Volume 53, no. 5/6, 2015



 

 

Indigenous Knowledge Organization


Cheryl A. Metoyer and Ann M. Doyle

Guest Editors



Foreword

Imagining Our Own Approaches
Linda Tuhiwai Smith


Introduction

Cheryl A. Metoyer and Ann M. Doyle


Original Articles

Ka Pō, Ka Ao, Ka Awatea: The Interface between Epistemology and Māori Subject Headings
Spencer C. Lilley

ABSTRACT: Cataloging and classification provide intellectual access for organizing resources in libraries. In New Zealand, bibliographic control is largely through the application of Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). LCSH provide a sense of context and order. In Indigenous frameworks this sense of order can be found in the link between epistemology and knowledge structure. This article argues that the development and application of Māori subject headings is directly related to the natural order that is pivotal to a Māori worldview. The impact of this worldview and its associated values are explored in the context of the construction of Ngā Ūpoko Tukutuku.

KEYWORDS: Ngā Ūpoko Tukutuku-Māori subject headings, Indigenous knowledge, Māori epistemology, authority control, controlled vocabularies, indexing vocabularies, subject access


Ki te Tika te Hanga, Ka Pakari te Kete: With the Right Structure We Weave a Strong Basket
Penelope Bardenheiera, Elizabeth H. Wilkinson & Hēmi Dale (Te Rarawa, Te Aupōuri)

ABSTRACT: Two Indigenous frameworks were successfully applied to a significant collection of junior Māori language material at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. Ngā Kete Kōrero Framework is used to assign levels to readers designed for structured literacy development and formed the basis of a new classification system. Ngā Ūpoko Tukutuku is an Indigenous subject headings schema developed to empower and enrich records using Māori knowledge systems and terminology. Library staff worked collaboratively with Māori language literacy experts to transform access to the material. The Indigenous frameworks, their application for reclassification and record enhancement, and associated benefits of the project are described.

KEYWORDS: Indigenous knowledge, classification, Māori, subject headings, Ngā Ūpoko Tukutuku, Ngā Kete Kōrero, literacy


He Matapihi Mā Mua, Mō Muri: The Ethics, Processes, and Procedures Associated with the Digitization of Indigenous Knowledge-The Pei Jones Collection
Hēmi Whaanga, David Bainbridge, Michela Anderson, Korii Scrivener, Papitha Cader, Tom Roa & Te Taka Keegan

The digital era has transformed how people live their lives and interact with the world and knowledge systems around them. In Aotearoa/New Zealand a range of initiatives incorporating Indigenous knowledge have been implemented to collect, catalog, maintain, and organize digital objects. In this article, we report on the ethics, processes, and procedures associated with the digitization of the manuscripts, works, and collected taonga (treasures) of the late Dr. Pei Te Hurinui Jones-and describe how it was transformed into a digital library. It discusses the decision-making processes and the various roles and responsibilities of the researchers, family members, and institute in this process.

KEYWORDS: tikanga (cultural protocols, digital libraries, spatial hypermedia, Indigenous knowledge, ethics, processes and procedures


A Case Study in Indigenous Classification: Revisiting and Reviving the Brian Deer Scheme
Alissa Cherry & Keshav Mukunda

ABSTRACT: It is a challenge to classify Indigenous knowledge using conventional library classification systems. An interconnected network of information and ideas needs to be classified in a way that adds structure, but also demonstrates relationships and offers some flexibility. Kahnawake librarian Brian Deer developed a classification system that better reflects an Indigenous worldview and the Union of British Columbia Indian Chiefs Resource Centre recently released a new revision of this system. Implementing this new system was a project that produced a model and tools, as well as inspiration that other institutions can use to move toward more culturally appropriate classification.

KEYWORDS: Brian Deer classification, Union of British Columbia Indian Chiefs, Indigenous knowledge, classification, classification bias, classification systems, Library of Congress Classification, reclassification, library reorganization


Adapting the Brian Deer Classification System for Aanischaaukamikw Cree Cultural Institute
Raegan Swanson

ABSTRACT: This case study examines Aanischaaukamikw Cree Culture Institute, a Cree museum and resource center in the Oujé-Bougoumou, Quebec, and the institute's adaptation of the Brian Deer Classification System for use in their library. It gives an overview of the process of adapting Brian Deer for Quebec-focused classification in a small Aboriginal library, detailing the research, planning, testing, and implementation of the project. The value, merits, and disadvantages of adapting the Deer Classification System are addressed.

KEYWORDS: classification systems, types of libraries, case studies, experimental, classification


To Every Artifact Its Voice: Creating Surrogates for Hand-Crafted Indigenous Objects
Lynne C. Howarth & Emma Knight

ABSTRACT:>This article reports on findings from qualitative research undertaken with a group of Aboriginal seniors in Toronto, Canada, to assess how a community-based collection of handcrafted objects could be used to evoke memories of maker culture (craft), as well as to foster meaning-making--all in the course of gathering elements requisite to representing each item in a documented surrogate. The article will discuss how the need to give voice to this unique collection both challenges and enriches traditional approaches to representing and organizing artifacts. A rethinking of surrogate records that center the Indigenous experience in the cataloging process is proposed.

KEYWORDS: handling sessions>, talking circles, Aboriginal seniors, community collection, memory work, reminiscence, surrogate records


Reconciliation through Description: Using Metadata to Realize the Vision of the National Research Centre for Truth and Reconciliation
Brett Lougheed, Ry Moran & Camille Callison

ABSTRACT: This article will discuss the history and context surrounding the document collection and statement gathering mandates of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada and the challenges the newly established National Research Centre for Truth and Reconciliation will face in applying the Commission's metadata set in the realization of its vision. By working respectfully with Indigenous people through the implementation of Indigenous knowledge best practices and the application of contrasting traditional/non-traditional, archival/user-generated, and institutional/Indigenous descriptive elements, the Centre will attempt to create a "living archive" and facilitate Indigenous participation, collaboration, and ultimately, the process of reconciliation.

KEYWORDS: Indigenous knowledge, trusted repository, subject and classification bias, digital archives, Indigenous archives, truth and reconciliation, Residential Schools


Nunavut Libraries Online Establish Inuit Language Bibliographic Cataloging Standards: Promoting Indigenous Language Using a Commercial ILS
Carol Rigby

ABSTRACT: This article examines shared cataloging practices in Nunavut, Canada, where Inuit form 85% of the general population and three official languages, including Inuit language (Inuktitut/Inuinnaqtun), English and French, are used in government and daily discourse. The partners in the Nunavut Libraries Online consortium, together with the Nunavut Government translation bureau, have developed a common vocabulary for creating bibliographic records in Inuktitut, including syllabic script, and used this to create bibliographic cataloging standards, under the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, Second Edition, for creating multilingual and multiscript MARC-compliant, Integrated Library System-compatible records that accurately reflect the multilingual content of material published in and about Nunavut and Inuit.

KEYWORDS: Inuit language, Inuktitut, syllabics, multilingual, multiscript, descriptive cataloging, cataloging standards


Knowledge Organization from an Indigenous Perspective: The Mashantucket Pequot Thesaurus of American Indian Terminology Project
Sandra Littletree & Cheryl A. Metoyer

ABSTRACT: Native Americans create, preserve, and organize knowledge within the context of community, thereby ensuring the inclusion of Native American philosophies. Historically, mainstream cataloging and classification systems have not adequately represented this knowledge. The Mashantucket Pequot Thesaurus of American Indian Terminology was designed to incorporate an Indigenous perspective into mainstream controlled vocabularies. Using story as pedagogy, this article examines the conceptual foundations, theoretical framework, and application of the Thesaurus to a museum setting.

KEYWORDS: Indigenous knowledge organization, thesaurus, cataloging research, controlled vocabularies, Indigenous librarianship, Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH)


Decolonizing Ethnographic Documentation: A Critical History of the Early Museum Catalogs at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History
Hannah Turner

ABSTRACT: To inform debates about decolonizing museum records, this article maps the history of cataloging at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, when material heritage was collected for museums from Indigenous peoples, the knowledge within those communities was often measured against Eurocentric biases that saw Indigenous knowledge as the object of material culture research, not a contribution to it. This article thus argues for a historical approach to understand how standards in object description involve assumptions that have resulted in a lack of Indigenous knowledge in museum records from this time.

KEYWORDS: cataloging, history of catalogs, museums, Indigenous knowledge, documentation, bias


Imagining: Creating Spaces for Indigenous Ontologies
Marisa Elena Duarte & Miranda Belarde-Lewis

ABSTRACT: For at least half a century, catalogers have struggled with how to catalog and classify Native American and Indigenous peoples materials in library, archive, and museum collections. Understanding how colonialism works can help those in the field of knowledge organization appreciate the power dynamics embedded in the marginalization of Native American and Indigenous peoples materials through standardization, misnaming, and other practices. The decolonizing methodology of imagining provides one way that knowledge organization practitioners and theorists can acknowledge and discern the possibilities of Indigenous community-based approaches to the development of alternative information structures.

KEYWORDS: Indigenous knowledge, knowledge organization, cataloging, classification of knowledge, Indigenous peoples, American Indians


Afterword

Knowledge Systems for All
Ingrid Parent


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Author Biographies

Michela Anderson affiliates with Ngāti Ranginui and Ngāti Kahungunu. She completed a Master's of Arts at the University of Waikato in 2013.

David Bainbridge , PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Computer Science Department at the University of Waikato. He holds a PhD in computer science from the University of Canterbury, New Zealand where he studied the problem of optical music recognition as a Commonwealth Scholar. Since moving to Waikato, he has continued to broaden his interest in digital media, while retaining a particular emphasis on music. He is an active member of the Greenstone Digital Library project (www.greenstone.org), and through this work has collaborated with several United Nations Agencies, the BBC, and various public and national libraries. He has published in the areas of image processing, music information retrieval, digital libraries, data compression, and text mining. He is co-author of the book, How to Build a Digital Library, and twice has been the recipient of the best paper award at the premier U.S. conference on digital libraries.

Penelope Bardenheier is a fifth generation New Zealander of Pākehā (British) descent. She holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Information and Library Studies and Humanities. Penelope is the main cataloger for the Education and German funds at the General Library, the University of Auckland, New Zealand. As cataloger for the Education fund she liaises with subject librarians at the Sylvia Ashton-Warner Library to ensure educational material is readily available for library patrons. Penelope has a great interest in te reo Māori (Māori language), knowledge of which she believes is a requirement for the cataloging of Māori material. Penelope is a member of LIANZA, the Library and Information Association of New Zealand Aotearoa and also of CatSIG, Cataloguing Special Interest Group.

Miranda Belarde-Lewis, (Zuni/Tlingit) received her MA in Museum Studies in 2008 and her PhD in Information Science in 2013 from the University of Washington, Seattle. She has served as a curatorial research assistant with the National Museum of the American Indian, an ambassador with the Americans for Indian Opportunity, and is currently assisting in program development with the Suquamish Museum and Cultural Center at Port Madison Indian Reservation. She has taught Native self-governance at the Northwest Indian College in Port Gamble S'Klallam, Washington, and is currently teaching Indigenous Knowledge Visualization through the Comparative History of Ideas at the University of Washington. Her dissertation work, titled "From Six Directions: Protecting Zuni Knowledge in Multiple Environments," focuses on Indigenous approaches to intellectual and cultural property protections.

Papitha Cader is currently enrolled in a PhD program at the University of Waikato and is a Business Systems Project Analyst at Community Living Trust in Hamilton. She completed a Master's of Engineering at the University of Waikato in 2013.

Camille Callison is from Tsesk'iye (Crow) Clan of the Tahltan Nation, holds a BA in Anthropology and an MLIS First Nations Concentration and is dedicated to the preservation of Indigenous knowledge, culture, and cultural material in a variety of media for future generations. Camille is the Indigenous Services Librarian and Liaison Librarian for Anthropology, Native Studies and Social Work at the University of Manitoba where she is also a member of the Implementation Committee for the University of Manitoba's National Research Centre for Truth and Reconciliation. Camille is the President and the Professional Development Director of the Manitoba Library Association, serves as the Moderator for Library and Literacy Services for Indigenous Peoples of Canada for the Canadian Library Association; she is the Chair of the Diversity and Equity Committee for the Canadian Association of Professional Academic Librarians and an active volunteer and member of the Prison Library Committee providing library services to inmates. Camille is also part of a team developing a generic Indigenous Classification for use by Canadian Indigenous people and part of a working group of the Association for Manitoba Archives that is examining how best to revise or replace Library of Congress Subject Headings within Manitoba's archival description union list (the Manitoba Archival Information Network) with terminology that is more appropriate to, and respectful of, Manitoba's Indigenous population. She chairs the planning committee for the ninth International Indigenous Librarians Forum to be held in August 2015 at the University of Manitoba.

Alissa Cherry is the Resource Centre Director for the Union of British Columbia Indian Chiefs (UBCIC) and the Museum Research Manager at the Museum of Anthropology (MOA) at the University of British Columbia (UBC). She has managed a unique research library collection and institutional archives that is used primarily for land claims research for the last eight years and now also works in the Audrey and Harry Hawthorn Library & Archives at MOA. Alissa is a member of the Academy of Certified Archivists and holds an MLIS from UBC. Prior to joining the UBCIC in 2006, Alissa worked for the BC Aboriginal Child Care Society and Xwi7xwa Library at UBC, and spent six years as Librarian in Yellowstone National Park.

Hēmi Dale belongs to both Te Rarawa and Te Aupōuri iwi (tribes) in the north of Aotearoa, New Zealand. Hēmi began his teaching career as an elementary school teacher and gained a master's degree in Education in 2004. He has taught in the Māori medium initial teacher education program at Te Puna Wānanga (the School for Māori Education), University of Auckland, since its inception in 1997 and has led the program for over a decade. As well as training bilingual teachers the program supports Māori language revitalization and Māori education by means of immersion in the language and culture. Hēmi has had extensive experience at national levels in teacher professional development and in developing Māori medium curricula. His research interests include Indigenous curriculum development, the Tikanga a Iwi (Social Sciences) learning area, bilingualism and biliteracy, and teaching through the medium of te reo Māori. Hēmi has authored or co-authored a number of reports to government and has given presentations at both local and international conferences, such as the World Indigenous Peoples Conference: Education (WIPCE).

Ann M. Doyle holds a PhD in Indigenous education (2013), and serves as the Head of the Xwi7xwa Library, the Aboriginal branch of the University of British Columbia Library. Her research interests include intersections of knowledge systems, critical Indigenous information studies, and Indigenous knowledge organization. Ann's next project is writing a book, Changing the Stories We Tell, which will examine Indigenous knowledge organization in academic library contexts. She is among the founding members of the First Nations Interest Group--British Columbia Library Association (1992-), and has served as convenor of the Canadian Library Association-Information Needs of Indigenous Peoples group.

Marisa Elena Duarte (Pascua Yaqui/Chicana) received her MLIS in 2003 from the Catholic University of America in Washington, DC, and her PhD in Information Science in 2013 from the University of Washington, Seattle. She has served as 2013-2015 advisory board member of the Tribal Telecom and Technology Summit, and as the 2013-2015 Chancellor's Postdoctoral Fellow in American Indian Studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She is Assistant Professor in Justice and Sociotechnical Change with the School of Social Transformation at Arizona State University. She is presently writing a book, Network Sovereignty: Building the Internet Across Indian Country, investigating the intersection of information and communication technologies and tribal sovereignty.

Lynne C. Howarth, PhD, is Professor and Dean Emerita at the Faculty of Information, University of Toronto. She recently completed a project funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC), "Enhancing Pathways to Memory," exploring how individuals with early stage Alzheimer's Disease use representations of a person, place, event, and so on as memory cues to recall life stories. This research has been extended through an SSHRC Partnership Development Grant (Co-PIs Krmpotich, Howarth, Howard) to a study engaging Aboriginal seniors in object handling sessions and memory-making involving a unique collection of community artifacts. She has completed a two-year affiliation as Distinguished Researcher in Information Organization at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee i-School, and continues to serve on international standards committees for metadata, Semantic Web, and linked data applications. She teaches in the areas of knowledge organization, metadata standards, and the provision of information to marginalized populations.

Te Taka Keegan, PhD, is a senior lecturer in the Computer Science Department at the University of Waikato. His tribal affiliations are Waikato-Maniapoto, Ngāti Porou, and Ngāti Whakaaue. Te Taka has a Diploma in Computer Engineering from CIT (Wellington) and an MA (Maori) and PhD (Computer Science) from the University of Waikato. His primary research interest is the use of Māori language in technology and he has been involved in a number of projects in this area, including the Māori Niupepa collection, the translation of Microsoft Windows and Office into Māori, Moodle in Māori, the Google Translator Toolkit, Google Translate for Māori, and Māori Tweeting.

Emma Knight, MMSt, is a Research Assistant for the Memory, Meaning-Making and Collections project, a research partnership between the University of Toronto and the Native Canadian Centre of Toronto and funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC). She recently completed a master's thesis entitled "The Kwakwaka'wakw Potlatch Collection and its Many Social Contexts: Constructing a Collection's Object Biography" also funded by SSHRC. This research explored the exhibition history of the potlatch collection through the framework of object biography, and examined the multiple roles material culture can hold throughout its life history to multiple parties. Her research interests include the relationships between material culture, memory, and identity, the incorporation of Indigenous knowledge into museum collection catalogs, and developing long-term research partnerships between museums and communities.

Spencer C. Lilley has tribal affiliations to Te Ātiawa, Muaūpoko and Ngāpuhi. He has over 25 years of experience as a library and information professional having held senior roles in academic and special libraries. He is currently a Senior Lecturer at Massey University where he teaches courses related to Indigenous research methods, indigeneity innovation and information; and race and ethnic relations. His main research interests are related to Māori information behavior, Indigenous cultural and intellectual property issues, and the impact of social media on race relations discourse in New Zealand. Spencer is a foundation member of Te Rōpū Whakahau and a former President and a Fellow of LIANZA.

Sandra Littletree comes from the Eastern Shoshone Tribe and is an enrolled member of the Navajo Nation (Diné). She is originally from the Four Corners region of New Mexico. She is currently a PhD student at the University of Washington Information School and a member of the Indigenous Information Research Group (IIRG). Her research interests are related to the intersections of Indigenous systems of knowledge and librarianship. Previously, she worked as the Knowledge River Program Manager at the University of Arizona School of Information Resources and Library Science. She has developed advocacy resources for tribal libraries, produced a series of oral histories that document the stories of Arizona's tribal libraries, and oversaw the revision of the 3rd edition of TRAILS (Tribal Library Procedures Manual). She was one of the six Honoring Generations Scholars at The University of Texas at Austin iSchool. She is a past president of the American Indian Library Association (AILA).

Brett Lougheed is University Archivist/Digital Curator at the University of Winnipeg Archives and Records Centre. While seconded to the National Research Centre for Truth and Reconciliation (NRCTR), he developed a draft of the functional requirements for the digital asset management system that will preserve and provide access to the records of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the NRCTR. He is also chairing a working group of the Association for Manitoba Archives that is examining how best to revise or replace Library of Congress Subject Headings within Manitoba's archival description union list (the Manitoba Archival Information Network) with terminology that is more appropriate to, and respectful of, Manitoba's Indigenous population.

Cheryl A. Metoyer is an Associate Professor and the Associate Dean for Research at the University of Washington Information School and Adjunct Associate Professor in American Indian Studies. In her role as Director of the Indigenous Information Research Group (IIRG) at the Information School, Cheryl and a team of Native doctoral students study the information institutions, practices, policies, and technologies that impact Indigenous communities. Her research interests include Indigenous knowledge systems, with an emphasis on American Indian and Alaska Native tribal nations, and information seeking behaviors in cultural communities. Her work is published in major research journals, including College & Research Libraries, Library and Information Science Research, and American Indian Culture and Research Journal. The Association of College and Research Libraries honored her book Gatekeepers in Ethnolinguistic Communities. She assisted the Mashantucket Pequot, Cahuilla, San Manuel, Yakama, Navajo, Seneca, Mohawk, and Lakota nations in the development of their research centers, libraries, archives, and museums. She has the distinction of being elected the first American Indian delegate to the White House Conference on Libraries and Information Services. Before joining the Information School faculty, she was the Chief Academic Affairs Officer for the Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation. She also served on the faculty of the UCLA Graduate School of Library and Information Science. From 1993 to 1997, she held the Rupert Costo Chair in American Indian History at the University of California, Riverside. In 2006, she was awarded a Rockefeller Fellowship in the Humanities to pursue her study of Native American systems of knowledge.

Ry Moran, the first Director of the National Research Centre for Truth and Reconciliation (NRCTR), guides the creation of an enduring national treasure--a dynamic Indigenous archive built on integrity, trust, and dignity. Ry came to the Centre directly from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC). On the TRC's behalf, he facilitated the gathering of nearly 7,000 video/audio-recorded statements of former residential school students and others affected by the residential school system. He was also responsible for gathering the documentary history of the residential school system from more than 20 government departments and nearly 100 church archives--millions of records in all. Before joining the TRC, Ry was the founder and president of Yellow Tilt Productions, which delivered services in a variety of areas including Aboriginal language presentation and oral history. He has hosted internationally broadcast television programs, produced national cultural events, and written and produced original music for children's television. Ry's professional skills and creativity have earned him many awards, including a National Aboriginal Role Model Award, and a Canadian Aboriginal Music Award. Ry is a proud member of the Métis Nation.

Keshav Mukunda received an MLIS from the University of British Columbia in 2013, and currently works as a reference librarian at Simon Fraser University (SFU). Before that, he held positions at UBC Library, both at a reference desk and at the UBC digital institutional repository. Prior to becoming a librarian, Keshav led another life as a math instructor; he still teaches at SFU.

Ingrid Parent is University Librarian at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, BC, Canada since 2009. She has degrees in Honours History and in Library Science from UBC, and an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Ottawa. She began her library career at the National Library of Canada, and after its merger in 2004 with the National Archives to form Library and Archives Canada, she became an Assistant Deputy Minister responsible for Canadian documentary heritage. In her positions at the national level, she became increasingly involved at the international level in areas related to cataloging, bibliographic standards, and digital initiatives. She was Chair of the IFLA Section on Cataloguing from 1995-1999, Chair of the IFLA Section on National Libraries from 2005-2009, elected as a member of the IFLA Governing Board for several terms, and elected as IFLA President from 2011 to 2013. In 2009 she received the Canadian Association of Research Libraries award for distinguished service to research librarianship. During her library career in Canada and abroad, she has been a strong proponent of the power of libraries to change lives and has given many presentations around the world on the impact of libraries and their transformation in the digital age. Her priority has also been to listen to the diversity of voices in our various communities and she has raised the profile of multiculturalism, multilingualism, and Indigenous peoples.

Carol Rigby is an independent cataloger specializing in the creation of multilingual and multiscript original bibliographic and authority records, with a focus on Inuit language, including Inuktitut syllabics. With an MA in English (Carleton University), LIT Diploma (Algonquin College), and MSc in Information and Library Studies (The Robert Gordon University), she has more than two decades' experience working in school, public, and special libraries in Canada's Eastern Arctic, both in front-line public service and in technical services. Since 2004 she has been providing cataloging services on contract to such clients as the Nunavut Legislative Library, the Pond Inlet Library and Archives Society, and Nunavut Public Library Services. She is an active member of the Nunavut Library Association and the Technical Services Network of the Canadian Library Association, and is currently working with the national library community in Canada on developing cataloging standards for Inuit language and advocating for the right of Indigenous languages to be presented on their own terms in library catalogs.

Tom Roa is a senior lecturer in the in Te Pua Wānanga ki te Ao (The School of Māori and Pacific Development) at the University of Waikato. His tribal affiliations are Waikato-Maniapoto. His research interests are translation and interpretation of Māori-English, Kīngitanga, Waikato-Maniapoto oral and written history and traditions. He is a member of Te Arataura (Waikato Tainui's Executive), and former chairman of Te Kauhanganui (the governing council of the Waikato Tainui tribal government).

Korii Scrivener is currently a graduate IT Analyst, Woodside Energy, Perth, Australia. She affiliates with Ngāti Tūwharetoa. She completed a BCMS(Hons) in Computer Science at the University of Waikato in 2013.

Linda Tuhiwai Smith is Professor of Education and Māori Development at the University of Waikato. She holds the position of Pro Vice Chancellor Māori and Dean of the School of Māori and Pacific Development. Linda is a Fellow of the American Association for Research in Education. She serves on a number of New Zealand's research organizations and funding bodies. She was awarded a New Zealand Honour in 2012 and a Distinguished Companion of The New Zealand Order of Merit.

Raegan Swanson is a community archivist at Aanischaaukamikw Cree Cultural Institute, in Oujé-Bougoumou, Quebec, Canada, where she dedicates her time to the preservation of James Bay Cree culture and heritage. Raegan holds a BA in History from Collège universitaire de Saint-Boniface (2009) and a Master's of Information from the University of Toronto (2011). She has previously worked as an archivist in the Statement Gathering and Documentation section at the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, and at the Political and Social Division/Society and Governance Branch at Library and Archives Canada. Raegan has been a member of the Association of Canadian Archivists (ACA) since 2009 and currently volunteers with ACA's Membership Development Committee.

Hannah Turner is a PhD Candidate at the University of Toronto in the Faculty of Information. Her research examines how Indigenous material heritage has been documented and digitized in North American museums. Her dissertation, "Constructing the Catalog: Documenting, creating and practicing ethnographic objects at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History" situates recent approaches to digital record keeping within the history of cataloging broadly at NMNH in Washington, DC. Her research examines how standards and categories as well as the infrastructure of digital museum databases work to construct and mediate knowledge about objects in museums. She is also interested in strategies of collaborative documentation, postcolonial collections practices, and the representation of multiple knowledges in museums. Particularly, she is interested in how 3D digitization can be used as a collaborative tool in object-based research; and how digital projects can connect source communities with cultural heritage online. Hannah received her Masters of Museum Studies from the University of Toronto, and her bachelors of Anthropology and Religious Studies from the University of Victoria.

Hēmi Whaanga, PhD, is a senior research officer in Te Pua Wānanga ki te Ao (The School of Māori and Pacific Development) at the University of Waikato. Hēmi has been involved, in various capacities, as a project leader, writer, and researcher, in a range of linguistic, Indigenous Māori knowledge and curriculum projects. He has published in the areas of digitization, Indigenous Māori knowledge, traditional ecological knowledge, language revitalization, linguistics, language teaching, and curriculum development. He holds a PhD (Linguistics/Māori), and MA (Applied) from the University of Waikato. His tribal affiliations are Ngāti Kahungunu, Ngāi Tahu, Ngāti Mamoe, and Waitaha.

Elizabeth H. Wilkinson is a fifth generation New Zealander of Pākehā (British) descent. She holds a master's degree in Library and Information Science, as well as bachelor degrees in Science and in New Zealand History. Elizabeth works as a subject librarian at the University of Auckland, New Zealand, liaising with Te Puna Wānanga, the School for Māori Education. Based at the Sylvia Ashton-Warner Library, she helps ensure the Māori collections meet the research, teaching and learning needs of the Faculty of Education, especially around Māori language, te reo Māori. Elizabeth is an associate member of Te Rōpū Whakahau, which represents Māori engaged in the Libraries and Information sector in Aotearoa New Zealand, and is also a member of LIANZA, the Library and Information Association of New Zealand Aotearoa.


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Introduction

Cheryl A. Metoyer
Information School, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA

Ann M. Doyle
Xwi7xwa Library, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada


Osiyo (Hello in the Cherokee language),

How we long to find the right words to introduce you and stir your enthusiasm for this special issue of Cataloging & Classification Quarterly--Indigenous Knowledge Organization. In these articles, we will share with you the inherent beauty in how and why Indigenous people express and fulfill their desire to learn, preserve, organize, and share knowledge. This knowledge is embedded in stories that find expression and location in libraries, archives, and museums.

If we explore the situation today, we find that there have been tremendous advancements in knowledge and an unforeseeable proliferation of information. No one can grasp or master it all. This explosion often leads to a sense of fragmentation. On a fundamental level, as human beings, we yearn to understand all this. Where does the knowledge come from? Is there an inherent order to it? How do all the pieces of knowledge fit together? And what is their purpose? We propose that these are questions of philosophy, which Indigenous people have addressed.

The articles in this issue range from explicit discussions of Indigenous philosophies to application of such in library, archives, and museums settings. The narratives are compelling. They are first and foremost Indigenous stories fundamentally grounded in a sense of "place" that is endemic to, and inseparable from, indigeneity. If "place" is the luminous web that holds everything "in place," it is good to introduce you to the three places that frame this issue: New Zealand, Canada, and the United States. We begin our journey in New Zealand.

In "Ka Pō, Ka Ao, Ka Awatea: The Interface between Epistemology and Māori Subject Headings," Lilley analyzes Māori subject headings (Ngā Ūpoko Tukutuku) in the context of Māori philosophy. He argues that the underlying knowledge framework is based on a hierarchy of relationships that emanates from the natural order and that is critical to the understanding of Māori epistemology.

Complementary to Lilley's analysis, Bardenheier, Wilkinson, and Dale report on the application of both Ngā Upoko Tukutuku and Ngā Kete Korero, a second framework, to a collection of language material at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. This additional framework was designed to facilitate structured literacy development through assigned reading levels.

In addition to the challenges presented in developing and assigning Māori subject headings, digitization presents another set of considerations in the study of Indigenous knowledge organization. The article entitled "He Matapihi Mā Mua, Mō Muri: The Ethics, Processes, and Procedures Associated with the Digitization of Indigenous Knowledge--The Pei Jones Collection" examines the digitization of the manuscripts and other materials in the collection of Dr. Pei Te Hurinui Jones, a prominent Māori scholar. The authors (Whaanga, Bainbridge, Anderson, Scrivener, Cader, Roa, and Keegan) describe the ethical considerations and cultural protocols that inform decision making in proper digitization practices.

Cultural centers in Canada are studying Indigenous knowledge systems and generating innovative scholarship, leading to revisions and amplifications. Brian Deer, Kahnawake librarian, developed a classification system based on an Indigenous philosophy. Using a case study approach, Cherry and Mukunda explore the depth and flexibility of the Brian Deer classification system evidenced in a new revision applied at the Union of British Columbia Indian Chiefs Resource Center. In a second case study, this time in a small Aboriginal library, Swanson discusses the value, merits, and challenges of adopting the Brian Deer Classification System at the Aanischaaukamikw Cree Cultural Institute in Quebec.

A group of Indigenous seniors, living in Toronto, considered how a collection of handcrafted objects could be used to evoke memory and foster meaning-making in a community setting. In "To Every Artifact Its Voice: Creating Surrogates for Hand-Crafted Indigenous Objects" Howarth and Knight examine the possibilities that stem from traditional approaches to representing and organizing artifacts.

Within Canada, the interest in Indigenous knowledge organization is evident in libraries, archives, as well as other types of community institutional settings. A particularly powerful challenge is faced by the National Research Centre through its mandate to apply metadata resulting from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. A description of the National Research Centre's "living archives" is presented by Lougheed, Moran, and Callison. Their article, "Reconciliation through Description: Using Metadata to Realize the Vision of the National Research Centre for Truth and Reconciliation," emphasizes the importance of including Indigenous people in organizing knowledge in a "living archive."

And finally from Canada, the Nunavut Libraries Online consortium and Translation Bureau in Nunavut have partnered to address the challenge of organizing multilingual collections. There are three official languages in Nunavut: Inuit (Inuktitut/Inuinnaqtun), English, and French. In her discussion of Nunavut libraries, Rigby examines the shared cataloging practices that have resulted in a common vocabulary for creating bibliographic records.

Let's journey to Great Turtle Island, for some of us, the real first name of the United States. Developing a controlled vocabulary by selecting terms and relationships that reflect Native American philosophies is the challenge that precipitated the Mashantucket Pequot Thesaurus of American Indian Terminology Project. Littletree and Metoyer examine the theoretical framework, methodology, and conceptual foundations of the Thesaurus in "Knowledge Organization from an Indigenous Perspective: The Mashantucket Pequot Thesaurus of American Indian Terminology Project." Using story as epistemology and pedagogy, the article reveals the movement of the Thesaurus from its conception to its application in the Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center.

Turner's study, "Decolonizing Ethnographic Documentation: A Critical History of the Early Museum Catalogs at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History," maps the history of cataloging at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History. The article uncovers the Eurocentric norms and assumptions of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that resulted in the lack of Indigenous knowledge in the museum records.

As a means of addressing many of the Eurocentric biases, referenced by Turner, and Littletree and Metoyer, Duarte and Belarde-Lewis ("Imagining: Creating Spaces for Indigenous Ontologies") propose imagining as a viable alternative to misrepresentation and misinformation. They contend that imagining, as a decolonizing methodology, may assist theorists and practitioners in their efforts to accurately catalog and classify Indigenous materials in libraries, archives, and museums. These authors argue that an Indigenous community-based approach to knowledge organization may nullify inaccuracies created by misnaming and other mainstream standardization practices.

The foreword and afterword bookend the volume with aspirations for transformation. Linda Tuhiwai Smith, groundbreaking Māori thinker, theorist, and activist, and Ingrid Parent, university librarian and forerunner in raising awareness of Indigenous knowledge revitalization among library institutions, each express their vision for Indigenous knowledge and libraries.

Upon reflection, it is evident to those of us in New Zealand, Canada, and the United States that research in Indigenous knowledge organization affords an opportunity for the work itself--the knowledge--to be expressed at a higher level. The level is higher because it strengthens the potential for transforming the work of other Indigenous and non-Indigenous scholars and practitioners.

We have this work, our work, which we have shared in this special issue. Now, it will be more meaningful because we have shared it. The theories, philosophies, and practices reported here give voice to the power, significance, and relevance of Indigenous knowledge organization. Enjoy!

Wado (Thank you in the Cherokee language).


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We thank the 21 anonymous reviewers who generously devoted their time and knowledge to reviewing the articles and contributing thoughtful responses to the authors.

This special issue was envisioned by Sandra K. Roe, Editor-in-Chief of Cataloging and Classification Quarterly, who extended the invitation at the 2nd Milwaukee Conference on the Ethics of Information Organization. Many thanks to Sandra for her encouragement and guidance throughout the publication journey.

The editors acknowledge the contributions of University of British Columbia, Information School students, Alina Kosel and Allison Mills, who served as volunteers to verify citation information.




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