International Standard ISO 25964-2: Information and Documentation—Thesauri and Interoperability With Other Vocabularies—Part 2: Interoperability With Other Vocabularies
by International Organization for Standardization
Reviewed by Stephen Hearn
Maxwell's Handbook for RDA: Resource Description & Access: Explaining and Illustrating RDA: Resource Description and Access Using MARC 21
by Robert L. Maxwell
Reviewed by Karen Snow
A Review of RDA: Strategies for Implementation
by Magda El-Sherbini.
Reviewed by Peter H. Lisius
, Violet Fox, Editor
Still a Lot to Lose: The Role of Controlled Vocabulary in Keyword Searching
Tina Gross, Arlene G. Taylor & Daniel N. Joudrey
ABSTRACT: In their 2005 study, Gross and Taylor found that more than a third of records retrieved by keyword searches would be lost without subject headings. A review of the literature since then shows that numerous studies, in various disciplines, have found that a quarter to a third of records returned in a keyword search would be lost without controlled vocabulary. Other writers, though, have continued to suggest that controlled vocabulary be discontinued. Addressing criticisms of the Gross/Taylor study, this study replicates the search process in the same online catalog, but after the addition of automated enriched metadata such as tables of contents and summaries. The proportion of results that would be lost remains high.
KEYWORDS: controlled vocabularies, subject headings, Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), keywords, keyword searching
AACR2 to RDA: Is Knowledge of Both Needed during the Transition Period?
Peter H. Lisius
ABSTRACT: The cataloging community is at a crossroads. Will catalogers need to continue learning both Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules , Second Edition (AACR2) and Resource Description and Access (RDA), or will learning RDA alone be enough? Through a selective literature review and examining the RDA Toolkit, it seems that there is currently a collective need to have access to both codes. However, when considering both Library of Congress-Program for Cooperative Cataloging (LC-PCC) and OCLC initiatives and an example from this author's institution relating to authority control in RDA and bibliographic record hybridization, it may only be necessary to learn RDA in the future. Additional research into practitioner experience could be done in the future to further examine this.
KEYWORDS: Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2), Resource Description and Access (RDA), catalogers, training, OCLC WorldCat, Program for Cooperative Cataloging
"Fu hao," "fu hao," "fuHao," or "fu Hao"? A Cataloger's Navigation of an Ancient Chinese Woman's Name
ABSTRACT: Chinese language catalogers' work is not only challenged by the revolution in cataloging standards and principles, but also by ancient Chinese names that emerged in archaeological discoveries and Chinese classic texts, which create a significant impact on bibliographic description and retrieval in terms of consistency and accuracy. This article takes an example of one ancient Chinese lady's name that is inconsistently romanized and described in OCLC to explore the reasons that cause the name variations and to propose an appropriate authorized access point after consulting both Western and Eastern scholarly practices. This article investigates the evolving history of pre-Qin Chinese names that are not addressed or exemplified in the Library of Congress Romanization Table, and recommends a revision of that Table.
KEYWORDS: Chinese personal names, pre-Qin Chinese names, authority control, Chinese language catalogers, romanization, romanization table, Fu Hao
Modeling Resource Description Tasks in RDA
ABSTRACT: This study aims to model the resource description tasks that are performed by catalogers. First, a model of authority data creator tasks is derived from Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD), since FRAD partially includes such task modeling. Second, modeling of resource description tasks in line with Resource Description and Access (RDA) is conducted to cover the whole resource description tasks including those on descriptive data as well as those on authority data, and also to reflect RDA instructions as much as possible. Third, the modeling of resource description tasks is compared with that of user tasks in order to understand their differences.
KEYWORDS: technical services, student library assistants, job training, training methods, mentoring, college and university libraries
Welcome to the news column. Its purpose is to disseminate information on any aspect of cataloging and classification that may be of interest to the cataloging community. This column is not just intended for news items, but serves to document discussions of interest as well as news concerning you, your research efforts, and your organization. Please send any pertinent materials, notes, minutes, or reports to: Violet Fox via email at, phone: 312-996-3040. News columns will typically be available prior to publication in print from the CCQ website at .
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Research and Opinion
The Art Libraries Society of North America (ARLIS/NA) Book Arts Special Interest Group released an online demo of the ARLIS/NA Artists' Book Thesaurus in June 2014. Designed for use in cataloging and scholarship, the web-based thesaurus will provide a standardized vocabulary for describing artists' books and their features as well as providing subject/genre access. Each term will feature illustrations, scope notes, and multiple examples when necessary.
The thesaurus project was initiated at the Book Arts Special Interest Group meeting of the 2012 ARLIS/NA conference in Toronto, Ontario. The working group will be sending out requests for feedback in coming months once the draft is completed.
The working draft and interface demo is available at. Exports are available in Simple Knowledge Organisation System (SKOS), Dublin Core (DC), Metadata Authority De-scription Schema (MADS), Zthes, XML Topic Maps (XTM), and Vocabulary Deﬁnition Exchange (VDEX) formats.
To learn more about this project, please contact the working group members.
Esther Marie Jackson:
Allison Jai O'Dell:
IFLA 2014 Satellite Meeting: RDAResource Description and AccessStatus and Perspectives 2014, Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Frankfurt am MainAugust 13, 2014
The Cataloguing Section of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) organized a Satellite Meeting "RDAResource Description and AccessStatus and Perspectives 2014," held August 13, 2014 at the German National Library in Frankfurt/Main. There were four sessions throughout the day, with the ﬁrst devoted to the current status of RDA. The second session focused on RDA implementation in various libraries and communities, including reports from the British Library and the perspective of library communities from German-speaking area, the Netherlands, France, and the Arab Region. Speakers during session 3 reported on RDA's effects on other formats and standards: authority records, BIBFRAME, and various linked data applications. Discussion during the ﬁnal session looked to future scenarios and strategies.
PDF versions of the presentations given are available on the website of the German National Library at:.
IFLA 2014 Satellite Meeting: Linked Data in Libraries: Let's Make It Happen!, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, ParisAugust 14, 2014
Submitted by Corine Deliot, Metadata Standards Analyst, The British Library, United Kingdom.
The IFLA Information Technology Section together with the IFLA Semantic Web Special Interest Group organized the IFLA 2014 Satellite Meeting "Linked Data in Libraries: Let's make Let's Make it Happen!," held at the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris on Thursday August 14, 2014. There were two parallel tracks: plenary sessions open to all; and two workshops, one on Linked Data for beginners, the other on Linked Data for library managers. The following is a report on the plenary conference. All papers, presentations, and videos are available at
Valentine Charles (Europeana and The European Library) opened the ﬁrst plenary session "They Made it Happen ... Library Linked Data Success Stories" with her presentation "Links, Languages and Semantics: Linked Data Approaches in the European Library and Europeana." Both initiatives aggregate metadata from a wide range of cultural institutions across Europenational and research libraries for The European Library; libraries, archives, museums, and so on for Europeana, with the European Library acting as library-aggregator for Europeana. In doing so, they face very similar challenges. Charles showed how both initiatives use Semantic Web principles and technologies to deal with heterogeneous and multilingual data. Both developed new data frameworks: the Europeana Data Model (EDM) for Europeana and a model based on the EDM but more oriented toward library data for the European Library. Both leverage knowledge organization systems and enrich the aggregated metadata with resources from multilingual "value vocabularies" like thesauri, authority lists, and classiﬁcations. Europeana currently uses Geonames, DBpedia, and the General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET) and is looking at integrating Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT), recently published as linked open data. Because it has access to large sets of subject headings and authority data, the Euro-pean Library is currently focusing on two strands of work. The ﬁrst one is to consolidate author data using the Virtual International Authority File (VIAF) and International Standard Name Identiﬁer (ISNI). The second one is to improve subject browsing by integrating the Common European Research Classiﬁcation Scheme, itself part of the Common European Research Information Format (CERIF), and exploiting the results of Multilingual Access to Subjects (MACS), which provides alignments between Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), Répertoire d'autorité-matière encyclopédique et alphabétique uniﬁé (RAMEAU), and Schlagwortnormdatei (SWD). Making MACS available as linked open data is being investigated.
In "We Grew Up Together: data.bnf.fr from the BnF and Logilab Perspectives," Agnès Simon for Bibliothèque Nationale de France (BnF) and Adrien di Mascio for Logilab reported on their collaboration in the making of data.bnf.fr (), the service that makes BnF resources available as linked open data, both as raw data in a variety of Resource Description Framework (RDF) serializations and human readable webpages for authors, works, subjects, and so on. The presentation looked back at the projectits motivations, successes, and ongoing challenges from the viewpoints of two very different organizations: the BnF, a public institution with considerable expertise in bibliographic standards and modeling and Logilab, a Semantic Web company with no previous experience of libraries. From the BnF perspective, key success factors included: putting the user ﬁrst and building on the library's existing strengths, that is, a persistent identiﬁer infrastructure built on the Archival Resource Key (ARK), well-maintained and comprehensive authority ﬁles, and the use of identiﬁers to link bibliographic and authority records in the source MARC data. From the perspective of Logilab, key factors included the use and development of CubicWeb, an open source data management tool that can handle a variety of (library) formats and the use of Scrum, an iterative and incremental agile software development framework for managing product development.
Both speakers spoke of the ongoing challenges in turning the project into "business as usual." Scalability is an issue: documenting changing processes, maintaining this documentation, and managing regular data updates and system performance. Webpages are taking longer to build/load. Data.bnf.fr is currently experimenting with displaying less (e.g., by replacing content with links). There are similar issues for RDF data dumps, which are becoming unwieldy. Solutions currently being explored include generating subsets of RDF data (e.g., dumps for authors, works). A SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL) endpoint has recently been opened to enable users to pick and choose the data as they wish. There are also dependency issues. Data.bnf.fr links to external datasets (e.g., VIAF, DBpedia), which are subject to change. It is vital to check and maintain the links. Other must-dos include transferring knowledge and skills to BnF staff and continuing to improve the catalog. Logilab has developed algorithms, which have (for example) enabled the creation of links between bibliographic records and title authority records. These are being imported back into the legacy source data.
Future work includes promoting re-use and setting up new partnerships with museums and archives as well as leading bibliographic change by using data.bnf.fr as a tool to drive FRBRization of the catalog.
Lukas Koster (Library of the University of Amsterdam) and Rurik Greenall (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) opened the second plenary session, devoted to "Perspectives for Developing Linked Libraries and Related Applications." Their presentation, while bearing the same title as their paper "An Unbroken Chain: Approaches to Implementing Linked Open Data in Libraries: Comparing Local, Open Source, Collaborative and Commercial Systems," had quite a different focus. They examined the strategies available to libraries wishing to either create original cataloging in linked data, expose legacy data as linked data, or consume external linked open data. These include local development, using free and open software; participating in consortia or service centers, and relying on commercial vendors. These three approaches are not mutually exclusive and can be mixed as appropriate. Koster and Greenall concluded by highlighting three factors, key to the success of any linked open data implementation, irrespective of the strategy adopted: life-cycle planning, use of (often de facto) standards, and engagement with the (open source or vendor) community.
Pierre Boudigues, Jöelle Aernoudt, and Stéphane Bizeul (Electre) and Gautier Poupeau (Antidot) concluded the morning session with their presentation "Internal and External Interoperability of Books Metadata Using Work Concept and Semantic Web Technologies." The proliferation of formats, the arrival of new actors such as LibraryThing and the deluge of data facing the industry led Electre, publisher of LivresHebdo to build a Work model based on FRBR. This provided the single point of entry to all data relating to book/author needed to address a number of use cases: metadata propagation, data consolidation, alert process and metadata enrichment.
The project included three steps: (1) changing the data model to a Work model based on FRBR; (2) changing the technical infrastructure, which resulted in more streamlined workﬂows and will thus make it easier to develop new services; (3) linking to book metadata on the web (e.g., grabbing BnF identiﬁers from data.bnf.fr and linking to Wikidata). This was in preference to DBpedia, which was deemed unsuitable because it contains inaccurate and/or out-of-date data.
The afternoon plenary focused on "Creating, Maintaining and Using Vocabularies for Library Linked Data" and included a further four presentations.
Melanie Wacker (Columbia University) presented the work of the Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS)-RDF Working Group in "Making MODS to Linked Open Data: A Collaborative Effort for Developing MODS/RDF." The Library of Congress released a draft MODS/RDF ontol-ogy in 2012 and there is now a community-based effort to review this initial draft, with the aim of supporting the migration of legacy metadata expressed in MODS/XML. The Working Group is also working toward developing a transformation tool using Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). The Working Group has reached agreement on a number of issues but there are still some under discussion, including how to link to people, places, organizations, and events. The Working Group is considering a number of approaches: Metadata Authority Description Schema (MADS) RDF inline, the direct approach, the Bibliographic Framework Initiative (BIBFRAME) approach or a new framework altogether. Information about the work of the Working Group is available on a public Github page (). Future work includes working with other Linked Open Data developments such as schema.org and Europeana.
In "Making Library Linked Data Using the Europeana Data Model" Marko Knepper (University Library Frankfurt am Main) showed how the Europeana Data Model (EDM) provides libraries with new opportunities to provide rich and interlinked metadata for digital objects to Europeana by highlighting two examples. The "Digitised Manuscripts to Europeana (DM2E)" project created an extension to EDM by deﬁning sub-classes and sub-properties that specialize EDM classes and properties, thus providing more granularity and allowing, for example, the inclusion of references and annotations at page level. The "Judaica Europeana" project leveraged EDM's support for the description of contextual resources and thus enriched its metadata with links to the Integrated Authority File of the German National Library (GND: Gemein-same Normdatei) and to VIAF. The project also produced a comprehensive mapping from Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS)/MODS to EDM.
Gordon Dunsire (independent consultant) explored issues of change management with particular reference to element sets and value vocabularies in "Versioning Vocabularies in a Linked Data World." He ﬁrst provided a brief survey of the management change policies and mechanisms currently in existence for a number of RDF vocabularies or services, including the Open Metadata Registry (OMR), schema.org, id.loc.gov, BIBFRAME, and Dewey.info. While these implement some measure of control, none can be said to be comprehensive. Dunsire pointed to Semantic Versioning, a formal speciﬁcation of version management developed by the software development community, as the way forward and showed how the OMR team is using the development of the RDA Vocabularies () as a test bed to adapt this approach to the management of RDF vocabularies. This includes developing policy statements based on the core principles of Semantic Versioning (available at ) but generalized to the needs of vocabulary managers and using Github as part of a version control management system. Now that linked data in libraries is maturing, managing vocabulary change over time is essential as failure to do so will lead to semantic breakages and increased maintenance costs.
Finally Mirna Willer (University of Zadar) reported on the results of a project that aimed to publish UNIMARC (UNIversal MARC) metadata as linked open data. "From UNIMARC Bibliographic and Authority Records to Linked Open Data" outlined the two main approaches available: ﬁrst the "pick and mix" approach, where UNIMARC metadata is mapped to existing RDF vocabularies such as Dublin Core, International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD), FOAF, the Bibliographic Ontology, and so on. This may lead to loss of semantics and granularity. The second option was publication of UNIMARC as an RDF ontology. The data is expressed in one consistent vocabulary and the original contextual information is preserved. In the end, a blend of the two approaches was chosen, thus ensuring the retention of the richness of the original metadata while facilitating interoperability with other metadata schemas. Willer also highlighted the challenges of this approach, for example, maintenance of a stable and persistent UNIMARC namespace, the necessary updating of the mappings to existing RDF vocabularies, and the integration of new ones.
This was a very interesting conference, particularly because its focus was on the sharing of lessons learned and best practices from real life linked data implementations. It seems that ﬁnally linked data in libraries is moving out of the experimental phase into "business as usual." This raises a different set of challenges, which is why events of this kind are so valuable to facilitate knowledge sharing.
Robert Wolven Awarded Melvil Dewey Medal
The 2014 Melvil Dewey Medal was awarded to Robert Wolven, Associate University Librarian for Bibliographic Services and Collection Development at Columbia University Libraries. Wolven is a frequent speaker and author on issues related to digital content, metadata, and technical services in libraries. He is also co-chair of the American Library Association's Working Group on Digital Content and Libraries and a member of the HathiTrust Board of Governors. The Melvil Dewey Award is awarded to leaders in library management, cataloging and classiﬁcation, and the tools and techniques of librarianship. (For the full press release, see).
Robert Maxwell Recipient of ABC-CLIO Award for the Best Book in Library Literature
The 2014 ABC-CLIO Award for the Best Book in Library Literature was awarded to Robert Maxwell for Maxwell's Handbook for RDA: Resource Description and Access. Maxwell is senior librarian and chair of the Special Collections and Formats Catalog Department at the Harold B. Lee Library at Brigham Young University. Maxwell's Handbook for RDA provides in-depth analysis of the philosophical shift behind RDA and its signiﬁcance for the future of cataloging. The ABC-CLIO Award recognizes authors who "improve management principles and practice, understanding and application of new techniques, or further the education of librarians or other information specialists." (For the full press release, see.)
Gary Strawn Awarded Ex Libris Lifetime Achievement Award
Gary Strawn, Authorities Librarian at Northwestern University, was presented with a Lifetime Achievement Azriel Morag Award for Innovation at the 2014 International Group of Ex Libris Users conference in Oxford, England. He was recognized for his development of more than 25 software programs which allow additional functionality in viewing, editing, and deleting bibliographic data, holdings, and items. The programs, which Strawn regularly updates and troubleshoots, simplify many projects and tasks for Voyager users. The Azriel Morag Award for Innovation is presented to librarians who demonstrate innovation and initiative in a library-related area. (For the full announcement, see.)
Arashanipalai Neelameghan, 1927–2014
A widely respected teacher and scholar in knowledge organization, Arashanipalai Neelameghan passed away July 28, 2014. Following graduate and post-graduate studies in Madras, India, he studied in the United States on Rockefeller Foundation and Fulbright scholarships.
Neelameghan served as the head of the United Nations Educational, Scientiﬁc and Cultural Organization's General Information Programme (UNESCO/PGI) Section on Institution Building and Networking. His work at UNESCO included technical assistance missions to developing countries, working to formulate national information policies. He was instrumental in establishing post-graduate programs for training information science specialists around the world, including the University of Philippines in Manila, the Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia, and the University of Simon Bolivar in Venezuela.
Neelameghan also served as head of the Documentation Research and Training Centre of the Indian Statistical Institute (established by S.R. Ranganathan) in Bangalore, India. His research interests included information science in socioeconomic development, capacity building in developing countries, indigenous information, and spiritual information.
After retiring from the Indian Statistical Institute in 1984, he continued his work at the Sarada Ranganathan Endowment for Library Science and began working with the Ranganathan Centre for Information Studies, continuing his research and publications on information organization. Neelameghan was also an editor of the journal International Classiﬁcation (now known as Knowledge Organization).
A festschrift in honor of Neelameghan, Knowledge Organization, Information Systems and Other Essays, was published in 2006. An inﬂuential and encouraging mentor and professor, Neelameghan's contributions will inspire scholarship on knowledge organization well into the future.
Judith Hopkins, 1934–2014
Widely known as the long-time list owner of AUTOCAT, Judith Hopkins died August 8, 2014 in Atlanta, Georgia. Born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, she received her Bachelor of Arts from Wilkes College. Hopkins graduated from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign master's program in library science in 1957 and worked as a cataloger at Mount Holyoke College, the Yale University Law Library, and ﬁnished her career with a long tenure at the University of Buffalo (The State University of New York) from 1977–2004. She also taught cataloging to generations of library school students at the University of Illinois, the University of Michigan, and the University of Buffalo.
In 1969, Fred Kilgour invited Hopkins to join the small staff of the Ohio College Library Center (now OCLC) as the ﬁrst librarian in the organization, translating the needs of library catalogers into programming terms. She created OCLC's initial documentation and introduced many catalogers to the cutting edge technology of computerized records and MARC.
A life member of the American Library Association, Hopkins was active in two divisions, serving on the Board of Directors for the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA) and in many roles for the Association for Library Collections and Technical Services (ALCTS). She brought her years of experience to bear in co-editing a book, Research Libraries and their Implementation of AACR2 (1986). In 2006 she was the recipient of the Margaret Mann Citation for outstanding professional achievement in cataloging and classiﬁcation.
In her role as list owner for AUTOCAT, the electronic discussion group for the cataloging community, Hopkins brought her generous spirit to encourage an environment of collegiality and cooperation for librarians from around the world.
Lois Mai Chan, 1934–2014
Lois Mai Chan, professor, author, and researcher in the ﬁeld of cataloging and classiﬁcation, died August 20, 2014 in Lexington, Kentucky. A native of China, she earned her B.A. from National Taiwan University and her Ph.D. in comparative literature from the University of Kentucky.
When Chan retired in 2011 after more than forty years at the University of Kentucky, the Lois Mai Chan SLIS Student Enrichment Fund was established in her honor for the beneﬁt of students at the University of Kentucky's School of Library and Information Science. Her research interests included many aspects of cataloging and classiﬁcation, including subject headings, queries, and website browsing. Chan's numerous publications and textbooks, including A Guide to the Library of Congress Classiﬁcation (1999), Cataloging and Classiﬁcation: an Introduction (3rd edition, 2007), Dewey Decimal Classiﬁcation: Principles and Application (3rd edition, 2003), and Library of Congress Subject Headings: Principles and Application (4th edition, 2005), are considered essential reading in library schools.
Active in many organizations, her honors include the 1989 Margaret Mann Citation for outstanding achievement in cataloging and classiﬁcation, the 1992 Chinese-American Librarians Association Distinguished Service Award, and the 2006 Beta Phi Mu Award for Distinguished Service to Education in Librarianship. Her expertise in classiﬁcation was well-regarded and she served as Classiﬁcation Consultant to the Library of Congress and a consultant on Faceted Application of Subject Terminology (FAST), a collaboration of OCLC Research and the Library of Congress. A popular presenter and professor, Chan's steadfast dedication to educating librarians has helped shape the future of information organization in libraries.