Introduction to Indexing and Abstracting
by Donald B. Cleveland and Ana D. Cleveland
Reviewed by Jeremy Myntti
Catalogue 2.0: The Future of the Library Catalogue
edited by Sally Chambers
Reviewed by Judy Jeng
Bibliography Complex: Fundamentals of Librarianship and Knowledge Management
edited by Karl Min Ku, translated by Zhijian Tao
Reviewed by Kenneth Klein
FRSAD: Conceptual Modeling of Aboutness
by Maja Žumer, Marcia Lei Zeng and Athena Salaba
Reviewed by Thomas Brenndorfer
, Robert L. Bothmann, News Editor
Understanding the Why: A Case Study in Managing the RDA Implementation
Margaret Beecher Maurer & Roman S. Panchyshyn
ABSTRACT: This article describes in detail the management of a Resource Description and Access (RDA) implementation process by an academic library that was an early adopter of RDA. It identifies the necessary decisions to be made and discusses the rationale behind these decisions during the implementation process. This information can benefit other libraries with managing their local RDA implementations. The authors examine the business case behind implementation from various perspectives such as administrative support, training, documentation, establishment of local procedures and costs. It aims to help cataloging/technical services/metadata managers understand the scope of the process and the impact it will have on their libraries.
KEYWORDS: RDA implementation, cataloging standards, library management, cataloger training, cataloging policy, hybrid records, project management
Bits and Pieces of Information: Bibliographic Modeling of Transmedia
ABSTRACT: Transmedia is a technique of telling a single narrative or creating a continuous imaginary world across multiple media platforms. The article seeks to explore this emerging phenomenon in terms of bibliographic organization. It analyzes transmedia features in the context of bibliographic entities and relationships, particularly those outlined in the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records FRBR and FRBROO (object-oriented redefinition) conceptual models.
KEYWORDS: transmedia, work, expression, bibliographic relationships, FRBR, FRBROO
Developing a Data Identifier Taxonomy Dong Joon Lee & Besiki Stvilia
ABSTRACT: As the amount of research data management is growing, the use of identity metadata for discovering, linking, and citing research data is growing too. To support the awareness of different identifier systems and the comparison and selection of an identifier for a particular data management environment, there is need for a knowledge base. This article contributes to that goal and analyzes the data management and related literatures to develop a data identifier taxonomy. The taxonomy includes four categories (domain, entity types, activities, and quality dimensions). In addition, the article describes 14 identifiers referenced in the literature and analyzes them along the taxonomy.
KEYWORDS: identifier, research data, quality requirements
ROBERT L. BOTHMANN
Welcome to the news column. Its purpose is to disseminate information on any aspect of cataloging and classification that may be of interest to the cataloging community. This column is not just intended for news items, but serves to document discussions of interest as well as news concerning you, your research efforts, and your organization. Please send any pertinent materials, notes, minutes, or reports to: Robert L. Bothmann, Memorial Library, Minnesota State University, Mankato, ML 3097, PO Box 8419, Mankato, MN 56002-8419 (email:, phone: 507-389-2010. News columns will typically be available prior to publication in print from the CCQ website at .
We would appreciate receiving items having to do with:
Research and Opinion
International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) President Ingrid Parent launched the IFLA Library () in July 2013, a repository for IFLA World Library and Information Congress (WLIC) papers and, in future, other IFLA publications. The IFLA Library is part of IFLA's Digital Content Programme Key Initiative, and is designed to provide a repository to collect together IFLA's own publications for ease of location, search, display, and preservation.
In line with IFLA's Open Access and Copyright Policy, authors of papers accepted for the Congress have assigned a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license (CC BY 3.0) to their work. This license enables IFLA to make copies of the papers available in its repository and permits the widest possible dissemination and use of the papers. All content will be discoverable via Google and Google Scholar and development of the IFLA Library platform will continue to enhance the search, browse, and help facilities for users.
The IFLA Library is available from the IFLA home page and is also linked from the WLIC program where Congress participants can search, read, browse, and download papers. For further information please contact Joanne Yeomans (), Professional Support Office, International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions.
At the November 2013 meeting of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC) Policy Committee (PoCo), the Committee announced that December 31, 2014 will be the last date for original PCC Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules , 2nd Edition (AACR2) cataloging. Beginning January 1, 2015, all new BIBCO (Monographic Bibliographic Record Program of the PCC) and CONSER (Cooperative Online Serials Program of the PCC) contributions must follow RDA: Resource Description and Access BIBCO and CONSER Standard Record guidelines. Records created by PCC BIBCO and CONSER members that are not fully RDA compliant, may not be coded PCC.
The Basel Register of Thesauri, Ontologies and Classifications (BARTOC),, collects metadata from controlled and structured vocabularies and provides a search interface in 20 languages. Metadata are enriched with Dewey Decimal Classification numbers down to the third level and subject headings from Eurovoc, the European Union's multilingual thesaurus (©European Union, 2013, ). BARTOC currently contains about 600 items (Thesauri, Ontologies, Classifications, Controlled Vocabularies, Taxonomies) in 65 languages and is still growing.
Submitted by Kelley McGrath, Team Leader, Metadata Management Librarian, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon
The OLAC (OnLine Audiovisual Catalogers) Movie & Video Credit Annotation Experiment () is part of a larger project to make it easier to find film and video in libraries and archives. This experiment breaks current movie records down to pull out all the cast and crew information so that it may be re-ordered and manipulated. We also want to make explicit connections between cast and crew names and their roles or functions in the movie production. Adding these formal connections to movie records will allow us to provide a better user experience. For example, library patrons would be able to search just for directors or just for cast members or only for movies where Clint Eastwood is actually in the cast rather than all the movies that he is connected with. Libraries would have the flexibility to create more standardized and readable displays of production credits, such as you see at IMDb (Internet Movie Database). See (not that we necessarily want IMDb's display, but that we would have much more flexibility in designing displays), rather than views like a typical library catalog (such as .
We therefore want to convert our existing records into more structured sets of data. Eventually, we intend to automate most of this conversion. For now, we need help from human volunteers, who can train our software to recognize the many ways names and roles have been listed in library records for movies. Give us a hand at.
The OLAC Movie & Video Credit Annotation Experiment was conceived by Kelley McGrath, developed by Chris Fitzpatrick, and funded by a Richard and Mary Corrigan Solari Library Fellowship Incentive Award from the University of Oregon Libraries.
Submitted by Jennifer Eustis, Catalog/Metadata Librarian, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT
Every year, the New England Technical Services Librarians (NETSL) sponsor programs at the New England Library Association Annual Conference (NELA). This year, NETSL sponsored three well-attended programs. The first was “United We Stand: A Collaborative Approach to Legacy Print Collections” presented by Matthew Revitt, Maine Shared Collections Strategy Program, and Deborah Rollins Head, University of Maine. The second was "How to Effectively Communicate with Techies" by Helen Linda, Goddard College. The last was "Getting Started with MarcEdit" by Benjamin Abrahamse, MIT Libraries.
Matthew Revitt and Deborah Rollins Head explained how eight partner libraries share in legacy print collection analysis. The presenters introduced the problem, a familiar story to many of us: the lack of budget, space, cost per usage for print items, availability of electronic resources versus the usage of our print legacy collections. Following the footsteps of larger institutions, several Maine libraries, of them Colby, Bates, University of Maine and Bowdoin, came together and wrote an IMLS grant for a shared print collection strategy. This grant aimed essentially at providing a framework for collection analysis. In turn this analysis would provide the means to make informed decisions about legacy print collections. As a result, it would structure a sustainable business model for all involved partners. This was a fascinating presentation that illustrated a collaborative approach to print legacy collections. The Portable Document Format (PDF) presentation and accompanying handout can be found on NETSL's Web site () at ( .
Helen Linda did a great job in easing attendees' minds when it comes to computer problems. Who has not encountered some glitch or virus? What do you do when confronted with these issues? How do you explain it to the IT department? This presentation was full of tips and ideas such as how to sweep for viruses, having a backup drive, or taking screen shots of problems when possible. This presentation was very much a participatory event where attendees also shared their tips for talking to IT or solving IT issues. The PDF presentation can be found on NETSL's Web site at,.
The last presentation was on MarcEdit by Benjamin Abrahamse. This presentation included both theoretical and hands on components. Terry Reese originally created MarcEdit () to help with a database cleanup project at the Oregon State University. From there, MarcEdit has grown to become one of the must haves in the cataloger's toolbox. The MarcEdit utility helps make MARC records, clean them up, transform records from MARC to Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS) (or MODS to MARC), transform tab delimited files into MARC files, and much more. Benjamin provided an excellent introduction to the basic functionality of MarcEdit. Then, he gave a concrete example with a file from work that needed to be cleaned up using MarcEdit. The presentation slides can be found at NETSL's Web site at .
All programs received positive feedback. In particular, NETSL attendees wanted to learn more about MarcEdit and asked that NETSL offer a similar presentation at their annual spring conference on April 11, 2014 at the College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, MA ().
The Classification Research Special Interest Group (SIG/CR) held the "Big Data, Linked Data: Classification Research at the Junction" workshop on Saturday November 2, 2013 in conjunction with the 76th Association for Information Science & Technology (ASIS&T) annual meeting in Montréal, Québec.
The theme of this year's annual meeting was "Beyond the Cloud: Rethinking Information Boundaries," which the workshop interpreted with its topic and purpose to "bring classification research to bear on the complex relationship between linked data and big data. Researchers will use fundamental classification principles to articulate the junction between practices of extracting data from large, unstructured datasets and practices of constructing deliberate syntheses of linked data drawn from existing datasets structured according to Semantic Web standards" (ASIS&T 2013 Annual Meeting Seminars & Workshops, SIG/CR Workshop page,, accessed December 6, 2013).
Rick Szostak, University of Alberta, opened the workshop with his presentation "Classification Ontology and the Semantic Web." Szostak discussed the need for an ontology that can associate a word like swan with any other term that also means swan. Such a vocabulary would require strict hierarchal rules to allow a computer to recognize and draw inferences. From Florida State University, Shuheng Wu (presenting) and Besiki Stvilia's research "Exploring Development and Maintenance Practices in Gene Ontology" presented a case study on the trend in the biomedical community to adopt ontologies, specifically in molecular biology and biomedicine. Wu gave examples of how this community is building an ontology for genes. Often it is the researchers sending definitions and relationships in the form of requests to be added and used in the ontology, all of which follow literary warrant and are justified with references from the literature.
Tatiana Lukoianova and Victoria Rubin (presenting) from Western University gave a fascinating talk entitled "Is Big Data Objective, Truthful, or Credible?" Rubin immediately stated we do not know if any of these are true, and introduced the concept of data veracity as a characteristic of big data, the need for a veracity index, and some methods for creating the index. Rebecca Green (presenter) and Michael Panzer of OCLC gave a talk on "The Interplay of Big Data! WorldCat and Dewey." Green first went through some definitions of big data settling on the definition that big data are when volume and velocity (e.g., data creation) are overwhelming to set the stage for whether WorldCat could be considered big data. Green proposed a research agenda for "classification analytics." As an example she showed Dewey 306.44 "language," which contains the note "class here anthropological linguistics, ethnolinguistics, sociolinguistics." Using WorldCat she showed increasing use of the class number over thirty years and how we might use classification schemes to see trending topics and anticipate class needs by looking at examples like new Library of Congress Subject Heading (LCSH) terms and noun phrases in chapter and conference titles.
Richard Smiraglia, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee wrapped up the morning with his research topic "Big Classification: Using the Empirical Power of Classification Interaction." Smiraglia used the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) to map a small library's collection. His research showed there are many universes of UDC and that much of the growth in the UDC has been in applied science, which represents the growth of knowledge in the twentieth century.
Kwan Yi from Easter Kentucky University offered "A Semantic Similarity Approach for Linking Tweet Messages to Library of Congress Subject Headings Using Linked Resources: A Pilot Study." Yi collected 1.5 million tweets over the course of three months and found 156,000 clusters based on hashtags. He discussed an approach for designing relevant LCSH terms based on hashtag clusters. He found that the Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) in tweets represent the subjects well, but the quality of hashtags is not good as only one-third of tweets have hashtags and often the hashtag is broader than the actual topic.
"Metadata Capital via a Linked Data HIVE" was the topic Jane Greenberg, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, presented. Using the Dryad Digital Repository (), a curated general purpose repository that makes the data underlying scientific publications discoverable, freely reusable, and citable, and Helping Interdisciplinary Vocabulary Engineering (HIVE), which harvests metadata in discipline-specific Simple Knowledge Organisation System (SKOS)encoded vocabulary, Greenberg proposed the concept of metadata as capital, or an asset. Her position is that the reuse of good, quality metadata could increase the value of the initial creation of the metadata, which is expensive.
Patrick Keilty (presenter) and Periklis Andritsos from the University of Toronto gave their presentation entitled "Level-Wise Exploration of Linked and Big Data Guided by Subject Classification." The talk was essentially a presentation of their methodology in using reconstructability analysis. Their goal is to explore why particular tags are assigned to items and to explore the tags' correlations with other fields. Inkyung Choi (presenter) and Hur-Li Lee, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, gave the presentation "Toward Social Contextualization of Big Data and Linked Data." The focus of this research was on the variety, veracity, and value aspects of big data.
This was followed by the University of Alberta's Ali Shiri discussion, "Linked Data meets Big Data: A Knowledge Organization Systems Perspective." Shiri explained that the difference between big data and data that happen to be big is partially in the questions you want to ask as well as the characteristics of volume, variety, and velocity. He showed a visualization of big data environments including social media, government research repositories, and memory institutions and posed the question how can we use linked data to inform our use of big data as linked data are structured and encoded, whereas big data are messy, difficult to capture, manage, and store.
Lynne Howarth, University of Toronto, had the closing word with "Warrant as Theoretical Vocabulary for Reconciling Big Data and Linked Data." Howarth's premise is that warrant is the theory for linked data. She proposes that we can use warrant to distinguish big data from linked data and that warrant is the theoretical glue between big and linked data.
Submitted by Valentine Charles, Data R&D coordinator for Europeana Foundation.
The Semantic Web for Libraries (SWIB) conference was created within a German consortium with the objective of providing relevant information on Linked Open Data developments relevant to the library-domain. From a mainly German conference, SWIB has become a more international conference attracting speakers from various countries in Europe and from various types of libraries. This year the conference attracted 180 people from countries across the globe.
The first day of the conference was opened by the keynote speaker Dorothea Salo with "Soylent SemWeb Is People! Bringing People to Linked Data." Dorothea Salo emphasized the idea that to be successful the Semantic Web needs people who will be able to support it. In the context of the SWIB conference it means that libraries and librarians should be part of the Semantic Web. As information specialists librarians should be the ones modeling Linked Data, learning about it, advocating for it. In this sense Linked Data needs to be transformed into workflows, processes that can be easily reproducible by libraries. The potential of Linked Data needs to be demonstrated, explained and more importantly, documented. It is, according to Salo, better to start with small projects rather than aiming at big projects involving a huge consortium. From this opening talk, the challenges offered by Linked Data were repeatedly mentioned over the two days of the conference.
The first challenge mentioned in the keynote talk was the need for people and data to make the Semantic Web a success. The first effort for libraries is to convert their data into models and formats suitable for Linked Open Data. As mentioned by Richard Wallis in his talk, library data have been stored as records when the Semantic Web refers to entities (Linked Data for Libraries: Great Progress, but What Is the Benefit?,). The main challenge for libraries is therefore to move to this web of data. To be able to do so libraries need to find suitable models that can help this transformation from fields in a record to entities in a graph.
Lars G. Svensson presented the Bibliographic Framework (BIBFRAME) Initiative as a way for libraries to exchange more data with other cultural heritage institutions (BIBFRAME: Libraries Can Lead Linked Data,). BIBFRAME is model agnostic but supports RDA and other cataloging rules and is extensible for new kinds of library material.
Interoperability with other models is achieved through community profiles. In the same way libraries try to achieve this interoperability by building ontologies. Matias Frosterus showed how Finland is building a national ontology infrastructure. In order to accommodate various domains they aggregate various local ontologies in an upper ontology that is used for interoperability (). This way it minimizes the overlaps between the domain ontologies. Another way to achieve this interoperability is to build ontologies by reusing existing ontologies. This is the approach of the Europeana Data Model and its extension in the DM2E project (Specialising the EDM for Digitised Manuscripts, ). The important aspect of this approach is to formalize this new model into applications profiles that document the profiles and specify ontological restrictions.
Traditional library records are not only made of fields containing text value information but also use classifications and authority-controlled values. One of the key aspects of Linked Open Data discussed during the conference was the need for mappings between classification systems in order to build bridges with the linked data world. Magnus Pfeffer in his presentation, "Automatic Creation of Mappings between Classification Systems for Bibliographic Data," stressed the fact that mappings from local classifications to more international classifications are crucial if you want to think in an international context (). The Semantic Web is not local but international. Mappings can be a way to solve issues related to multilinguality for instance as shown by Nadine Steinmetz in her presentation related to the matching between DBpedia and GND ( ), the German Integrated Authority file. The next challenge is to represent these mappings in a suitable linked data format such as Resource Description Framework (RDF) or suitable data model such as Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS). They need to be thought of as a means of interoperability and sharing.
As mentioned by the keynote speaker another challenge of Linked data is for linked data to be integrated in workflows and processes. The AgriVIVO was one such example provided during the conference (AgriVIVO: A Global Ontology-Driven RDF Store Based on a Distributed Architecture,). The AgriVivo is thought of as a linked data infrastructure: it relies on an ontology that can be modified without breaking the application that is running on top of it (in this case the AgriVivo search index). The platform is also used to directly interact with the ontology since VIVO also has an ontology editor.
The "OpenCat Prototype: Linking Public Libraries to National Datasets" from the National Library of France and presented by Agnès Simon shows how linked data created at a national level can be reused at a local level (for the public libraries in this case) ().
The National Library of France has published data in the Semantic Web for a few years already via the service. The Public Libraries can retrieve this data and other linked data sources available on the Web to build their online public access catalog (OPAC). In this case local libraries can take advantage of the Semantic Web without changing their library management systems. This French experience shows that people are using the libraries' data outside the libraries. End-users are asking for external links, additional resources and information, illustrations, and so on.
However from the perspective of a data consumer, the Semantic Web is still difficult to approach. In his presentation "Application of LOD to Enrich the Collection of Digitized Medieval Manuscripts at the University of Valencia" (), José Manuel Barrueco Cruz from the University of Valencia, Spain, highlighted the accessibility issues encountered in the Semantic Web. Without any clear descriptions of the Linked Data datasets available on the Web, clear license statements, registries of Linked datasets, relationships across datasets (sameAs links for instance), it is very difficult to re-use Linked data in your own application.
The same types of issues arise when you start maintaining Linked Data datasets on the Web. Simeon Warner from Cornell University Library, United States of America, showed in his presentation of ResourceSync how even systems for incremental synchronization rely on clear definitions of the datasets (ResourceSync for Semantic Web Data Copying and Synchronization,).
Many other presentations emphasized the fact that Linked Data and datasets need to be properly documented to be fully re-usable by data consumers no matter which technical solution is used to publish the data. Workshops also provided opportunities for the attendees to dive into particular aspects of Linked Open Data. The conference offered, for instance, a workshop on Linked Data to provide participants who knew less about the subject with a small introduction. The other workshops were dedicated to tools developed by libraries that can be used to create Linked Data such as Catmandu () or Metafacture ( ). A workshop was also organized on metadata provenance for addressing the provenance issues for people having already created data.
The conference concluded with the traditional lightning talks that give a nice taste of the next SWIB. All the presentations from the SWIB conference 2013 are available at.
Submitted by Hartmut Walravens, International ISMN Agency
International Standard Music Number (ISMN) is the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standard 10957 and covers musical notation (in any media); it complements International Standard Book Number (ISBN) for monographs and International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) for serials and thus contributes to complete coverage and identification of items listed in national bibliographies. The International ISMN Agency is based in Berlin, Germany; many national libraries are in charge of ISMN on a national level.
There are now 57 ISMN agencies, the latest members being Argentina and Iceland. Interest was recently shown from Benin, Bolivia, Chile, Ethiopia, and Montenegro. The ISMN standard was translated into Chinese. The United States agency at the Library of Congress is now fully operational. The Music Center of The Netherlands with its only recently established ISMN agency is unfortunately no longer funded by the government and had to close by December 2012. Therefore Donemus Publishing took over the agency responsibility.
The latest Annual General Assembly (AGM) of the ISMN community took place in Washington, D.C. by invitation of the Library of Congress, the US ISMN Agency, on September 13, 2013. After the welcoming address by the Associate Librarian, Roberta Shaffer, the formal AGM procedures took place. Then Mary Wedgewood presented the new ISMN Web site of the Agency, Wolfram Krajewski (German agency) gave a survey of a current project on e-commerce for notated music and Nick Woods reported on the progress of ISBN, Paul Jessop gave an update on the International Standard Recording Code (ISRC), and a concert rounded off the program. While the meeting took place in the splendid historical Jefferson building, the traditional ISMN dinner was staged in the private home of the chief of the LC Music Division, Susan Vita. Sitting outside on the porch was a special treat, a perfect setting for informal talks, and added to the pleasant atmosphere of the evening.
To cover one of the world's largest music markets, LC created a model Web system:
To receive ISMN for a score, a publisher must provide sufficient information that a library catalog record can be created for the item. Interfaces then re-shape this publisher-provided data into a number of display formats. Notably, one of these formats is a MARC 21 record, compliant with Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging instructions, and thus immediately usable in library catalogs and related utilities.
All ISMN services are provided free to U.S. publishers. As of July 31, 2013, 92 publishers are included in the Directory of U.S. ISMN Music Publishers. Most of these are legacy publishers who received ISMN between 1999 and 2010 from Bowker Books or from the Berlin office. A small number are using ISMN for the first time and have assisted with testing of the online system. Among these are several who requested ISMN for EPUB (electronic publication), PDF, and Mobi products and well as traditional print on paper. (Quoted from the US ISMN Agency's report)
The AGM was preceded by the International ISBN Agency meeting, which took place in Manhattan as the US ISBN Agency is based in New Jersey. As New York and Washington are not too far away, it was decided to have the ISMN and ISBN meetings in different venues. The Library of Congress and the new agency proved an attraction to ISMN members, and the visit was enhanced by a tour of the extensive music collections, and a comprehensive guided tour of the city by Ms. Vita's husband who enjoyed passing on his knowledge of the metropolitan sights. The next ISMN meeting will take place in Istanbul (September 15, 2014) by invitation of the Turkish Ministry of Culture whose library service maintains the ISMN, ISBN, and ISSN standards. For this reason, all three standards will have their AGMs together during one weeka première!
The latest ISMN Newsletter (no. 23) is available on the ISMN Web site () and provides detailed information on the 2013 AGM.
After reelection in Chisinau, the board still consists of Dr. Hartmut Walravens (Chairman), Dr. Joachim Jaenecke (Vice Chairman), and Dr. Bettina von Seyfried (Treasurer). The next board elections are scheduled for 2015.