spring Meeting 2013 have been posted and made available at
Submitted by Jennifer Eustis, Catalog/Metadata Librarian, University of Connecticut, Storrs
The New England Technical Services Librarians (NETSL) held their annual conference on Friday, April 12, 2013, at the College of the Holy Cross, Hogan Campus Center, Worcester, Mass. This year's topic was the "The Many Hats of Technical Services" focusing on the diverse nature of technical services. The keynote presentation was delivered by Susan Gibbons, entitled "Disruptive Library Landscape." Four breakout sessions followed this presentation on the broad themes of being a systems librarian, introduction to RDA, digital preservation, and e-books. The afternoon had more breakout sessions which included a session on advanced RDA, how to implement RDA and lightning talks. The conference closed with the afternoon keynote address by Jessamyn West, "Encouraging a Culture of Openness in Libraries."
Both keynote presentations were vibrant, engaging, and provocative. Susan Gibbons laid out how the changing landscapes of libraries affect how business is conducted. She illustrated how we can move forward despite disruptions. Jessamyn West talked about the problems of openness in libraries and how to make many of our services more accessible on the Web.
All of the breakout sessions were well received. This year, NETSL offered three sessions on RDA: an introductory and an advanced RDA session in addition to one on how to implement RDA. These sessions were taught by Steven Arakawa, John Attig, and Erin Stalberg. The other breakout sessions were Digital Preservation by Nancy McGovern and Kari Smith, Why E-Books Suck by Alan Wexelblat, and the Accidental Systems Librarian by Nicole Engard. All breakout session presenters presented timely and well-received material.
New to NETSL this year were the lightning talks. A call for proposals went out and four submissions were received. The lightning talk presenters spoke on a variety of topics including data publication, time management, electronic resources, and open access policies.
Overall, the conference was a success and drew people from outside of technical services. It delivered timely and thought-provoking material. The presentations have been added to the conference Web site and are freely available at. Also visit the Flickr slideshow of the conference at . For further information, NETSL now has a Facebook page, its own Web site, , and its own Google List, to which anyone can subscribe.
The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) announced the recent publication of the Arabic translation of FRBR translated by Doaa Aly and revised by Dr. Yosira Zayed, both of the Department of Librarianship and Information, Cairo University. See.
Submitted by Stella Dextre Clarke, Information Consultant and Chair, ISKO UK Luke House
Published on March 4, 2013, ISO 25964-2 deals with interoperability between thesauri and other vocabularies, especially the principles and practice of mapping between them. Types of vocabulary to be considered include classification schemes (including those for records management), taxonomies, subject heading schemes, name authority lists, ontologies, terminologies, and synonym rings.
Interoperability is defined as the ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged. Plainly this ability is fundamental to the workings of the information networks we rely on so much, and even more to the development of the Semantic Web. Two levels of interoperability apply to thesauri:
Unless mappings are prepared with care as recommended in ISO 25964-2, any Semantic Web inferences based on them are liable to deliver misleading conclusions to the unsuspecting Web surfer.
The full title of Part 2 is Information and documentationThesauri and interoperability with other vocabulariesPart 2: Interoperability with other vocabularies.
Important topics covered in the standard include structural models for mapping, guidelines on mapping types, and how to handle pre-coordination (which occurs especially in classification schemes, taxonomies and subject heading schemes).
The overall focus of ISO 25964 is on thesauri, and with the exception of terminologies, comparable standards do not exist for the other vocabulary types. Rather than try to standardize them, Part 2 deals only with interoperability between these and thesauri. Thus the clause on each vocabulary type presents:
In the case of ontologies, terminologies, and synonym rings, mapping to or from a thesaurus is not often useful. Other forms of complementary use are recommended. This is especially true of ontologies, which in the context of the Semantic Web can be deployed in combination with thesauri. ISO 25964-2 clarifies in some detail the differences between thesauri and ontologies, with examples to illustrate the potential for interoperable function.
Practical Implementation and Continuing Work
What about SKOS, the complementary W3C standard for publishing Simple Knowledge Organization Systems on the Web? Happily, the development teams responsible for SKOS and ISO 25964 (respectively) have maintained a close working relationship throughout, leading to good compatibility between the standards. Jointly they have gone on to establish a table showing correspondence between ISO 25964 and SKOS/SKOS-XL data models, now freely available from the ISO 25964 Secretariat site at. Although not formally part of either standard, this table is dependent on both of them. It is an example of how the user community continues to develop practical tools to support the emerging Semantic Web.
Getting Hold of a Copy
Like any other ISO standard, either or both parts of ISO 25964 can be purchased from the national standards body in your country (e.g., Association Francaise de Normalisation [AFNOR], British Standards Institution [BSI], Deutsches Institut für Normung [DIN], or the National Information Standards Organization [NISO]). Alternatively you can order it directly from ISO in Switzerland at. You can also view the documents at some public/academic libraries.
Journal editors may request a review copy from ISO's Head of Marketing, Roger Frost
Development of the standard was managed by a Working Group known as ISO TC46/SC9/WG8, which has participants from 17 countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, New Zealand, Russia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Ukraine, and the United States. The Group is chaired by Stella Dextre Clarke of the United Kingdom, and its Secretariat is provided by NISO (USA). Active members have included:
For more information, see
Published Articles and Conference Proceedings
The following is a list of publications that have been received for book reviews to be published in future issues of the journal, as well as a list of known forthcoming publications.
Keyser, Pierre de. Indexing: From Thesauri to the Semantic Web. Oxford: Chandos, 2012. ISBN 978-1-84334-292-2
Primary Research Group. The Survey of Academic Library Cataloging Practices. 2013 ed. New York: Primary Research Group, 2013. ISBN 978-157440-234-6
Calhoun, Karen. Digital Libraries. London: Facet, 2013. ISBN 978-1-856 04-820-0 (December 2013).
Cleveland, Donald B., and Ana D. Cleveland. Introduction to Indexing and Abstracting. 4th ed. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited, 2013. ISBN 978-1-59884-976-9 (July 2013).
Cole, Timothy W., and Myung-Ja K. Han. XML for Catalogers and Metadata Librarians. Third Millennium Cataloging. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited, 2013. ISBN 978-1-59884-519-8 (May 2013).
Barbara Tillett, 2013 Recipient of the Kilgour Award for Research
Library & Information Technology Association (LITA) and OCLC, the joint sponsors of the Frederick G. Kilgour Award for Research in Library and Information Technology, have announced Dr. Barbara Tillett, chair of the Joint Steering Committee for the Development of RDA and retired chief of the Policy & Standards Division at the United States Library of Congress, as the 2013 recipient of the award. It is given for research relevant to the development of information technologies, especially work that shows promise of having a positive and substantive impact on any aspect(s) of the publication, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information, or the processes by which information and data is manipulated and managed ().
Barbara Tillett, 2013 Recipient of the Ross Atkinson Lifetime Achievement Award
The Association for Library Collections & Technical Services (ALCTS) has awarded the 2013 Ross Atkinson Lifetime Achievement Award to Barbara Tillett. The award is given to those whose service to ALCTS and the library community serves as a model for those in the field ().
Hope Olson, 2013 Recipient of the Women and Gender Studies Section Career Achievement Award
The Women and Genders Studies Section of the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) has awarded the 2013 Career Achievement Award to Hope Olson, professor, School of Information Studies, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. The award honors significant contributions to women's studies in the field of librarianship ().
Judy Kuhagen, 2013 Recipient of the Margaret Mann Citation
The Cataloging and Metadata Management Section (CaMMS) of ALCTS announced Judy Kuhagen, secretary of the Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA and retired senior cataloging policy specialist, Policy & Standards Division, Library of Congress, as the winner of the 2013 Margaret Mann Citation. The Mann Citation recognizes outstanding professional achievement in cataloging or classification ().
Ronald Murray and Barbara Tillett, 2013 Recipients of the ALCTS Outstanding Publication Award
Ronald Murray, digital conservation specialist, Preservation Reformatting Division, Library of Congress, and Barbara Tillett are the winners of the ALCTS Outstanding Publication Award for their article "Cataloging Theory in Search of Graph Theory and other Ivory Towers" published in Information Technology and Libraries 309, no. 4 (December 2011): 170–184 ().
Philip Schreur, 2013 Recipient of the Edward Swanson Memorial Best of LRTS Award
The Edward Swanson Memorial Best of LRTS Award has been awarded to Philip Schreur, head, Metadata Department, Stanford University, for his article "The Academy Unbound: Linked Data as Revolution," published in Library Resources & Technical Services (LRTS) 55, no. 4 (October 2012): 227–237 ().
Kelley McGrath, 2013 Recipient of the Nancy B. Olson Award
The OnLine Audiovisual Catalogers (OLAC) have selected Kelley McGrath, metadata management librarian, University of Oregon Libraries, as the recipient of the 2013 Nancy B. Olson Award for her contributions to the interpretation and standardization of audiovisual cataloging practices and her success at developing policies for cataloging audiovisual materials at the national level, combined with her record of service to OLAC.
The award will be presented to Kelley at the OLAC membership meeting in July during the ALA Annual Conference:
Kelley McGrath, 2013 Recipient of the OLAC Research Grant
OLAC has awarded its 2013 Research Grant to Kelley McGrath. Ms. McGrath's research will explore using automated methods to cluster MARC bibliographic records for manifestations of moving images into FRBR work groups.