Volume 53, no. 3/4, 2015



 

 

Reshaping the Library Catalog:
Selected Papers from the International Conference FSR2014
(Rome, February 27-28, 2014)


Agnese Galeffi and Paul Gabriele Weston

Guest Editors



Introduction, Agnese Galeffi and Paul Gabriele Weston


Columns

Cataloging News, Violet B. Fox, News Editor


Original Articles

FRBR, Twenty Years On
Karen Coyle

ABSTRACT: The article analyzes the conceptual model of the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) as a general model of bibliographic data and description that can be interpreted, as needed, to serve the needs of various communities. This is illustrated with descriptions of five different implementations based on the concepts in FRBR: FRBRER (entity-relation), FRBROO (object oriented), FRBRCore (FRBR entities as linked data), (FRBR entities within the commerce model), and FaBiO (FRBR indecs as a basis for academic document types). The author argues that variant models show the strength of the FRBR concepts, and should be encouraged.

KEYWORDS: data models, entity-relationship modeling, use studies, metadata, bibliographic data, interoperability

Breaking Records: The History of Bibliographic Records and Their Influence in Conceptualizing Bibliographic Data
Rachel Ivy Clarke

ABSTRACT: A bibliographic record is a conceptual whole that includes all bibliographic information about a resource together in one place. With the Semantic Web, individual data statements are linked across the web. This position article argues that the traditional conceptualization of bibliographic records affects the affordances and limitations of that data. A historical analysis of the development of bibliographic records contrasted with the Semantic Web model reveals how the "record" model shaped library cataloging and the implications on library catalogs today. Reification of the record model for bibliographic data hampers possibilities for innovation in cataloging, inspiring a reconceptualization of bibliographic description.

KEYWORDS: bibliographic records, Semantic Web, linked data, library cataloging

Quality of Library Catalogs and Value of (Good) Catalogs
Alberto Petrucciani

The quality of large catalogs is uneven and often low, but this issue is underrated and understudied. Library catalogs often fail to communicate correct and clear information to users and their low quality is not simply due to faults, duplications, and so on but also to unwise cataloging standards and policies. While there is plenty of uncontrolled information about books and other publications, the need for good-quality bibliographic information is apparent and library catalogs may provide a trustworthy map of the publishing output, with full control of editions, works, authors, and so on and effective navigation functions, which are lacking in today's information-rich environment.

KEYWORDS: cataloging evaluation, cataloging quality analysis, cataloging standards, library catalogs, OPACs, authority control, catalog indexing, catalog display, catalog design

Using Qualitative Methods to Analyze Online Catalog Interfaces
Piero Polidoro

ABSTRACT: Many experts have proposed an evolution toward "next generation catalogs," whose main features are partly inspired by commercial websites such as Google or Amazon. This article examines pros and cons of this integration. It also aims to show how a qualitative approach helps to broaden understanding of web communication mechanisms. After discussing some examples of "next generation catalog" features, I analyze the interface of an online catalog responding to different users' information needs and seeking behaviors. In the conclusion I suggest that the right approach to integration is a "translation" (not a "copy and paste") between commercial and library logics.

KEYWORDS: library websites, online catalogs, semiotics, textual analysis, qualitative analysis

Preparing the Way: Creating Future Compatible Cataloging Data in a Transitional Environment
Dean Seeman & Lisa Goddard

ABSTRACT: Linked data has dominated the recent discourse in cataloging and metadata. The daily work of the cataloger, however, remains mostly unchanged. This tension is investigated, with a view to reconciling cataloging practice with a linked data future. Aspects of linked data are outlined and a shift in focus in cataloging practice is recommended. Authorities, controlled access points, vocabularies, differentiated values, and local data should be emphasized, and focus should shift from free text fields, keystrokes, punctuation, and aspects of local practice. Through these recommendations, it is argued that catalogers can help prepare the way for the emerging information environment.

KEYWORDS: linked data, cataloging, Resource Description and Access (RDA), bibliographic data, interoperability

A Turning Point for Catalogs: Ranganathan's Possible Point of View
Carlo Bianchini & Mauro Guerrini

ABSTRACT:Since the end of the last century, catalogs have been changing more and more quickly. This change is following a recognizable course, beginning with the publication of Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records, passing through the reorganization of international cataloging principles, the revision of international standards of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (International Standard for Bibliographic Description), and the foundation of new cataloging codes, such as Resource Description and Access. While principles, models, and rules are well established, bibliographic formats seem to be a bottleneck and users seem far from libraries. This article aims to present an overview of current changes, potential convergences, developments, and weak points from Ranganathan's point of view.

KEYWORDS: cataloging, Semantic Web, BIBFRAME, RDA, users' needs, S.R. Ranganathan, Five Laws of Library Science

Asserting Catalogers' Place in the "Value of Libraries" Conversation
Juliya Borie, Kate MacDonald & Elisa Sze

ABSTRACT: Catalogers have a unique challenge to overcome in demonstrating the value of their services: the better they are at performing their work--making collections accessible and enabling user discovery--the more invisible their efforts are to users and administrators. Catalogers must participate more actively in the broader discussion and demonstration of library value undertaken by their colleagues, but to do so requires a framework and a common vocabulary shared by non-catalogers.

KEYWORDS: value of cataloging, value of libraries, metadata, Linked Data, cataloging research

"The Day Has Not Yet Come ...": Book-Jackets in Library Catalogs
Paola Puglisi

ABSTRACT: In 1971 the eminent American scholar G. Thomas Tanselle wrote: "the day has not yet come when one can learn anything of a library's holdings of jackets by consulting its catalogue." Forty-four years later, library catalogs still do not allow that. Book-jackets, whose "original sin" is their being physically separate from the book, are nevertheless essential documents for the history of publishing. This article aims to show the necessity for access to the information about a single book's book-jacket directly from the library catalog; it considers the reasons why catalogers usually "distrust" book-jackets; and it aims to determine whether there is any change in attitude about taking book-jackets into account in cataloging.

KEYWORDS: book-jackets, dust-jackets, bibliographic description

Cataloger Makeover: Creating Non-MARC Name Authorities
Violeta Ilik

ABSTRACT: This article shares a vision of the enterprise of cataloging and the role of catalogers and metadata librarians in the twenty-first century. The revolutionary opportunities now presented by Semantic Web technologies liberate catalogers from their historically analog-based static world, re-conceptualize it, and transform it into a world of high dimensionality and fluidity. By presenting illustrative examples of innovative metadata creation and manipulation, such as non-MARC name authority records, we seek to contribute to the libraries' mission with innovative projects that enable discovery, development, communication, learning, and creativity, and hold promise to exceed users' expectations.

KEYWORDS: name authority control, data models, ontologies, VIVO, college and university libraries, non-MARC name authority records, RDF, OWL, Karma data integration tool

Music Presentation Format: Toward a Cataloging Babel?
Massimo Gentili-Tedeschi

ABSTRACT: This case study on cataloging notated music focuses on music presentation format, and the use of controlled vocabularies in a multilingual context, when concepts do not have corresponding terms in one or more languages, and when common language terms are mixed with technical terms in a specialized context. Issues concern the terminological correspondence among different languages, and the consequent risks if only one language is taken into account or the meaning of one word is arbitrarily altered; English linguistic pragmatism may lead to wrong conceptual results when it points directly to the result of a process, while other languages focus on the process needed to obtain that result. Considerations on the use of codes in MARC formats and on how music presentation is treated in Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) are included, and numerous illustrated examples, understandable even by non-music experts, support the article.

KEYWORDS: bibliographic data, interoperability, cataloging, music, case studies, controlled vocabularies

Florence-Washington Round Trip: Ways and Intersections between Semantic Indexing Tools in Different Languages
Anna Lucarelli & Elisabetta Viti

ABSTRACT: This article presents an Italian experience of developing streamlined semantic interoperability between the Italian Thesaurus of Nuovo soggettario and the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). This ongoing project must take into consideration the differences between the two indexing tools, while the criteria on which the resulting actions are based are being clarified continually. Reciprocal interoperability, thanks to the Simple Knowledge Organization System format, enables us to create links with English language subject headings. The National Central Library of Florence is studying methods of automatically catching LCSH equivalents and the question of how to take advantage of both Semantic Web outputs and the multilingual dataset of Wikidata.

KEYWORDS: linked data, Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), Nuovo soggettario, indexing vocabularies, interoperability, subject access

Libraries and Catalogs in Ukraine: The Way to Understand the Past and Build the Future
Tetyana Yaroshenko & Iryna Bankovska

ABSTRACT: This article explores the current state of Library Science and library catalogs in Ukraine. It describes conditions that have impacted their development and problems that influence their growth. Particular focus is given to the increase in information access in Ukrainian libraries that has taken place over the last twenty years. The authors describe major projects in the library field and in the field of library cataloging with special attention to the experience of the Library of the National University of "Kyiv-Mohyla Academy."

KEYWORDS: Ukrainian libraries, online library catalogs (OPACs), Integrated Library Systems (ILSs), ALEPH 500, library and information science education in Ukraine


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Author Biographies

Iryna Bankovska is a Head Librarian at the National University of "Kyiv-Mohyla Academy" Library. She received her MA in Library and Information Science from the Kyiv National Institute of Culture and Arts before eventually becoming a librarian at the Lesya Ukrainka Public Library (the Kyiv Central Public Library) in 1994. After 13 years in various positions there she accepted a tenured position at the Library of the National University of "Kyiv-Mohyla Academy" in 2006. Her responsibilities include Integrated Library System (ILS) management, technical support of the ILS, and training of personnel. Bankovska has published in Ukrainian professional library journals, and currently resides in Kyiv, Ukraine.

Carlo Bianchini is a researcher in Library and Information Science at the Department of Musicology and Cultural Heritage of the University of Pavia. Carlo has been a member of the Cataloguing Commission of the Italian Library Association (2005-2011), and of the editorial board of Bibliotheca, Rivista di studi bibliografici (2003-2007). Presently he is a member of the editorial board of JLis.it (2010-) and of AIB Studi (2014-). He was also a member of the Italian translation group for the ISBD preliminary consolidated edition, the International Cataloguing Principles (ICP), and the ISBD Consolidated edition. He is a member of the Italian translation group for RDA, Resource Description and Access.

Juliya Borie joined the University of Toronto Libraries in 2011 as a Cataloguing Librarian specializing in serials cataloguing. She received her Master of Information Studies (MISt) degree from the Faculty of Information, University of Toronto. Her professional interests include exploring ways to measure the value of cataloguing, and looking at the use of Linked Data in serial publications.

Rachel Ivy Clarke, formerly the cataloging librarian at the Fashion Institute of Design and Merchandising, is currently a PhD candidate at the University of Washington Information School. Her research focuses on the history of libraries and library technologies, especially how past work might inform the conceptualization and design of digital libraries and catalogs. She holds a BA in creative writing from California State University Long Beach and an MLIS from San Jose State University.

Karen Coyle is a librarian with over thirty years of experience with library technology who consults in a variety of areas relating to digital libraries. Karen has published dozens of articles and reports, most available on her website, kcoyle.net. She has served on standards committees including the MARC standards group (MARBI [Machine-Readable Bibliographic Information Commitee]), NISO committee AX for the OpenURL standard, and was an American Library Association (ALA) representative to the e-book standards development that led to the ePub standard. She follows, writes, and speaks on a wide range of policy areas, including intellectual property, privacy, and public access to information. As a consultant she works primarily on metadata development and technology planning. She is currently investigating the possibilities offered by the Semantic Web and linked data technology.

Agnese Galeffi (PhD in Library Science) teaches Cataloguing and Classification at Vatican School of Library Science. She has been a librarian at the University of Florence (2000-2007). Currently she has a research grant from the Sapienza University of Rome. Among her professional interests are cataloging theory and practice, search tools and discovery systems, data visualization and interfaces.

Massimo Gentili-Tedeschi graduated with degrees in architecture and flute. He is the librarian responsible for the Ufficio Ricerca Fondi Musicali of Milan "Braidense" national library, and head of the Music Department of the Central Institute for the Union Catalogue of Italian Libraries and for Bibliographic Information (ICCU), with which he has collaborated since 1986 to develop and maintain the National Library Service (SBN), which concerns music. As a member of the ICCU Working Group on Music he takes part in the preparation of new national cataloging rules for music, and as a member of the UNIMARC sub-commission of the International Association of Music Libraries (IAML) he participates in making new proposals to update the format. As a liaison for IAML he has been a member of the IFLA ISBD Review Group and a corresponding member of the Permanent UNIMARC Committee since 2011, and a member of the Standing Committee of the IFLA Cataloguing Section since 2013. In collaboration with ICCU he has published Guida alla descrizione catalografica uniforme dei manoscritti musicali (Roma, ICCU, 1984) and Guida a una descrizione uniforme dei manoscritti e al loro censimento (Roma, ICCU, 1990): Appendice II, I Manoscritti musicali, and co-edited the Guida per la catalogazione in SBN-Musica (Roma, ICCU, 2012). He has published numerous articles on music librarianship in specialized periodicals and often gives lessons on music cataloging in Italy and abroad. He has had several positions in IAML, and was president of the association from 2004-2007.

Lisa Goddard is Scholarly Communications Librarian at Memorial University of Newfoundland. Her current professional interests include Open Access evangelism, Semantic Web technologies, digital publishing and preservation, and humanities computing.

Mauro Guerrini is Professor of Cataloging and Library Science at the University of Florence, Italy; dean of the Master in Cataloguing at the University of Florence, and member of the Board of the PhD courses at the Udine University, Italy, and at the University of Florence. Professor at the Udine University (1992-1999), and at the Sapienza University of Rome (1999-2001). Prior to assuming academic positions he was Director of the Leonardo da Vinci Library and Museum in Vinci (Florence), Italy, from 1981 to 1992. Author of many publications on Cataloguing (lately: "Introduzione a RDA," with Carlo Bianchini; "Linked data per biblioteche, archive e musei," with Tiziana Possemato); chair of the translators team of the Italian edition of ISBD Consolidated Edition, and RDA, Resource Description and Access. Professor Guerrini was President of the Italian Library Association (AIB) from 2005 to 2011; President of IFLA Italian National Committee for WLIC Milan 2009; chair of the AIB Cataloguing and Indexing Commission (1996-2005), member of the IFLA Cataloguing Section and ISBD Review Group for two terms, and member of the Planning Committee dell'IFLA Meeting of Experts on an International Cataloguing Code (IME ICC). He is a member of the editorial boards of Cataloging &: Classification Quarterly, AIB Studi, Biblioteche oggi, Bibliotheca; editor of Jlis.it, Journal of Library, Archives and Information Science, and editor of the series "Pinakes" of Le Lettere Publishing, Florence, Italy.

Violeta Ilik joined the Galter Health Sciences Library at Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine as their Digital Innovations Librarian in November 2014. She received her MLS from the University of North Texas in December 2010. Violeta has experience with managing content creation and the dissemination of print and digital resources, supporting scholars' online identities with researchers' management systems, and providing support for faculty, students, and staff on scholarly communication issues. While working as the Project Manager for the VIVO Implementation at Texas A&M University, Violeta experimented with creating non-MARC Name Authority Records in order to represent researchers who mainly publish academic articles. Through the VIVO-ISF Ontology Working Group she has advocated for creating a central platform that can manage a registry of URIs for people as persistent identifiers to enable the VIVO URIs from the registry to be linked to and/or added to Library of Congress/NACO authority records. Violeta develops and implements workflows and procedures for collection-specific digital projects, and is responsible for metadata projects that require crosswalks between MARCXML, Dublin Core and different metadata schemes. She has taught various classes and tutorials on the use of XSLT in digital libraries, and workshops on modeling Semantic Web compliant data for use in VIVO.

Anna Lucarelli is a librarian at the National Central Library of Florence (BNCF). She has worked in the Classification and Indexing Section of the Italian National Bibliography and she is now the head of the BNCF Department of Research and Tools for Subject Indexing and Classification. She is project coordinator for the development of the Nuovo soggettario, the Italian subject indexing system. She is a guest lecturer of subject indexing at the University of Florence and gives training courses for librarians.

Kate MacDonald is Cataloguing and Digital Services Librarian at the John W. Graham Library, Trinity College, University of Toronto. Her professional interests include rare and special materials cataloging, and exploring the use of technology to promote rare and special collections.

Alberto Petrucciani, professor of Bibliography and Library Science since 1986, currently works at the Sapienza University of Rome, where he is the coordinator of the PhD program in Documentation, Linguistics and Literature and the editor of the journal, Nuovi Annali della Scuola Speciale per Archivisti e Bibliotecari. He is president of the Italian Society of Bibliography and Library Science (SISBB) and a member of the Scientific Board of the National Central Library of Rome. He was formerly Vice-President of the Italian Library Association (1991-1993 and 1997-2003) and editor of REICAT, the Italian cataloguing rules (2009). His publications include various books and papers in cataloging and indexing, bibliography, history of the book, and library history.

Piero Polidoro is assistant professor in Semiotics at the LUMSA University (Libera Universitą Maria Ss. Assunta) in Rome. He obtained a PhD in Semiotics at the University of Bologna with Umberto Eco and Patrizia Violi. His main research interests are visual semiotics, brand image and communication strategies, new media interfaces and web site analysis.

Paola Puglisi works at the National Library of Rome (Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Roma, Italy), where she is now in charge of the Roman Section and Photographic Archive. Formerly she took care of the Newspaper Section for many years. Her professional activity deals with newspaper management, publishing and graphic design, and legal deposit legislation. In 2003 she published the book Sopraccoperta in the AIB series "ET."

Dean Seeman is the Head of Cataloguing and Metadata at the Memorial University of Newfoundland in St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. He holds a Master of Information Studies degree and a Master of Theological Studies degree, both from the University of Toronto. He previously worked at St. Michael's College at the University of Toronto and has been involved with the cataloging and digitization of the published and archival material of John Henry Newman. His research interests primarily involve issues that arise out of the practical application of cataloging and metadata standards, including the relationship between data production and linked data.

Elisa Sze is Collections and Public Services Librarian at the Faculty of Information, the iSchool at the University of Toronto. She has been managing the collections at the Faculty of Information library, the Inforum, since 2008, and teaches workshops to Master's students on acquisitions, cataloging, and classification.

Elisabetta Viti is a librarian at the National Central Library of Florence (BNCF). She is working at the BNCF's Department of "Research and Tools for Subject Indexing and Classification" and she collaborates with the "Classification and Indexing Section" of the Italian National Bibliography. She also has a PhD in Library and Information Science from Udine University.

In 2000 Paul Gabriele Weston joined the University of Pavia where he currently teaches courses in cataloging, library management, bibliography, and digital library. He is an invited professor in textual material management (later Library Management) at Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland (2007-present) and in digital library principles at Ca' Foscari University, Venice, Italy (2015-present). He also teaches at the Vatican School of Librarianship (cataloging, 1985-2007; digital library management, 2008-present). From 1983 to 2000 Weston worked at the Vatican Library as systems librarian, having responsibility for the retrospective conversion of the catalog and being a member of the digital library "Vatican Library available worldwide" project management team. He then took part in the development of the URBS (Unione Romana Biblioteche Scientifiche) network in Rome, an international consortium of research institutes from thirteen countries. Since 2005 he has been project coordinator for the BEIC (Biblioteca Europea di Informazione e Cultura, Milan) digital library. Among other committees, Weston has been on the national committee on standards and metadata in cultural heritage coordinated by ICCU (Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo Unico delle biblioteche italiane e per le informazioni bibliografiche), and the scientific committee of the Biblioteca Italiana digital library coordinated by the Sapienza University of Rome; in addition, Weston has authored several books and papers published in Italian and in foreign journals and is on the editorial boards of Biblioteche Oggi, DigItalia, AIB Studi, and JLis.it.

Tetyana Yaroshenko has been a Library Director at the National University of "Kyiv-Mohyla Academy" (Kyiv, Ukraine) since 1995. Tetyana is a graduate in Library and Information Science from Kyiv National University of Culture (1986), and obtained her PhD from the National Library of Ukraine (2008). She has twice been a Fulbright Grantee (Yale University, 2004-2005, Columbia University, 2010-2011). She is responsible for University Library management and development, managing institutional projects, such as the E-Library, Institutional Repository, website, social media, and promoting University Library resources and services at the national and international levels. She is a recognized expert in the field of LIS, e-resource management, scientific communication, and Open Access particularly. She has authored more than 100 publications. She is also Head of the University Libraries Section of the Ukrainian Library Association, Executive Director for ELibUkr (Electronic Library of Ukraine) NGO, and President of the Ukrainian Fulbright Circle.


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Introduction

Agnese Galeffi
Vatican School of Library Science, Vatican City State

Paul Gabriele Weston
University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy

This issue gathers together a selection of papers based on presentations given at the International Conference "FSR2014-Faster, Smarter and Richer. Reshaping the Library Catalogue," which was held in Rome on February 27-28, 2014 and was jointly organized by the Vatican Library, the Vatican School of Library Science, and the Associazione Italiana Biblioteche (AIB).

The AIB Study group on cataloging and classification had already decided in 2012 to organize a national workshop before its mandate ended. This did not happen partly because of the uncertainty relating to the development of the cataloging procedures adopted by Servizio Bibliotecario Nazionale italiano (SBN) that involved changes in cataloging rules as well as the implementation of its union catalog, which were both constrained by financial problems. On the other hand Italian librarians in general appeared to be more concerned about securing the official recognition of their profession, as well as facing the dramatic consequences of redundancies.

Therefore, when at the beginning of 2013 the Vatican School of Library Science decided to launch a series of initiatives for the professional development of its former students, it immediately became clear that something positive could result from combining the two initiatives.

The idea of an international conference appealed at once to a group of colleagues and friends with whom these topics were discussed at the time. So we began to discuss together which subject we should address and what the title should be. At first, terms such as "catalog" and "cataloging" were not considered sexy enough to attract a wide interest in the event, and "bibliographic metadata," "bibliographic data infrastructure," or "resource discovery experience" were suggested instead. However, in consideration of the widespread debate on description procedures and tools, as well as authority data, witnessed by the large numbers of events organized by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) as well as by several national professional communities, we decided nonetheless to use the term "catalog."

Having defined the title, we moved on to the content. The temptation to concentrate specifically on rules and procedures was immediately rejected, as was the idea to only focus on search tools, such as the good old online public access catalog (OPAC), even if enriched or of the new generation, or the most recent discovery tools. Instead, we chose to concentrate on strategies and models to verify if and in what way the library, the catalog, the profession, the resources, and the services should evolve to adapt to the new environment and to establish new functionalities and new relationships with the outside world. In this context, it appeared particularly useful to analyze the roles that the most important libraries and networks are developing for themselves and their cataloging services.

But above all a strategic choice was made to turn the viewpoint upside down: to begin not with the object of cataloging, but with the end user of the cataloging process, end users who were once only people, but today can also be systems and algorithms.

The involvement of the Vatican Library in organizing the conference is a consequence of the long-lasting attention paid by this institution to the development of the library sciences, manifested over the years by the active role played by some of its staff in working groups and library committees. In respect to this, the collaboration between the Library and several North American and European institutions could be mentioned. The credit for the so called "cataloging expedition" belongs to them. At the beginning of 1928 a team of eminent specialists coordinated by William Warner Bishop, dean of the American librarians as well as director of the University of Michigan libraries, traveled to Rome. To this team belonged James Christian Hanson (University of Chicago), Charles Martell (Library of Congress), and at a later stage John Ansteinsson (Norges Tekniske Høgskole in Trondhjem, Norway). The cataloging expedition was made possible by a generous grant from the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, whose president at that time was Nicholas Murray Butler. Founded in 1910, on the occasion of the 75th birthday of the philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, the fund aimed at promoting peace and cooperation among nations. In the words of Butler, its mission was "to work for the promotion of peaceful development of civilization by aiding and developing, supporting and directing the forces needful to bring about the prevention of war, ... and to take such steps and promote such undertakings as shall bring about the substitution of law and justice for war as a means of settling international disputes and difficulties."

There is no question that the most significant result of the expedition was the work that led to the publication by the Vatican Library of the Norme per il catalogo degli stampati, an adaptation of the Cataloguing rules: author and title entries of 1908, and the creation of a huge card catalog. Compiling the Norme was seen worldwide as a significant step toward the definition of a set of rules enabling all libraries to accurately and consistently describe their book collections.

Almost a century later the catalog is once again at the center of an international debate, no longer just regarding the production of a code or set of rules widely adopted and shared, but as a consequence of the radical changes imposed by the use of digital technologies on publications, the circulation of information, academic research, and cataloging data production. One wonders if cataloging still makes sense, at a time when search engines are effortlessly able to index billions of digital documents. Is it still necessary to adopt and share uniform description criteria when one considers the growing number of electronic and digital resources? On the one hand they can immediately be viewed on the screen, and on the other they are far too dynamic to be correctly described in quite the same way as one is used to in the case of traditional resources, which tend to be more static. Moreover, the traditional descriptive record model becomes obsolete when descriptions can be generated from the aggregation of data deriving from various sources, which in turn are then made available for reuse in contexts quite different from the original one.

Given these circumstances, FSR2014 appeared as a favorable opportunity to bring together at the Vatican a group of experts and ask them to share some ideas about cataloging, intended as a set of rules, a language of mediation, a tool for study and research. Participants, with different backgrounds and countries of origin, were able to discuss what a catalog is now, whether it is still useful and of good quality, or, on the contrary, whether its features are so limited and its existence so hidden to be of little or no use in carrying out bibliographic searches on the web. The debate has shown that libraries are prepared to renovate themselves and are fighting to define their new role and social status within the circuits of preservation and circulation of knowledge.

There is another aspect of this conference that deserves to be mentioned in relation to the Carnegie Endowment project. Following the call for papers, several proposals were sent in by librarians working in remote countries who are seldom represented in events of this kind, particularly countries currently undergoing financial instability and social turmoil.

The over two hundred people who expressed the intention to give a presentation or a poster or merely to attend, belonged to academic and governmental library institutions of twenty-nine countries on five continents. In terms of mileage, the most remote came from Australia. African countries represented were Nigeria, Congo, and Egypt; Turkey, Iran, and Kuwait represented the Asian countries. As for America, attendees came from the United States and Canada, as well as from Brazil. The fact that the most numerous group of librarians came from European countries, such as Greece, Finland, Spain, Ireland, and Ukraine, was an easy guess.

The 38 papers, both invited and selected through a blind revision process, were subdivided into four sessions:

  • Models and Strategies, Dorothy McGarry, chair
  • Rachel Ivy Clarke, Breaking Records: The History of Bibliographic Records and their Influence in Conceptualizing Bibliographic Data; Tanja Mercun and Maja Žumer, Cataloguing for the users: from catalogue objectives to bibliographic data; Karen Coyle, Rethinking FRBR, Two Decades On; Gordon Dunsire, RDA in Library Linked Data Applications; Dean Seeman and Lisa Goddard, Preparing the Way: Creating Future Compatible Cataloguing Data in a Transitional Environment

  • Cooperation: challenges and opportunities, Luigina Orlandi, chair
  • Klaus Kempf, A silent revolution, or the transformation of the catalogue from a local data silo to a multiple net based access and meta data system; Massimo Gentili Tedeschi, The Illusion of controlled Vocabularies: towards a cataloguing Babele?; Paola Manoni, New challenges facing the Vatican Library in the complex management between set of metadata; Anna Lucarelli and Elisabetta Viti, Florence-Washington round trip: ways and intersections between semantic indexing tools in different languages; Laura Lalli, Rare books in the Vatican Library: reshaping the catalogue; Paola Puglisi, "The day has not yet come.": book-jackets in library catalogue; Luca Martinelli, Wikidata: A New Way to Disseminate Structured Data; Zdravko Blazekovic, RILM abstracts of music literature in its global multilingual environment; Renate Behrens and Verena Schaffner, RDA--The implementation in Germany, Austria, and German-speaking Switzerland; Tetyana Yaroshenko and Iryna Bankovska, Electronic Catalogue of the University Library: more than just a catalogue (an example from National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy Library)

  • Bits and Bricks, Sandra K. Roe, chair
  • Agnese Galeffi, Cataloguing principles, data, and catalogue features: Some reflections from IFLA ICP revision; Claudio Gnoli, Which knowledge organization systems for conceptual interoperability?; Dogan Atilgan, Nevzat Özel, and Tolga Çakmak, RDA in Turkey: Perceptions and Expectations on Implementation; Eliane Serrão Alves Mey, Isabel Arino Grau and Fernanda Salgado Biar, RDA's Pros and Cons: One Point of View From Brazil; Simona Turbanti, Cui prodest libraries authority work?; Violeta Ilik, Cataloguer makeover; Cristina Pattuelli, Discovering Jazz History through Linked Open Data: The Linked Jazz Project; Carlo Bianchini and Mauro Guerrini, A turning point for catalogues; Edward M. Corrado and Rachel Jaffe, Transforming and enhancing metadata for enduser discovery: a case study; Juliya Borie, Kate MacDonald, and Elisa Sze, Asserting our place in the "value of libraries" conversation: the evolving role and future of cataloguing

  • User Experience (The Catalogue and You), Mauro Guerrini, chair
  • Alberto Petrucciani, Quality of library catalogues and value of (good) catalogues; Marco Ranieri, "Different users different uses"; Marie-Louise Ayres, Do we still need a catalogue?: Discovery, delivery and engagement at the National Library of Australia; Anna Maria Tammaro and Vittore Casarosa, From the art of cataloguing to the art of linking: are the educational curricula up to the job? Milena Dobreva, Citizens and eInfrastructures: engagement of general users in eResearch; Eddie Paul, A Different Holy Trinity: The FRBR Implementation at the Jewish Public Library, Montreal; Dobrica Savic, Using a Google Search Appliance (GSA) to search digital library collections: a case study of the INIS Collection Search; Antonella Trombone, New displaying models of bibliographic data and resources: cataloguing/resource description and search results; Andrea Fabbrizzi, An atlas of classification. Signage between open shelves, the web and the catalogue; Anne Welsh, Flipping the cataloguing class: Equipping and empowering cataloguers for the hybrid cataloguing environment; Piero Polidoro, Libraries and catalogues on the web: from mere usability to experience

The conference also included a session with 14 poster presentations.

Each day was opened by a testimonial presenting the personal professional experience of the two invited speakers. The first testimonial was from Carlo Revelli, widely known for his fundamental works on the catalog, as well as for the column Osservatorio internazionale appearing regularly for many years in Biblioteche Oggi. The second was from Dorothy McGarry, who actively took part in working groups studying the evolution of cataloging rules over the last fifty years. Both speakers have consistently adopted an independent and personal approach, rejecting the easy appeal of following the trend of the moment. Their message is that cataloging should continue to provide high quality data and that as a tool it should foster and enhance international cooperation.

The keynote speech was given by Daniel van Spanje, senior product manager of OCLC Metadata Services (Netherlands). He illustrated the emerging challenges today in organizing data within the catalog and their relationship to web resources. In his vision, cataloging is gradually shifting from record management (i.e., managing cataloging records as organized sets of metadata), to entity management (i.e., the aggregation of data belonging to "entities" such as people, places, works, etc. uniquely identified by the systems, structured hierarchically, and organized as networks of dynamically changing links). This approach, derived from the Semantic Web logic and adopted by the BIBFRAME model, enhances the connections between web users and library collections, gives the latter more visibility and requires new metadata management procedures less centered on new data creation and more focused on establishing relationships between "entities," in a dimension ranging from global to local, dubbed "catalinking" by the speaker.

Almost all papers succeeded in engaging the interest of the attendees and in stimulating debate that went on in a more informal way during coffee and lunch breaks and through social networks. The picture which has emerged is one characterized by a large number of issues equally significant, witnessing the present state of uncertainty of the library world, particularly as far as cataloging is concerned. At the same time it showed the vitality of a profession deeply and increasingly enriched through cross-fertilization with other environments. It is therefore also quite difficult to schematize the results because significant developments are likely in the near future. Nonetheless we can draw attention to a few issues raised in various papers, viewed from different perspectives.

As far as cataloging theories and rules are concerned, some presentations stressed the shortcomings of the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) model in relation to the definition of its entities (work and expression being the most critical) as well as the inadequacy of its static structure to reproduce the evolving nature of multimedia and digital material and to represent the variety of existing relationships. Others have emphasized the complex and costly set of tasks required before Resource Description and Access (RDA) can be adopted, ranging from training staff, testing procedures, and planning implementations. All these factors contribute to undermine the sustainability of the adoption of RDA for many countries, thus making international cooperation in cataloging more difficult to achieve. In addition, the Library of Congress is defining a data model, Bibliographic Framework (BIBFRAME), which is not quite compliant with either FRBR or RDA. In other words, different tools with the same aim are being promoted at the same time.

As for the bibliographic record, it is not clear whether it still makes sense to refer to it as a "record" given its new context in which data can be disaggregated. In the process of revising the Statement of International Cataloguing Principles (ICP) this issue was repeatedly taken into consideration. That said, bibliographic mediation is still considered to be one of the key functions of the library, although we have to rethink and redesign the way we offer our services for access to information.

And finally, as one would have expected, the debate focused on the user, the driving force and center of the librarian's attention. Users need quality data, easily and promptly accessible through search tools featuring efficient, intuitive, and engaging interfaces that make the most of available technologies. In general nowadays we benefit from much more powerful finding tools that cover not just the books and journals in our collections, but articles and so much more. OPACs should therefore be treated merely as inventory control systems or known item search tools. Librarians are expected to concentrate on improving delivery of the materials purchased and licensed or produced by their parent institutions. Additional metadata for national and international initiatives should improve accessibility wherever the discovery of special collections is still inadequate. In the field of authority data, the cataloger's work, going beyond the catalog, should be seen as the creation of links rather than the mere description of entities. Libraries and other subjects have initiated potentially rewarding collaborative projects, such as that between Wikipedia and Virtual International Authority File (VIAF), which is currently one of the most significant resources for data aggregation on the web. Provided that libraries insist on producing quality data, resulting from accurate control and according to predefined and consistent criteria, they still have a vital role to play even in the age of the Semantic Web. Open data and the reuse of data are not simply tools to connect people with knowledge, knowledge with knowledge, and people with people, but will promote new forms of knowledge. In this scenario the proactive role of librarians is crucial.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I would like to take this opportunity to remember Antonio Alecci, who first at the Vatican School of Library Science and then through his work at the Vatican Library has taught me that cataloging is not only about using the correct rules, but above all to understand the book and its significance in transferring knowledge. If Thomas Mann is right in stating that no matter how many things we do in our entire life all we really do in the end is but one thing, I admit having pursued, through cataloging, the idea of connecting people by connecting resources or contents thanks to Antonio Alecci's teaching. It is not by mere accident that my research from that moment onward was mostly focused on interoperability and authority data. They both pursue the ideal of harmonizing existing differences and by establishing links they reveal the value that derives from diversity.
[PGW]

Notes

1 The conference was under the auspices of the Italian Ministry for Cultural Heritage and three universities: LUMSA (Rome), Dipartimento di Scienze documentarie, linguistico-filologiche e geografiche at La Sapienza--University of Rome, and the Dipartimento di Studi umanistici of the University of Pavia. They contributed to the event both by offering scientific support and by providing venues for meetings and workshops. Financial support was provided by The Goethe Institut, the United States Embassy to Italy, and OCLC.

2 Programme committee members: Paul Gabriele Weston (coordinator), Agnese Cargini, Flavia Cancedda, Agnese Galeffi, Antonio Manfredi, Andrea Marchitelli, and Giuseppina Vullo.

3 Among others, the conference "The Value of Cataloguing" organized by the CILIP Cataloguing and Indexing Group in 2012 and the publication of Catalogue 2.0: The Future of the Library Catalogue (Sally Chambers ed.).

4 Nicholas Murray Butler, "The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace," International Conciliation 75 (February 1914): 3-14.

5 The presentations and abstract are available at the conference website hosted by Associazione Italiana Biblioteche, http://www.aib.it/attivita/congressi/fsr-2014/2013/38189-fsr-programme/ (accessed January 25, 2015).

6 "Carlo Revelli-Testimony," http://www.aib.it/attivita/congressi/fsr-2014/2014/41403-carlo-revelli-testimony/ (accessed January 25, 2015).

7 David Bade, "The International Observer: Carlo Revelli on the (Non)Autonomy of Cataloging," Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 48, no. 8 (2010): 743-756.

8 "Dorothy McGarry-Testimony," http://www.aib.it/attivita/congressi/fsr-2014/2014/41465-mcgarry-testimony/ (accessed January 25, 2015).

9 From the fsr2014.org web page the tweet #FSR2014 is accessible. Other comments and photographs are available on the Facebook page, https://www.facebook.com/fsr2014.org.

10 More information about the issues raised at FSR2014 can be found at: Roberto Raieli, "Instant, Cultural and Infinite: lo sviluppo dei sistemi di ricerca e scoperta verso le qualità del pensiero (note da FSR 2014)," AibStudi 54, no. 1 (2014): 95-114, http://aibstudi.aib.it/article/view/9991/9417 (accessed January 25, 2015); Giuseppina Vullo, "'Faster, Smarter and Richer. Reshaping the Library Catalogue." La conferenza internazionale FSR in Vaticano," DigItalia 1 (2014): 112-120, http://digitalia.sbn.it/article/view/1059/689(accessed January 25, 2015); Giuseppina Vullo, "Introduction to FSR 2014 Special Issue," Jlis 5, no. 2 (2014): 1-4, http://leo.cineca.it/index.php/jlis/article/view/10138/9432 (accessed January 25, 2015); Tiziana Rondinella, "Rome, Italy: Cataloguing and Data Today," SCATNews 41 (2014): 19-20, http://www.ifla.org/files/assets/cataloguing/scatn/scat-news-41.pdf (accessed January 25, 2015); Verena Schaffner, "Bericht zur internationalen Konferenz 'Faster, smarter and richer. Reshaping the library catalogue-FRS 2014' (Rom, 27-28. Februar 2014)," Mitteilungen der Vereinigung Österreichischer Bibliothekarinnen & Bibliothekare 67, no. 2 (2014): 308-312, http://eprints.rclis.org/23891/1/v%C3%B6b-mitteilungen_67%20%282014%29%202_bericht_schaffner_fsr%202014.pdf (accessed January 25, 2015).



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Cataloging News

Violet B. Fox, News Editor

Welcome to the news column.  Its purpose is to disseminate information on any aspect of cataloging and classification that may be of interest to the cataloging community.  This column is not just intended for news items, but serves to document discussions of interest as well as news concerning you, your research efforts, and your organization.  Please send any pertinent materials, notes, minutes, or reports to Violet B. Fox via email at: violetbfox@gmail.com (phone: 312-996-3040).  News columns will typically be available prior to publication in print from the CCQ website at http://catalogingandclassificationquarterly.com/.

We would appreciate receiving items having to do with:

Research and Opinion

  • Abstracts or reports of on-going or unpublished research
  • Bibliographies of materials available on specific subjects
  • Analysis or description of new technologies
  • Call for papers
  • Comments or opinions on the art of cataloging

Events

  • Notes, minutes, or summaries of meetings, etc. of interest to catalogers
  • Publication announcements
  • Description of grants
  • Description of projects

People

  • Announcements of changes in personnel
  • Announcements of honors, offices, and so on


Events


International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications (DC-2014): Metadata Intersections:
Bridging the Archipelago of Cultural Memory

Austin, Texas--October 8-11, 2014
Submitted by Nerissa S. Lindsey, Catalog Librarian, Killam Library, Texas A&M International University

The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative held its annual International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications in Austin, Texas, October 8-11 at the AT&T Executive Education and Conference Center. The theme of this year's conference was "Metadata Intersections: Bridging the Archipelago of Cultural Memory," which aimed to "explore the role of metadata in spanning the archipelago of siloed cultural memory in an emerging context of linked access to data repositories as well as repositories of cultural artifacts."

A pre-conference workshop, "Fonds & Bonds: Archival Metadata, Tools, and Identity Management," was held on October 8. This hands-on workshop consisted of sessions that covered descriptive standards (e.g., the most recent revision of Encoded Archival Description, EAD3), tools (ArchivesSpace, Remixing Archival Metadata Project [RAMP], and xEAC [an open-source XForms-based application for creating Encoded Archival Context collections]) as well as identifiers useful for archives (International Standard Name Identifier [ISNI] and Social Networks and Archival Context [SNAC]). There were also sessions on DCMI & Dublin Core and Resource Description Framework (RDF) Validation in the Cultural Heritage Community.

The conference was opened with a keynote speech by Dr. Eric Miller (co-founder and president of Zepheira), which focused on the past, present, and future of metadata, and more specifically about linked data and the promising future it might provide to diverse data communities. Miller envisions a future where data communities are no longer hidden in disparate data silos, but rather have data structured in a way that search engines such as Google or Bing can consume and display it in search results.

After the opening address, the conference broke out into three types of sessions: presentations of papers in the official conference proceedings, specialist panels, and on the fly unconference sessions where attendees came up with topics for discussion that were not already addressed in the scheduled presentations. The presentations of papers fell under two main themes: Metadata in Support of Research, and Distributed Metadata Environment & Aggregation. The special sessions covered a variety of topics. The first special session of October 9 was a panel of "Next Generation Professionals" where a selection of new professionals who were attending a Dublin Core Metadata Intersections (DCMI) conference for the first time discussed their experience with other attendees. The next two special sessions in the afternoon covered "RDF Application Profiles" and "Tools for Metadata Validation and Quality Controls." The panelists from these sessions discussed metadata validation issues and linked data. The special sessions on October 10 covered Schema.org and Bibliographic Framework (BIBFRAME), followed by a DCMI round table in the afternoon.

On October 10 there was a poster session from 10:30 a.m.-12:00 p.m. The posters were a mix of peer-reviewed and best practice presentations. The topics were varied and ranged from a presentation about metadata for a fashion research collection (Naomi Eichenlaub, Marina Morgan, and Ingrid Masak-Mida) to a presentation about converting metadata for a personal comic book collection to linked data (Sean Peitya).

On October 11, after the conclusion of the conference, there was an all-day workshop: "Linked Data: Training the Trainer" led by Karen Coyle. The workshop was geared toward teaching those with a non-technical background methods for cleaning, reconciling, and enriching their metadata using freely available open source tools. Case studies and methods from the handbook Linked Data for Libraries, Archives and Museums (2014, ALA/Neal-Schuman) were used as examples for the workshop.

All presentations and posters from the 2014 DCMI conference can be accessed at http://dcevents.dublincore.org/IntConf/dc-2014/schedConf/presentations.


International Standard Music Number Report for the Year 2014
Istanbul, Turkey-September 15-19, 2014
Submitted by Hartmut Walravens, Chairman, International ISMN Agency

International Standard Music Number (ISMN) is the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standard 10957 and covers musical notation (in any media); it complements the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) for monographs and International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) for serials and thus contributes to complete coverage and identification of items listed in national bibliographies. The International ISMN Agency is based in Berlin, Germany; many national libraries are in charge of ISMN on a national level.

The annual highlight of ISMN work is the Annual General Assembly (AGM), which takes place in different places around the world, alternating between Europe, where most of the agencies are situated, and other parts of the world. This year's meeting was organized in Istanbul, Turkey, by the Turkish Ministry of Culture. It was opened on September 15, 2014 in the Ticaret Üniversitesi directly on the shores of the Golden Horn--a splendid central location.

While the ISBN and ISMN meetings had been aligned for the past few years, this year was special: The ISSN network held its Director's Meeting in the same place, from September 17 to 19, which meant a slight overlap with the ISBN AGM on September 16 and 17. Thus, all ISO standard identifiers for "manifestations" were represented. The importance and success of these conferences does not lie in the AGMs themselves, which are juridical requirements and often very short; no--it is the user community meeting that allows networking and the discussion of practical questions, upcoming challenges, evaluation of new developments in publishing, and promotes, last but not least, the interoperability between related standards.

Among the items of discussion and interest besides the annual budget questions was news from the Conference of Directors of National Libraries (CDNL), which took place in Lyon, France. This is an excellent platform for contacting decision makers from national libraries (very often in charge of ISMN) around the globe. Thus, for example, it was an opportunity to discuss ISMN with the Polish national librarian; Polish music publishers and producers prefer the ISBN for their publications as it is linked in Poland with massive tax benefits. But the resulting practice does not only mean a breach of two standards but in a more practical sense defeats the mission of the standard, namely identifying notated music within the many millions of other published items. So efforts are underway to find an official solution. Another example is the situation in the Netherlands where, owing to a decision of Parliament, subsidies for many cultural activities were axed--the Dutch Music Institute that hosted the ISMN Agency was disbanded, and fortunately a publishing firm took over the ISMN responsibility. But there is still the question whether a national institution might become involved to ease the burden.

A constant matter of discussion and explanation is the situation in countries that publish very little music, like many African countries. On the other hand, this music is appreciated worldwide because elements of folk and tribal music give musicians new ideas--but is the ISMN really necessary if you have, let's say just five new items a year? Well, yes! Music is not limited to one country or a certain area like many "books"--music does not suffer the limitations of individual languages but is international. Records of new publications may be integrated in international music orders, in trade directories, and so on, which would be impossible without unique identifiers nowadays. Manual work has become too slow and costly to be an alternative to computer linking.

One would assume that the success story of the ISBN (books are no longer sold without the number) would have convinced the music sector to go for it as quickly as possible. This is not the case, unfortunately, for a number of reasons:

  • The smaller music publishers can be resistant to technology as it seems contrary to the arts, and they feel more like creative artists than business people.

  • Some of the very large companies embraced ISBN many years ago when ISMN did not yet exist (i.e., before 1993) and they are reluctant to change. Some of the envisaged benefits of ISMN are not yet tangible.

  • Some traditional well-known companies have ISMN but they do not publicize the numbers in catalogs, or on the web. When asked the answer is usually: Our customers usually order by our own (proprietary) numbers. In former times employees of music shops invested much time in memorizing these numbers, which still play an important role. But, of course, they do not open the market to people who are not regular customers.

The preparation of a Music in Print directory has been under way for some years. It is called IDNV (Internationale Datenbank für Noten und Verlagsartikel = International Database for Printed Music and Musical Products) and is maintained by the German ISMN agency. It comprises about 600,000 records so far and is growing. Hopefully it will soon become indispensable: an international trade directory of such a kind would make the numbering much more attractive--see ISBN!

An important development is the fact that the ISMN standard has come up for systematic review (an ISO routine to keep standards up-to-date). As ISBN is just being reviewed, the International ISMN Agency suggested making some changes in the ISMN standard, too, to facilitate interoperability. It is expected that a working group will be created to make the necessary changes.

Next year's meeting will take place in Indonesia; if we take our mission seriously we should spend some effort on outreach, and Indonesia belongs to the countries with a small music output but with a rich musical tradition.

A detailed report of the 2014 meeting will be published as ISMN Newsletter 24; it will also be available on the Agency's website: http://www.ismn-international.org/.


OLAC-MOUG (Online Audiovisual Catalogers-Music OCLC Users Group) 2014 Conference:
A/V Cataloging at the Crossroads

Kansas City, Missouri--October 23-26, 2014
Reports submitted by Jan Mayo, OLAC Newsletter Conference Reports Column Editor, East Carolina University, Greenville NC

Editor's note: Presentation materials may be found on the conference website at http://olac2014.weebly.com. The full conference report, including summaries of workshops, poster sessions and lightning talks, can be found in the OLAC Newsletter, volume 34, number 4 (December 2014) at http://olacinc.org/drupal/newsletters/2014Dec.pdf.


Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin: or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the BIBFRAME (Opening Keynote)
Presented by Philip Schreur, Stanford University
Reported by Barbara Tysinger, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

In his position as Head of the Metadata Department and as Metadata Strategist at Stanford University, Philip Schreur is ideally situated to introduce us to the scary world of BIBFRAME. Much like BIBFRAME proposes to link what at first may appear to be unrelated elements, Philip skillfully links his love of music and classic horror films into an interesting, informative, and entertaining presentation in which he presents the concepts behind linked data as well as its practical applications, providing support for the argument that we must rethink and reevaluate how we record and present data to the public.

Philip opened his talk by taking us back to his childhood in Chicago, absorbed in the world of "Creature Features" and its presentation of classic horror films. It was here he was first introduced to the concept of "The Moving Hand" and "The Writing on the Wall," and it was through these films that he developed his love of classical music. Both of these themes are intertwined throughout the remainder of his talk, and both are used to demonstrate aspects of linked data.

Of course, as a child, linked data meant little to Philip, but his imagination was captured by the music in the film The Beast with Five Fingers, which was credited to Max Steiner. He used this to illustrate that had linked data been available, he could more easily have learned what it took him the better part of the next 10 years to discover, that Steiner had adapted the film's music from a piece by Brahms arranged for the left hand, which had, in turn, been adapted from Bach.

Philip also commented on how the theme of the moving hand or the writing on the wall has a long, linked history. First appearing in the Book of Daniel, and later in the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, it implies impending change and a reckoning, and Philip used it not only to illustrate his talk, but as his theme as well. The implications are that cataloging has reached a crossroads, and that to advance we must change our current practices and perspective, bringing our work to the web. We must reassess and reevaluate not just what we do but how we do it, recognizing that in the modern, linked data world of the Internet, the data we record needs to go beyond the simple statement of facts about a resource and that BIBFRAME is an attempt to address this need.

The traditional catalog record is designed to record facts about the resource. The linked data structure of BIBFRAME places the emphasis on making connections to other information related to the resource, leading patrons to further discoveries. Much like the Extensible Markup Language (XML) on which it is based, the BIBFRAME AV model is extensible, and can be tailored to specific communities' needs.

In conclusion, Philip emphasized that the strength of the BIBFRAME model lies in the linking of the data. This linking is where the future lies, in links provided not only by ourselves but by our users, creating a complex, interlinked database that can retain the basic resource information with which we are familiar, yet one that can grow organically, encompassing the needs and expectations of a growingly inter-linked world.


The Progress of BIBFRAME
Presented by Angela Kroeger, University of Nebraska at Omaha
Reported by Scott Piepenburg, Valdosta State University

Early on, first-time Online Audiovisual Catalogers, Inc. (OLAC) attendee and presenter Angela Kroeger set the tone of the talk. She made it very clear that she is not actually a practitioner or using BIBFRAME and that the presentation was going to be very academic in nature. Angela also made it very clear that she is not a practicing cataloger but more focused on archives.

The presentation began with a brief history of the purpose of BIBFRAME; that is, to be a replacement for the venerable MARC format. The main difference is that rather than a flat file of text strings, it is more a collection of links of data and descriptors as to what that data is, the main purpose being able to "reconstruct" data images and search results based on the user's needs; in other words, to be more dynamic and less static as a resource tool.

The presentation then proceeded with a chronological history of BIBFRAME along with a very brief discussion of its genesis with the Library of Congress (LC) and its now-defunct contract with Zepheira, the company that LC contracted with to get the ball rolling on the basic design of a structure to replace MARC. Angela also stated that various Integrated Library System (ILS) vendors no doubt will develop their own BIBFRAME tool and that Stanford, Cornell, and Harvard Universities are working on a suite of open-source software; Stanford has already moved to a BIBFRAME environment, a fact confirmed in private discussions with attendees from that institution. A concept that slowly revealed itself and became more pervasive as the presentation went along, is that BIBFRAME is just a part of a larger linked-data universe in libraries; there are, and will be, competing and hopefully compatible structures in the library universe that will help libraries and librarians better organize and present data.

One of the most demonstrable parts of the presentation was showing what a linked data environment can do in terms of data manipulation and presentation, making very clear that it is up to the vendor, or organizer of a particular environment, how they want to present the results of a user query. Ultimately, it would be conceivable that the results presented would be dynamic based on the environment and the user's needs. Some possibilities for linked data were discussed; fortunately, Angela chose not to discuss linked data triples, a topic that, while important to understanding the underlying theory behind linked data, seemed to be outside of the focus of the presentation; in essence, this is what it CAN do, not WHY it does it

There were some discussions about how BIBFRAME supports the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) model and some dictionaries, terminologies, and how it can play with other structures. Some in attendance disagreed that linked data was a good thing due to the non-permanent nature of said data (an example often used was that of the Virtual Internet Authority File [VIAF]) and that some of the FRBR definitions mean different things to different people, but therein lies the benefit of BIBFRAME; it can be configured, and adapted, by the organization designing and using it, to store, access, and provide information to users.

Personally, it was the last portion of the presentation that held the greatest excitement, that of actually seeing BIBFRAME in action and working with it. Angela presented some websites with demonstrations and comparison tools, not all of which are from the Library of Congress. Along with a converter that is packaged with Terry Reese's ubiquitous MarcEdit tool, there is also a converter at the official BIBFRAME website. While only providing a conversion, they allow the novice and the experimenter alike to view traditional MARC records in a potential BIBFRAME environment.

Particularly intriguing was the Zepheira prototype BIBFRAME editor and the Libhub initiative where Zepheira seeks to take MARC records created in any cataloging standard (even Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, First Edition [AACR1]) and put them in a large shared database to "play" with, sort of like a sandbox arrangement. There was speculation on what Zepheira intends to do with this amalgamation of records from different types.

Angela concluded with a road sign that said "The future of cataloging construction ahead. Have a nice day." This presentation was a solid introduction to that future without getting bogged down in a lot of technical details and "back office" topics that, to be honest, some practitioners do not care about. While there were some technical topics and terms presented, the presentation was clearly the most useful for those who want to "dip their feet" into the BIBFRAME waters and take the tool out for a spin to see what it is all about.


OLAC Research Reports
Presented by Kelley McGrath, University of Oregon, and Bobby Bothmann, Minnesota State University, Mankato
Reported by Lisa Romano, University of Massachusetts Boston

Kelley McGrath, Metadata Management Librarian at the University of Oregon, gave a presentation on "Identifying and clustering moving images works found in manifestation-based MARC records." She discussed her research plans on a prototype moving image record using a work-centric view. Unfortunately, this type of record cannot be based on MARC. Instead, an automated tool is needed to look at the manifestations and see what works are presented. This tool should divvy up the data in the MARC record, which can contain multiple manifestations, expressions, and works. Then it should group equivalent entities and de-dupe. Some of these entities can contain more than one work.

She next described various FRBR tools that are available to create this type of record, including:

  • The FRBR Display Tool from the Library of Congress matches based on author and title, or if author is not available, just title.
  • OCLC's FRBR Work-Set Algorithm processes in this order: author and title, uniform title, title and name, and title and OCLC number.
  • The MARC to FRBR (marc2frbr) conversion tool from Norway identifies the different entities in the MARC record, selects the fields that describe the entities, finds the relationships between the entities, and supports normalization by finding and merging equivalent records.
  • The conversion tool from INESC-ID (Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores, Investigação e Desenvolvimento) in Portugal uses string similarity for matching instead of exact string matching. This is a looser type of matching, and is good for typographic errors and variations in the arrangement of words.

These tools are not perfect. The data processed is incomplete, inconsistent, inaccurate, and missing. Some data is in free text, such as roles. Additionally, expressions and multiple works within a single manifestation are difficult to identify. In fact, OCLC determined that it could not identify expressions solely on MARC records, but instead that they had to look at some items. In her research, Kelley has discovered that algorithms that use more than one match work better. Unfortunately, many moving image records do not have a MARC 1xx field. The solution may be to add more match points such as title, original date, and director. Kelley closed her presentation by stating that she has had a setback with the director code and asked the audience to help her identify directors via http://tinyurl.com/oc27ng6.

The second research presentation was given by Bobby Bothmann, Metadata & Emerging Technologies Librarian at Minnesota State University, Mankato. He described his initial work toward publication of Cataloging of Audiovisual Materials and Other Special Materials (CAVM) 5.5: a Resource Description and Access (RDA) Companion. The purpose of his research grant is to create examples in MARC21 and MARCXML that demonstrate relationships between bibliographic group 1 entities (work, expression, manifestation, and item). Plus, he is documenting the similarities and changes between Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, Second Edition (AACR2) and RDA cataloging.

Bobby described how he used his research grant to purchase items that would make good examples including: DVDs, models, puppets, maps, and audio recordings. The focus of his presentation was on some of the problems he found in cataloging non-print materials and possible solutions. Some of these issues are:

  • Fictitious characters (e.g., Lassie) may need name authority records to support 700 fields.
  • Movies that are adaptations of books call for additional relationships. He suggested using 7xx fields to help identify and give the "series" information.
  • If there is more than one version of a movie (such as Hairspray), catalogers should create more than one uniform title.
  • For different DVD versions (Blu-ray, deluxe edition, etc.), multiple related 775/776 fields for each version are necessary.
  • Relator terms are book-centric. For games, "creator" is probably the best option to indicate the role of the individual responsible. Additional 700 and 730 fields can be added if the game is based on another work.
  • Relationship terms are lacking for audio. In Appendix J of RDA toolkit, there is no mention of audio being an expression of the text. 776 fields can help identify the version.

Additionally, Bobby raised the question of how much is too much. For a movie series such as Star Wars, how many prequels and sequels should be defined? And for movies that have several adaptations (graphic novel, theater, libretto, etc.) as in Les Misérables, how many 775/776 are needed and how many are too many?

This presentation left the audience thinking about RDA and relationships as well as RDA's potential shortcomings for non-print materials.


The Sky Is Not Falling: Questioning Assumptions about the Future of Special Formats Cataloging (Closing Keynote)
Presented by Casey Mullin, Stanford University
Reported by Jan Mayo, East Carolina University

Casey Mullin, Head of the Data Control Unit, Stanford University Libraries, began with Heidi Hoerman's prediction in her closing keynote for the 2008 OLAC Conference that "RDA is dead." At the time, there was a fair amount of negativity surrounding RDA becoming a reality, but was Heidi right? The answer is obviously no. Assumptions about RDA included that it would be like putting old wine in new skins because of the AACR2 baggage, that implementation was uncertain, that the concept of core would be problematic, that MARC would have to die, and that MARC's successor (BIBFRAME) would be a panacea.

Casey gave a little of his own history that led to his becoming a librarian and how his interests have kept him on the leading edge of new developments since his graduation from library school. He shared a timeline for RDA that showed its steady movement forward, despite opposition, from early 2008 until it was finally implemented by the Library of Congress in April 2013 and beyond. He discussed new initiatives to revise and expand RDA and make it universally available. The advent of RDA has meant that MARC has needed to be tweaked a lot and is unlikely to die for quite some time yet.

He also discussed new developments in FRBR and Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD) and mentioned several subject thesauri that are coming into being to provide better discoverability of materials. He talked about the options being explored that will take us beyond MARC.

While RDA brought some improvements to the cataloging process, in that it is less particular and has allowed more approved sources of information and more granular relationships, which fields are core has led to some problems. It did not necessarily make for shorter bibliographic records, however, because catalogers are not as bound by the rules as they were in AACR2.

There is a still a lot of work to be done on BIBFRAME before it can become the new standard, including ways to convert legacy data, new cataloging interfaces, sharing mechanisms, storage methods, and displaying results.

To wrap up, Casey stated that RDA, far from being dead, is here to stay. MARC will also stay for a while, because BIBFRAME is not yet ready for prime time. In the meantime, there is still plenty to catalog. His call to action for catalogers is to (1) link more, type less; (2) do more authority work; (3) participate in standards development; (4) collaborate with technologists; and (5) keep cataloging! He contends that the sky is not falling, it is rising.


People


Glenn Patton Announces Plan to Retire from OCLC
Submitted by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc.

Glenn Patton, Director, WorldCat Quality Management Division, announced his intention to retire December 31, 2014 after 34 years of service to the OCLC membership and the library community worldwide. Glenn has been a tireless advocate for catalogers and cataloging standards in libraries around the world. He has provided steady, calm leadership throughout decades of change as cataloging standards advance with innovation in information technologies. He has helped to guide generations of catalogers as a teacher, communicator, and leader in the library community.

"I was fortunate to have worked with Glenn for the past 20 or more years," said Beacher Wiggins, Director for Acquisitions & Bibliographic Access, Library of Congress. "He and I served as the respective points of contact for our two entities-OCLC and the Library of Congress. Over the years, we have engaged in many far-reaching, complex, and challenging initiatives and changes. The transition from Wade-Giles to Pinyin for representing the transliteration of Chinese characters stands out as one of those major efforts that our two organizations undertook on behalf of the larger library community. Throughout this intense project, Glenn, as was his wont, exhibited calm, solid understanding of the effort and a sense of humor that helped us all survive! I will miss working with him and acknowledge the substantive impact his work has had on our profession and the work that libraries perform."

Glenn has been a leader and an active member in a variety of library institutions and organizations. He has served as the OCLC representative to the American Library Association (ALA) Association for Library Collections and Technical Services (ALCTS) Committee on Cataloging: Description and Access since 1982. Since 2000, he has been the OCLC representative to the Program for Cooperative Cataloging Policy Committee and Steering Committee. He was elected as a member of the ALA ALCTS Cataloging and Classification Section Executive Committee 2002/03-2004/05. He also served as a primary reviewer of National Information Standards Organization (NISO) and ISO standards.

"Glenn has long-served as an educator, a mentor, an expert in the field, and a trusted colleague within the cataloging community," said Christopher Cronin, Director of Technical Services at the University of Chicago Library and Chair of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging. "He has provided critical leadership and guidance through all of the major standards developments that have emerged during his career, and with each one of these shifts, played a key role in helping to propel us into new futures. The community has countless reasons to thank Glenn for his exceptional service to the profession. In particular, I would like to thank Glenn for continually sharing his vision for the crucial role that all catalogers play in building and strengthening the metadata network that is at the core of the OCLC cooperative."

In addition to his contributions to the cataloging profession in general, Glenn has also had a profound impact on the development of OCLC cataloging services. He served as product manager for OCLC's implementation of a variety of initiatives, including the USMARC Machine-Readable Data Files format; USMARC format changes in the OCLC system; and reimplementation of OCLC cataloging functions in the PRISM Service and subsequent enhancements. Glenn served as consultant to other PRISM Service projects to ensure consistency, represented OCLC on the Linked Systems Project Bibliographic Analysis Committee, served as a primary reviewer of and contributor to OCLC's documentation, and was a consultant to other OCLC staff in interpreting AACR2 and MARC format practices.

Glenn has been very much involved in international library work. He has been an elected ALA representative of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) Bibliography Section Standing Committee since 2007. He participated as an OCLC representative to a cooperative project with German university libraries investigating harmonization of German and U.S. cataloging practices and MARC formats, and in a similar project with the National Library of Russia investigating harmonization of Russian and U.S. cataloging practices and formats. He served as a member of the IFLA Cataloguing Section Standing Committee from 1997-2005 and chaired the IFLA Working Group on Functional Requirements and Numbering of Authority Records from 2002-2009. At every point in his career, Glenn has helped to identify and investigate potential new products, services, and initiatives to advance the library community. Most recently, he has been coordinating the implementation of RDA at OCLC.

"For many librarians, Glenn Patton has been the face of OCLC cataloging for some 30 years," said Barbara G. Preece, Director, Loyola/Notre Dame Library, Loyola University Maryland, and President, OCLC Global Council. "Not only has Glenn ably represented OCLC around the world, he has represented the interests of librarians everywhere. His contributions to librarianship will be felt for decades to come."


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