Volume 55, no. 5, 2017


 

Book Reviews


Knowledge Management in Libraries and Organizations
edited by Leda Bultrini, Sally McCallum, Wilda Newman, and Julien Sempéré. IFLA Publications 173, Berlin/Munich: De Gruyter Saur, 2015. vii, 270 p. illus. ISBN 978-3-11-041301-4. $126.00.

Reviewed by Stephen Kutay


Cataloging Legal Literature
by Melody Busse Lembke and Melissa Beck. 4th ed. Getzville, NY: William S. Hein & Co., 2016. xxiii, 409 p. illus. ISBN 978-0-8377-4012-6. $395.00
Reviewed by Patricia Sayre-McCoy


Introduction to Cataloging and Classification
by Daniel N. Joudrey, Arlene G. Taylor, and David P. Miller. 11th ed. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited, 2015. xxv, 1048 p., illus. ISBN 978-1-59884-856-4. $75.00.
Reviewed by Shawne D. Miksa




Columns

Cataloging News, Violet B. Fox, Editor





Discussion


From Music Cataloging to the Organization of Knowledge: An Interview with Richard P. Smiraglia

Richard P. Smiraglia & Ann M. Graf

ABSTRACT: Richard P. Smiraglia shares his personal evolution from early studies in music, to music cataloging, instantiation theory, and knowledge organization. People who have impacted his career and research direction are featured, as well as his work editing such publications as Library Resources & Technical Services, The Soldier Creek Music Series, and his continuing editorship of the journal Knowledge Organization. His contributions to the fields of cataloging, especially music cataloging, and his research in instantiation, domain analysis, and knowledge organization serve to advance Patrick Wilson's notion of exploitative power within a connected universe of knowledge.

KEYWORDS: Cataloging, music cataloging, knowledge organization, instantiation, bibliographic control, Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2)





Original Articles


A Community-Driven Metadata Framework for Describing Cultural Resources:
The Digital Library North Project

Sharon Farnel, Ali Shiri, Sandra Campbell, Cathy Cockney, Dinesh Rathi & Robyn Stobbs

ABSTRACT: This article describes the Digital Library North (DLN) project, a collaboration among researchers at the University of Alberta, staff at the Inuvialuit Cultural Resource Centre, and communities within the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR) to develop a culturally appropriate metadata framework for a digital library of cultural resources. It will discuss gathering of data to inform the first iteration of the metadata framework and digital library prototype, as well as revisions made to both the framework and the digital library based on feedback obtained through community interaction with the prototype.

KEYWORDS: Digital libraries, culturally appropriate metadata, Inuvialuit Settlement Region, cultural resources, community collaborations


Measuring Success in Outsourced Cataloging: A Data-Driven Investigation

Claire Doran & Cheryl Martin

ABSTRACT: This article investigates the error rates in shelf-ready cataloged monographs from Ingram Coutts Information Services that were received at The University of Western Ontario. Using quality control reports from a period of two years, over 500 cataloging errors were entered into a database organized by frequency, severity, and other factors. With this information, we analyzed the frequency of errors and their root causes. We found that overall error rates are low, and the quality of shelf-ready cataloging has improved since first implementing the outsourcing program.

KEYWORDS: Academic libraries, cataloging, cataloging errors, cataloging standards, copy cataloging, error rates, Ingram Coutts information services, local cataloging practice, metadata, monograph cataloging, outsourcing, quality control, shelf-ready, statistical, technical services, University of Western Ontario, vendor-supplied cataloging






Cataloging News

VIOLET B. FOX
News Editor

Welcome to the news column. Its purpose is to disseminate information on any aspect of cataloging and classification that may be of interest to the cataloging community. This column is not just intended for news items, but serves to document discussions of interest as well as news concerning you, your research efforts, and your organization. Please send any pertinent materials, notes, minutes, or reports to: Violet Fox via email at violetbfox@gmail.com, phone: 312-996-3040. News columns will typically be available prior to publication in print from the CCQ website at http://catalogingandclassificationquarterly.com/ .


We would appreciate receiving items having to do with:

Research and Opinion

  • Abstracts or reports of on-going or unpublished research
  • Bibliographies of materials available on specific subjects
  • Analysis or description of new technologies
  • Call for papers
  • Comments or opinions on the art of cataloging

Events

  • Notes, minutes, or summaries of meetings, etc. of interest to catalogers
  • Publication announcements
  • Description of grants
  • Description of projects

People

  • Announcements of changes in personnel
  • Announcements of honors, offices, and so on

Research and opinion

Call for papers: 11th International Conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'17)

The 11th International Conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'17) will be held at Tallinn University in Tallinn (Estonia) on November 28-December 1, 2017. The submission deadline for papers is June 15, 2017.

MTSR is an annual international inter-disciplinary conference which brings together academics, researchers, and practitioners in the specialized fields of metadata, ontologies, and semantics research. The conference provides an opportunity for participants to share knowledge and novel approaches in the implementation of semantic technologies across diverse types of information environments and applications. These include Open Access Repositories and Digital Libraries, Cultural Informatics, Digital Humanities, E-learning applications, Search Engine Optimization and Information Retrieval, Research Information Systems and Infrastructures, e-Science and e-Social Science applications, Agriculture, Food and Environment, and Bio-Health & Medical Information Systems.

Following up on previous successful MTSR conferences, the 11th International Conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'17) focuses on an emerging theme of "Internet of Things (IoT) in Library and Information Science Research" and the practical implementation of ontologies and linked data in various applications. The conference focuses on:

  • theoretical and foundational principles of metadata, ontologies and information organization;
  • the emergence and application of the Internet of Things (IoT) in libraries and cultural heritage institutions (such as RFID technologies, smart libraries and virtual museums);
  • the applications of Linked Data, Open Data, Big Data, and user-generated metadata;
  • digital interconnectedness—the what, why, and how of Linked Open Data and the Semantic Web;
  • metadata standardization, authority control and interoperability in digital libraries and research data repositories;
  • emerging issues in RDF, OWL, SKOS, schema.org, BIBFRAME and metadata and ontology design;
  • linked data applications for e-books, digital publishing, and Content Management Systems (CMSs); and
  • content discovery services, search, information retrieval, and data visualization applications.

For more information on the conference, visit http://www.mtsr-conf.org/.


Events

ALCTS endorses cataloging and metadata core competencies

At the 2017 American Library Association Midwinter Meeting in Atlanta, the Board of Directors of the Association for Library Collections & Technical Services (ALCTS) endorsed the "Core Competencies for Cataloging and Metadata Professional Librarians." The Cataloging Competencies Task Force of the ALCTS Cataloging and Metadata Management Section (CaMMS) Competencies and Education for a Career in Cataloging Interest Group was commissioned to define a baseline of core competencies for LIS professionals in the cataloging and metadata field. The Task Force was chaired by Bruce J. Evans, assistant director for delivery services at Baylor University.

The "Core Competencies for Cataloging and Metadata Professional Librarians" defines competencies in broad terms to acknowledge the wide variety of work performed by cataloging and metadata professionals in libraries of all types and sizes, regardless of developments in standards or technologies. The document is useful to managers and supervisors in their hiring, assessment, and review decisions, to library and information science students in making informed educational and internship choices and to library and information science educators for curriculum and course development.

In creating the competencies, the Task Force acknowledges that metadata professionals are responsible for advancing diversity issues within the broader information community. Metadata creators must possess awareness of their own worldviews, and work at identifying where those views exclude other human experiences. Development of inclusive metadata standards or best practices is a competency that should be developed over the course of a career.

Metadata creation competencies for specialized library communities, such as serials, audiovisual, music, and rare and special collections, are not covered in the document. However, specialized metadata communities are encouraged to build on these competencies.

The document can be found at: http://hdl.handle.net/11213/7853.


RDA Board announces new representatives

The RDA Board is pleased to announce the results of the recent appointments process which was undertaken at the end of 2016. This marks the formal adoption of the new governance structure by the Board and in particular a change from specific constituents being represented on Board to National Institution Representatives for each region.

The following representatives and institutions have been appointed to the RDA Board.

  • National Institution Representative: Europe (To serve 2017–2020): Ulrike Junger, Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Germany
  • National Institution Representative: Latin America and the Caribbean (To serve 2017–2019): Angela Quiroz Ubierna, Library of National Congress of Chile, Chile
  • National Institution Representative: North America (To serve 2017–2019): Beacher Wiggins, Library of Congress, United States of America
  • National Institution Representative: Oceania (To serve 2017–2018): Amelia McKenzie, National Library of Australia, Australia

As previously agreed, to aid transition, Neil Wilson (British Library) and Diane Beattie (Library and Archives Canada) have also been co-opted to the RDA Board.

This process also marks the first time the RDA Board has had a representative from Latin America and the Caribbean.

Alfonso Pérez Guíñez, Director of the Library of the National Congress of Chile, said: "For the Library of National Congress of Chile it's an honor to be part of RDA Board and being the National Institution Representative for Latin America and the Caribbean. It will be a difficult task but the staff of Library of the National Congress of Chile is well prepared for affording this challenge. The Library has been studying and working with the RDA since 2010, developing an internal working group and some projects related with this international standard. Also a delegation took part in the last IFLA World library and information Congress held in Columbus, Ohio, where a representative of the Library made a presentation on RDA implementation in Chile. For our institution it will be a pleasure to be part of the RDA Board and it expects to make important contributions to RDA standards."

Simon Berney-Edwards, Chair of the RDA Board, said, "I am very much looking forward to welcoming the Library of National Congress of Chile to the RDA Board. This is an important moment for the Board as we fulfil our commitment to the internationalisation of RDA. At the RDA satellite conference last year, it was clear that there is a lot of interest in the region and I am looking forward to working with our Board member in the region to help leverage current interest groups and networks which might be used as the basis of a network which can feed in to the development of RDA through the Steering Committee."

Any national institutions that have implemented RDA in the African or Asian regions are strongly encouraged to consider applying when the next round opens. Any organization believing they meet the criteria should contact Simon Berney-Edwards for an informal discussion.

For more information about the RDA Board, visit http://rda-/rsc.org.


RDA adopts LRM

The RDA Steering Committee (RSC) agreed at its November 2016 meeting to adopt the draft IFLA Library Reference Model (LRM) as a conceptual model for the development of RDA: Resource Description and Access, replacing the Functional Requirements family of models (FRBR, FRAD, and FRSAD) that are superseded by the LRM.

Although the LRM is not yet approved and published by IFLA, the RSC wishes to be proactive at this stage because the final draft submitted for approval is not expected to undergo significant changes. The RSC will continue to monitor the LRM through its protocol with the FRBR Review Group.

The RDA Toolkit Restructure and Redesign (3R) Project will aim for compatibility between the current RDA entities and elements and the LRM, and will use the LRM to guide the development of RDA Toolkit for international, cultural heritage, and linked data communities. The consolidation of gaps and inconsistencies in the preceding conceptual models gives the opportunity for the long-awaited evolution of the treatment of agents, aggregates, and other under-developed areas of RDA. The first significant impacts of the LRM will appear in the April 2018 release of RDA Toolkit.

This announcement gives an initial indication of what those impacts will be. Except where specifically noted, the RSC does not expect current interpretation and application of RDA to be changed. Instead, additional methods for creating and maintaining coherent RDA data will become available.

Three completely new entities will be added to RDA: Collective Agent, Nomen, and Time-span. Two other entities that are already implicit in RDA, Agent and Place, will be added and consolidated.

The existing RDA entities Person, Family, and Corporate Body will become entity sub-types of Agent and Collective Agent, and the associated instructions will be generalized where appropriate. This will require a significant change in the definition of RDA Person, to confine the scope to real human beings. The treatment of fictitious and non-human entities and alternative names of persons such as pseudonyms given in statements of responsibility will be developed in the context of the new Nomen entity so that resources continue to be found. This may result in a change of practice for some authority control systems; an alert was issued to RDA communities in 2014, following discussion on fictitious corporate bodies and families, that the LRM was moving in this direction.

The current RDA elements will be treated as refinements of the high-level LRM relationships. A complete set of relationships between each RDA entity and the others will provide a framework for identifying and developing new, specialized relationship designators.

The LRM allows attributes and relationships to be used in an interchangeable way. This supports the full expansion of the RDA 4-fold path for identifying related entities by unstructured or structured description, identifier, or linked data URI. A new LRM attribute, Manifestation statement, allows a clear distinction between data transcribed from a manifestation to reflect how it describes itself in an unstructured way, and data recorded from other sources. The new Nomen entity will also support the distinction between structured descriptions in the form of access points, and identifiers associated with an entity. These developments will expand the range of metadata capture scenarios covered by RDA, from printed or manuscript catalog cards through machine transcription, authority control, and relational and linked data.

The RDA guidance and instructions on describing aggregate resources, including serials, collections, and augmentations, will be developed by building on the work of the RSC Aggregates Working Group. The LRM provides the first consolidated model of aggregates available to RDA so this will be a broad area of enhancement.

The RSC will continue to work with related standards groups on the impact of the LRM following the discussions with liaisons and other representatives at a session of the RSC November 2016 meeting. These include the FRBR Review Group, the ISBD Review Group, the ISSN International Centre, the PRESSoo Review Group, and the Permanent UNIMARC Committee. Agreed actions include:

  • notifying other groups when publishing information about changes due to adoption of the LRM;
  • developing and publishing new elements resulting from refinement of the higher-level LRM elements;
  • reviewing current alignments between standards and notifying other groups as changes are made; and
  • using current communication channels (for example, the IFLA Metadata Newsletter) and developing new opportunities to share information with standards groups and users.

For more information about the impact of the LRM on RDA, see the presentation by Kathy Glennan, RSC representative of the American Library Association, to CC:DA at ALA Midwinter 2017, available at
http://alcts.ala.org/ccdablog/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/IFLA-LRM-MW17.pdf.


26th meeting of the Permanent UNIMARC Committee, Lisbon, Portugal, National Library of Portugal, April 4-6, 2016

Report submitted by Jay Weitz, Vice Chair of the PUC, OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Dublin, Ohio, USA

On 2016 April 4-6, IFLA's Permanent UNIMARC Committee (PUC) gathered at the National Library of Portugal in Lisbon for its Twenty-Sixth Meeting. In attendance were Dr. Nijolė Bliūdžiuvienė (National Library of Lithuania), Ms. Maria Inês Cordeiro (National Library of Portugal, Director of the UNIMARC Strategic Programme), Ms. Rosa Galvão (National Library of Portugal), Mr. Massimo Gentili-Tedeschi (Biblioteca Nazionale Braidense and Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo Unico), Ms. Gordana Mazić (Institut Informacijskih Znanosti, Slovenia), Ms. Mirna Willer (University of Zadar, Croatia, Honorary Member and Special Consultant), Ms. Olga Zhlobinskaya (Boris Yeltsin Presidential Library, Russia), and Mr. Jay Weitz (OCLC, USA, Vice Chair and Rapporteur). Also present for portions of the meeting was Mr. Gordon Dunsire (Independent Consultant, Scotland, and Chair of the RDA [Resource Description and Access] Steering Committee).

During the three days of meetings, the PUC discussed a total of ten UNIMARC/Bibliographic (U/B) and UNIMARC/Authority (U/A) change proposals, the draft of the UNIMARC Guidelines for Archives, issues that have arisen in the course of Mr. Dunsire's work on the UNIMARC in RDF Project, and other topics. Minutes from the informal PUC meeting in Cape Town, South Africa (August 2015) were reviewed, updated, and corrected.

On the afternoon of April 6, 2016 following the PUC meeting proper, Mr. Dunsire and Ms. Willer presented a seminar entitled "Unleashing UNIMARC to the Semantic Web: UNIMARC in RDF" to an audience of around 50 attendees.


UNIMARC formats and guidelines

The UNIMARC change proposals were discussed mostly in numerical order. Unless otherwise noted, the proposals were accepted or accepted as amended. In some cases, these actions represent final approval of previously accepted proposals that were subsequently found to need additional work.

  • UNIMARC/Bibliographic (U/B): The current 3rd edition was published in mid-2008. Updates through December 2012 are currently available at http://www.ifla.org/publications/unimarc-bibliographic-3rd-edition-updates-2012. Work is underway to make available on the Web a consolidated set of U/B updates through 2016.
    • U/B Record Label Position 09 (Type of Control) has a new code "m" (Museum) to better accommodate control of museum objects for artefactual value and curatorial information.
    • U/B Control Subfield $2 (System Code) was broadened to allow its use for any controlled vocabulary.
    • U/B 183 (Coded Data Field – Carrier Type) had several changes and clarifications approved including the definition of subfield $a as Carrier Type Code.
    • U/B 240 (Physical Characteristics) is a newly defined field allowing for greater detail in describing Dimensions (subfield $a), Materials and Technique Display (subfield $b), Medium Material (subfield $c), Support Material (subfield $d), and Technique (subfield $e), particularly for cultural objects.
    • U/B 600, 601, 602, 604, 605, 606, 607 (Subject Analysis and Bibliographic History Block): A proposal to add subfields $o (Relator Term) and $4 (Relator Code) was not accepted.
    • U/B 631 (Occupation) and U/B 632 (Function) are new fields functioning as collection-level subject data regarding the persons, families, and/or corporate bodies documented in the archival material being described.
    • U/B 700, 702 (Personal Name) subfield $k (Attribution Qualifier) was defined for attribution qualifiers for a personal name (such as "follower of"). Clarifications will also be made to the corresponding subfields $4 to limit their use to relationships between a name and a work (such as "formerly attributed to").
    • U/B 700, 702, 710, 712, 720 (Responsibility Block, Personal, Corporate Body and Meeting, and Family Names): Subfields $j (Relator Term), $2 (System Code), and $8 (Materials Specified) were added to each field. The definition of subfield $4 (Relator Code) was broadened to include the use of non-UNIMARC code lists.
    • U/B Appendix C: Relator Codes: Two new Relator Codes have been defined for "Author, Attributed" (062) and "Former Attributed Author" (385). Proposed new Relator Codes for "depicted" and "setting" were not accepted.

  • UNIMARC/Authorities (U/A): The current 3rd edition was published in July 2009. Updates through December 2012 are currently available at http://www.ifla.org/publications/unimarc-authorities-3rd-edition-updates-2012. Work is underway to make available on the Web a consolidated set of U/A updates through 2016.
    • U/A Control Subfield $2 (System Code) was broadened to allow its use for any controlled vocabulary.
    • U/A 200 (Authorized Access Point – Personal Name) subfield $k (Attribution Qualifier) was defined for attribution qualifiers for a personal name (such as "follower of"). Clarifications will also be made to the corresponding subfield $4 to limit its use to relationships between a name and a work (such as "formerly attributed to").
    • U/A 223, 423, 523 (Authorized, Variant, and Related Access Point – Character) were approved in principle to accommodate the names of characters primarily in performance-related resources.
    • U/A 340 (Biography and Activity Note) subfield $c was defined for Occupation/Profession and subfield $d for Field of Activity.
    • Defining the Second Indicator to differentiate structured from unstructured notes and defining subfield $3 (Authority Record Identifier) were not accepted.
    • U/A 600, 601, 602, 606, 607 (Subject Analysis and Entity History Block): A proposal to add subfields $o (Relator Term) and $4 (Relator Code) was not accepted.

  • UNIMARC Guidelines for Archives.
    • The Draft 3rd Version of Guidelines for Archives (dated 2016) is still in need of non-Russian examples.


UNIMARC in RDF project

Various issues that have arisen in the course of Mr. Dunsire's work on representing UNIMARC codes and terms as a Resource Description Framework (RDF) vocabulary in the Open Metadata Registry (OMR) were discussed. He strongly suggested that the Library of Congress (LC), Music Library Association (MLA), and International Association of Music Libraries (IAML) try to consolidate their various controlled vocabularies for medium of performance, format of notated music, and form of musical work, incorporating the best qualities of each.

Within UNIMARC itself, the consolidation, harmonization, and rationalization of code lists and vocabularies would also be greatly advantageous. UNIMARC currently has codes and vocabularies that purport to cover the same areas (including formats of notated music, color, sound, and illustrations) with inconsistent and/or contradictory lists. Members of the PUC are working on this.

There are also occasional confusions over the use of the letter "l" (el) vs. the numeral "1" (one) and between the letter "O" (oh) and the numeral "0" (zero) that need to be straightened out. The UNIMARC namespace can be found at http://iflastandards.info/ns/unimarc/.


"Unleashing UNIMARC to the Semantic Web: UNIMARC in RDF"

Following the 2016 April 6 session of the PUC meeting, Mr. Dunsire and Ms. Willer presented the seminar entitled "Unleashing UNIMARC to the Semantic Web: UNIMARC in RDF" to an audience of around fifty attendees, from 2:30 to 4:30 p.m. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is designed for worldwide machine processing of metadata, requiring disambiguation, simplicity, and machine-readable identifiers. In contrast to most common Web searching, which has no intelligence behind it, RDF allows data to be expressed as simple irreducible statements called "triples," consisting of subject, predicate [nature], and object [value]. In this way, IFLA standards including UNIMARC may be represented for use in the Semantic Web. Legacy data can be published as Linked Data using RDF, backed by the authority of the IFLA brand. Universal Resource Identifiers (URIs) have no intrinsic meaning; they are just identifiers. RDF requires the subject and the predicate to be URIs, but the object can be a URI or a literal string. Controlled terminologies are represented as RDF value vocabularies, with entities, attributes, and relationships as RDF element set vocabularies; attributes and relationships as RDF properties/predicates; and entities as RDF classes. UNIMARC Bibliographic has one entity, "Resource." URIs must be globally unique. In UNIMARC, this is achieved thanks to the domain and the local UNIMARC part. Lossless data require the finest level of detail, including coded indicators and subfields. Blanks are represented by an underscore. Both the UNIMARC and RDA element sets are housed in the Open Metadata Registry (OMR). For the most part, UNIMARC has historically kept semantic and content separate, with the one major exception being the parallel title indicated in U/B 200 subfield $f followed by an equal sign. When the same URI is used for translated elements and vocabularies switching among different languages for equivalent terms is allowed. Aggregating statements (such as place, publisher, and date being located together in U/B 210) are yet to be developed, as are aspects of sequencing and repeatability. Application profiles may help with some of these issues yet to be dealt with. UNIMARC and ISBD have corresponding elements, but they have not yet been updated to account for the Consolidated ISBD. The alignment of terms can be equal ("same as"), broader, or narrower, depending upon circumstances. Both Ms. Willer and Mr. Dunsire remain hopeful that these and other issues will eventually be resolved at Semantic Web levels above that of library data. UNIMARC Level 0, which is the most granular, is based on the OMR MARC 21 element set. BIBFRAME (BF) is coarser, so lossier. UNIMARC mostly separates content/values from structure/encoding, whereas MARC 21 mixes them regularly. The BF model is largely based on data found in legacy records.


In memoriam: Mr. Alan Hopkinson

It was with great sadness that members of the PUC learned right after the April 2016 meeting that the committee's former chair, Mr. Alan Hopkinson (Middlesex University) passed away on April 7, 2016. Mr. Hopkinson had been involved in UNIMARC work since compiling and editing the original UNIMARC Handbook, published in 1983. He served as chair of the PUC from 2005 until 2013.


Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion: Creating a New Future for Library Collections, January 20, 2017, Atlanta, Georgia

The Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion Midwinter preconference symposium, sponsored by ALCTS, was an opportunity for those in acquisitions, access, management and/or preservation to reflect on current practices and join in discussion in what the future might bring in library collections.

Former ALA President Courtney Young (Head Librarian and Professor of Women's Studies at Pennsylvania State University) gave a rousing keynote titled "Taking root: Growing the seeds of equity, diversity, and inclusion through library collections and technical services." Young described how her (relatively brief) stint working in technical services has informed her work as a reference librarian and the importance of a collaborative effort in moving beyond collection development statements to create truly diverse collections.

The Director of Library Services at Leech Lake Tribal College, Hannah Buckland, discussed "Equitable Access to Collections." Buckland's experience at a rural tribal college, serving over 600 distinct tribes and cultures, has cemented her belief that limited access to information has been used by white supremacy as justification for genocide and colonialism. Her experience at a rural tribal college, serving over 600 distinct tribes and cultures, has demonstrated that the indigenous view of information is fundamentally different than that of the white, Western viewpoint. She introduced attendees to the idea of education debt, the cumulative effect of systemic, ongoing deprivation of access to information which can leave marginalized communities bereft. Buckland asked us to consider whose access our metadata values, and what languages we use to represent materials in collections. She also emphasized that words are not just ways to label, they are the expression of knowledge and value systems, and that classification schemes encode these systems.

Charlotte Roh (Scholarly Communications Librarian at the University of San Francisco) and Harrison Inefuku (Scholarly Publishing Services Librarian at Iowa State University) discussed the legacy of colonialism in librarianship and scholarly publication, and challenges faced by scholars in the Global South as well as those who are not fluent in English. Their presentation emphasized the need for making works available on broader research topics to increase the scope of who uses library resources. Roh and Inefuku also encouraged catalogers to include open access and marginalized publications in library catalogs.

Paolo P. Gujilde, Coordinator of Collection Development and Assistant Professor at Georgia Southern University, presented on "A New Responsibility: Diversity and Visibility in Collection Development and Management." Gujilde stressed the importance of belonging and representation within library collections—does your library's collection reflect your community? He suggested looking to ethnic and area studies as fields that can contribute to the diversification of collection development, as well as investing in demand driven acquisition.

Emily Drabinski, Coordinator of Library Instruction at Long Island University, Brooklyn shared her presentation on "The Power of the Catalog: Inclusion and Advocacy in Knowledge Organization." Drabinski encourages others to teach users about the catalog not only as a way to locate resources but as a way to critique the power structures behind the catalog. She argued that there will never be a single best way to organize and categorize information, as classification structures will always reflect biases, but introduces queer theory as a valuable way to think about and teach information retrieval while recognizing limitations.

The next presentation was on "Diversity and Inclusion in Preservation." Miriam Centeno, the Collections Care Coordinator at the University of Illinois Library at Urbana-Champaign, discussed the Mushiboshi Project, the initiative she started that collects ethnographic preservation practices around the world. The project compiles cultural and religious practices that can foster inherent preservation of material culture through the ages shares how libraries can apply these low-tech options to their own stewardship and promote their use to the general public. Ann Marie Willer, Preservation Librarian for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, urged participants to welcome a more diverse workforce into the field, by eliminating barriers like unpaid internships and focusing on investing in the skills of current library workers.

The closing speaker for the symposium was Mark Puente, Director of Diversity and Leadership programs for the Association of Research Libraries (ARL). Puente talked about ARL's efforts to bring in more librarians from underrepresented groups, which needs to go hand-in-hand with organizational climate change in libraries to be successful. He argued that all libraries need to be clear in the work we do to center our efforts on equity and social justice.

The Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion symposium was a thought-provoking and valuable way to consider how technical services librarians can strive to approach our work with consideration to making our collections more equitable and worthwhile for all library users. Many thanks to the members of the planning committee and to ALCTS for sponsoring this important discussion.


American Library Association (ALA) midwinter conference, January 20–24, 2017, Atlanta, Georgia

Cataloging and classification research interest group
Report submitted by Kathryn Lybarger, Head of Cataloging and Metadata, University of Kentucky

"Hello from the Other Side: A Stacks Navigation Survey," presented by Autumn Faulkner, Head of Copy Cataloging, and Emily Sanford, Serials Catalog Librarian, Michigan State University. As catalogers, we spend a lot of time doing subject analysis and classification with the idea that patrons use the library catalog to find items, and browse nearby shelves to find additional material of interest. As a profession, we have even implemented virtual browsing in our catalogs, and envision a future linked-data catalog as super-browsing, an even better way to find things. However, we have little real data to support that the idea that this is how patrons use the catalog or the shelves, or about how much success they have when they do.

Faulkner and Sanford shared a survey that they designed and implemented for library patrons, upon checkout of physical materials, to determine how the patron had discovered those materials, how successful they were in locating them, and whether they had difficulty using the catalog, call numbers, signage, and other navigation aids. Despite running the survey during peak circulation times and offering candy and granola bars as incentives, response rate was low, and responders heavily skewed toward expert users like university faculty and staff. The majority of those who responded said that they did use the catalog successfully and easily, and many also browsed the shelves generally and near other found items; however, their statistician warned that the sample size was too small to draw any firm conclusions. Future plans involve repeating the survey, to gather more data and to compare the experiences of experts vs. newer users, and possibly running a field study, examining users' experience and success given a common set of tasks.


"Ostriches, Minotaurs, Ghosts and Fossils in the Brave New Metadata World," presented by Kelley McGrath, Metadata Management Librarian, University of Oregon. We hear a lot about the semantic web, but what is it exactly? The "semantics" here are not about meaning, but rather about computable axioms. If relationships between entities are encoded as linked data, we can infer new facts about entities in the resulting web. This is a powerful idea, but depends on the individual links being definite and clear.

Using examples from a crowd-sourced project aimed at producing such a web of data based on statements of responsibility (credits) from films, McGrath classified the ways in which these individual statements (as they appear in the films themselves) can be unclear. What does it mean if a person is "responsible" for a film, or if the film is "by" them? If songs are "by" somebody, did they compose or perform them? Does it make sense to group executive producers with assistant producers? Producers of television dramas with producers of television news programs? How to capture nuance if these statements are in another language?

McGrath suggested that some of the difficulty results from the (classical) way we have been forming categories: clearly defined by necessary and jointly sufficient conditions, mutually exclusive, and collectively exhaustive. She contrasted this with the more modern prototype theory of categories, which compares potential members with an ideal model and allows for fuzzy boundaries; machine learning using such methods has recently resulted in major improvements in Google Translate, as well as computers' ability to play Go and recognize photos of cats.


Cataloging Management Interest Group
Report submitted by Victoria Troemel, Electronic Services Librarian, Upper Iowa University

Joseph Nichols, Metadata Librarian at the J. Murrey Atkins Library, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, presented on "NACO Records by Other Means: Authority Control in Straitened Circumstances." Nichols works at a large institution, which went through a reorganization resulting in fewer catalogers. Their new integrated library system (ILS) also provided limited authority control functionality. They were still able to create NACO records by training different people to perform different steps and using OpenRefine, spreadsheets, and MARCEdit to map the metadata. The Oral History staff would input data into a Google form, then the data was imported into OpenRefine and stripped of extra data points. They were able to create more than 1,000 records, but found the big drawback in the process was the intensive review process with many corrections and a steep learning curve.

Marsha Seamans, Director of Cataloging and Database Integrity, and Kathryn Lybarger, Head Cataloging and Metadata at the University of Kentucky Libraries, presented on "Providing Access to and Discovery of Oral Histories at The University of Kentucky." The Louie B. Nunn Center has over 9,000 oral histories, only some of which have been digitized. They have access online through many access points in the catalog, but with no discovery layer. They decided to use DACS to catalog the histories. They found DACS had minimum requirements and worked well with MARC, showing overlap areas between the two systems. There were many challenges in this process, including incomplete data, non-digitized and stored elsewhere items, large collection, and stories not having set points to catalog. They used a metadata extractor, PHP script, and a script screen scraper to pull data out that would be needed for MARC. The process was fast and consistent, which made the staff available for human interaction. The process was also flexible enough that they could add access points if there was a person who was regularly showing up in the records. However, if there are any changes to the HTML the whole process would stop, and some fields needed to be completed manually after the metadata extraction.

Andrew T. Sulavik, Head of Metadata and Resource Description Services at Howard University Libraries, presented on "How and Why Catalogers Can and Should Contribute to the Development of a Discovery Chart that Navigates Hidden Domains of Knowledge for Their Users," on behalf of Adia Coleman, Patent and Trademark Librarian, and Colleen Funkhouser, Metadata Librarian. They worked with other departments to create a discovery chart for books and articles. The chart shows what the library has access to, where it comes from, and how long it will take the student to get it. By setting user expectations around time needed for retrieval of materials, these tools help plan a user's overall research strategy and timeline, and help alleviate frustration when materials are not immediately available on or off campus.

Jackie Shieh, Resource Description Coordinator at Gelman Library at George Washington University, presented "Prepare to Be Linked: Enhancing MARC Data with URI on a Shoestring." Shieh's library was told they would be taking their local data to linked data over the summer since the catalog would be down while they transferred data during an OCLC Reclamation project. They had one million bibliographic data in eleven different files and ended up with 3.8 million URIs embedded. They completed the process in about four months, with the hard work and efforts of library staff.


Mashcat 2017, January 24, 2017, Atlanta, Georgia

Report submitted by Whitney Buccicone, Special Collections Cataloging Librarian, University of Washington.

On the Tuesday of ALA Midwinter, the second-ever in-person #Mashcat event took place at Georgia State University where technical services librarians and technologists came together to discuss all things cataloging and technical services. This full day, post-conference event consisted of eleven presentations of varying lengths and subjects. With 50 attendees in person and over 40 online, the event was filled with excellent presentations and audience discussions.

The day opened with a lively debate lead by Erin Leach about concerns in the field and how we can fix them. The three consistent themes in the discussion were: lack of flexibility in systems; lack of consistency between records; and user concerns about finding appropriate materials. The solutions discussed were: continued education (forums like this); share workflows/overlap in workflows and documentation across institutions to provide more consistency; and more uniformity in holdings data.

Following the opening session, Jeremy Myntti, Anna Neatrour, and Liz Woolcott presented "Linking People: Collaborations Between Metadata Librarians and Programmers." Focusing on a collaborative project to solve the issues of tracing names within manuscripts collections at the University of Utah. Through a grant from IMLS, the team with their collaborators (both programmers and outside librarians) implemented local pilots at Marriott Library; Backstage Library Works (software) and then replicate MARC authority control project in digital collection XML (eXtensible Markup Language). From there, they formalized a timeline and goals to last over two years. From this, the Western Name Authority File (WNAF) was created. It is a collaboration with programmers within the library (handling the backend side of things); project partners (libraries from within region); includes advisory board (professionals that have had experience with this before). The full grant proposal is available at: https://www.imls.gov/grants/awarded/LG-72-16-0002-16.

In "Using big data technique for metadata remediation," Roy Tennant, Senior Program Officer at OCLC Research, discussed the use of Apache Hadoop and Spark that are fixed by WorldCat Quality control. He also discussed using the program MapReduce to process large data sets. His slides include detailed information on OCLC's use of these programs as well as multiple screenshots. In the question and answer period following the presentation, Tennant was asked if this was scalable to linked data to which he replied that it was conceivable as the data does not have many limitations.

Greer Martin presented "Reconciling legacy archival metadata" which explored the issues of inconsistent name authority control in a smaller institution. With the help of a student, Martin had the challenge to migrate 5000 names from two local databases to ArchiveSpace. To do so, OpenRefine matched these local names with LC Authorities to cleanup "bad" records. It was also used to add local names and add identifiers to those records as the "future is linked data." To ensure accurate results, 100 records were tested then evaluated to confirm accuracy. Martin discussed what took the most time, what was learned, and what were the next steps for their project. Most beneficial was the creation of project documentation to aid the student worker as it helped later when reviewing project.

A very timely presentation occurred immediately before lunch. During "Teaching linked data to librarians: a discussion of pedagogical methods," by Sonoe Nakasone, Jacob Shelby, and Allison Jai O'Dell exchanged their methods for teaching both catalogers and public services librarians about the ins and outs of linked data. Nakasone and Shelby discussed their work at North Carolina State University which consists of local, hands-on, related to current work of all cataloging staff. Their training featured two parts: the first an information session and the second a hands-on workshop. They also hosted linked data brownbag series/workshops which were open to all interested library staff. The subjects covered were: linked data basics, specific topics, external speakers, hands-on workshops. All webinars were archived which allowed employees to watch on their own time. Staff were also offered the use of triplestore playground which served as a sandbox for library staff to apply learning from training. Allison Jai O'Dell presented activities for training which grew out of monthly meeting (the Linked Data Working Group) and the need for a new platform for training of cataloging staff which would focus around development of LD and semantic web and would be open to all members of library no matter their metadata experience level. Biggest concern was staff time and the decision was made to teach fundamentals through a series of mini-workshops—10–20 min each (lightning-style), divided by topics. From this, O'Dell shared helpful tips in training. She emphasized to never dismiss people's concerns and to relate everything back to librarianship and how it will apply to daily job duties.

In "#mashcat meets the org chart," Holly Tomren discussed the merger of staff from both cataloging and metadata, archives staff, and programmers to be under one division at the Drexel University Libraries. During conversations amongst different department heads, a common theme was that programmers and technologists felt isolated from the cataloging and metadata staff. A new division was then created: Data and Digital Stewardship. The biggest benefits from this merger was that now decisions were made together and the division has unified goals.

Brian Luna Lucero from Columbia University presented on "Hyacinth: a new cataloging tool for an institutional repository." Coded by developers in CU Libraries' Digital Projects Division, Hyacinth is used for cataloging digital collections and exporting them to a Fedora repository to unify the workflows of several departments and ease the demands for maintenance of multiple platforms. Hyacinth also provides several forward-looking upgrades including a Hydra-based architecture that incorporates the Portland Common Data Model (PCDM) and a URI service capable of minting local URIs and linking to existing authorities.

Matthew Miguez presented on "Automating controlled subject access from IR strings" while Erin Grant and Alex Cooper followed with "Automating cataloging workflows with OCLC and Alma APIs." The two presentations focused on the strength of using coding to lessen the workload on the catalogers while accessing the technologists' strengths and talents. Specifically mentioned was the collaboration necessary between IT departments and technical services staff as well as the need for consistent documentation.

"Searching for sound: implementing a discovery layer for music" was co-presented by Kyle Shockey, Yamil Suarez, Mary Jinglewski, and Ellie Collier. This discussion focused on the merge of two library catalogs and how their different metadata conflicted while trying to offer a single discovery layer.

Jacob Shelby and and Sonoe Nakasone led the last session of the day when they shared their presentation "Developing a metadata consultation service program." They focused on using the Agile management system to keep different projects on time. There are weekly short meetings for quick updates and then longer monthly meetings to go into further depth. They also used Trello and their slides to differentiate priorities—those that were more pressing vs. those that could wait.

Mashcat 2017 was organized by Galen Charlton, Erin Grant, Mary Jinglewski, Erin Leach, Emily Williams, and Susan Wynne. Presentation slides and more information are available at http://www.mashcat.info/2017-event/.


Publication Announcements

Publications Received

Thomas Brenndorfer. RDA Essentials (Chicago: ALA Digital Reference, 2015). ISBN 978-0- 8389-1328-4.

Leda Bultrini, Sally McCallum, Wilda Newman, and Julien Sempéré, eds. Knowledge Management in Libraries and Organizations. IFLA Publications, 173. (Berlin: DeGruyter Saur, 2016). ISBN 978-3-11-041301-4.

Lois Man Chan and Athena Salaba. Cataloging and Classification: An Introduction. 4th ed. (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2016). ISBN 978-1-4422-3249-5.

Karen Coyle. FRBR: Before and After: A Look at Our Bibliographic Models (Chicago: ALA Editions, 2016). ISBN 978-0-8389-1345-1.

Alison Cullingford. Special Collections Handbook. 2nd ed. (London: Facet Publishing, 2016). ISBN 978-1-78330-126-3.

Fiorella Foscarini, Heather MacNeil, Bonnie Mak, and Gillian Oliver, eds. Engaging with Archives and Records: Histories and Theories. (London: Facet Publishing, 2017). ISBN 978-1- 78330-158-4.

Daniel N. Joudrey, Arlene G. Taylor, and David P. Miller. Introduction to Cataloging and Classification. 11th ed. (Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited, 2015). ISBN 978-1-59884-856-4.

Melody Busse Lembke and Melissa Beck. Cataloging Legal Literature. 4th ed. (Getzville, NY: William S. Hein & Co., 2016). ISBN 978-0-8377-4012-6.

Allison Mackenzie and Lindsey Martin, eds. Developing Digital Scholarship; Emerging Practices in Academic Libraries (London: Facet Publishing, 2016). ISBN 978-1-78330-110-2.

Robin Charlotte Rice and John Southall. The Data Librarian's Handbook. (London: Facet, 2016). ISBN 978-1-78330-047-1.

Jenn Riley. Understanding Metadata. NISO Primer. (Baltimore, MN: National Information Standards Organization, 2017). ISBN 78-1-937522-72-8.
Available at http://www.niso.org/publications/press/understanding_metadata

Marie Keen Shaw. Cataloging Library Resources: An Introduction (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2017). ISBN 978-1-4422-7486-0.

Richard P. Smiraglia and Jihee Beak. Describing Music Materials: A Manual for Resource Description of Printed and Recorded Music and Music Videos. 4th ed. (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2017). ISBN 978-1-4422-7628-4.

David Stuart. Practical Ontologies for Information Professionals. (London: Facet Publishing, 2016). ISBN 978-1-78330-062-4.

Helmut Zedelmaier. Werkstätten des Wissens zwischen Renaissance und Aufklärung [Workshops of Knowledge between Renaissance and Enlightenment]. (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2015). ISBN 78-3-16-153807-0.


People

Gordon Dunsire awarded IFLA medal

During the closing ceremony of the 2016 World Library and Information Congress in Columbus, Ohio, Gordon Dunsire, Chair of the RDA Steering Committee, was awarded an IFLA Medal. The medal is awarded to international librarians who have made an outstanding contribution to their field, and Gordon was recognized for his distinguished service to IFLA and international librarianship, advancing the field of bibliographic data, linked data, and the semantic web.

Dorothy McGarry awarded IFLA Scroll of Appreciation

Dorothy McGarry, retired Head of the Cataloging Division of the Physical Sciences and Technology Libraries at the University of California Los Angeles, was awarded an IFLA Scroll of Appreciation at the 2016 World Library and Information Congress in Columbus, Ohio. The scroll is awarded to those who have given distinguished service to IFLA and global librarianship, and McGarry was awarded for her "outstanding commitment to advancing cataloguing, classification and indexing standards and practices."

Hope Olson selected for Margaret Mann Citation

ALCTS announced that Hope A. Olson is the recipient of the 2017 Margaret Mann Citation presented by its Cataloging and Metadata Management Section (CaMMS). The Mann Citation will be presented on June 24 at the ALCTS Awards Ceremony at the 2017 American Library Association (ALA) Annual Conference and Exhibition in Chicago.

The Mann Citation, recognizing outstanding professional achievement in cataloging or classification, includes a $2,000 scholarship donated in the recipient's honor by OCLC, Inc. to the library school of the winner's choice. Olson has chosen the University of Alberta to be the recipient of this year's scholarship award.

Olson's contributions to the field of cataloging are many and outstanding. In addition to her extensive research and publishing, she was an influential teacher of cataloging and classification who mentored numerous doctoral students in library and information science.

As one of her nominations for this citation noted, Olson "is a prominent figure in cataloging, known for pioneering the application of feminist, poststructural, and postcolonial theory to the critical analysis of knowledge organization tools and practices." Her seminal book in this area, "The Power to Name: Locating the Limits of Subject Representation in Libraries," was published in 2002, and its impact has only grown through the years.

Although Olson retired from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee in 2013, she continues to publish and present on cataloging and classification issues, even presenting a paper she co-authored at the 2016 IFLA Classification & Indexing Satellite Meeting in Columbus, Ohio.

In addition to her outstanding work in teaching, research and publishing, Olson has been influential in professional organizations, serving as the conference chair for the first Ethics of Information Organization in 2009, as well as for the 2012 Milwaukee Conference on Ethics in Information Organization. She also has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Library Metadata, Knowledge Organization, and Cataloging & Classification Quarterly.

Olson is Professor Emerita of the School of Information Studies at the University of Wisconsin- Milwaukee, where she served as a Professor from 2003–2013, including serving as Associate Dean from 2007–2010 and Interim Dean from 2010–2011. Previously, she taught at School of Library and Information Studies at the University of Alberta from 1990–2003, receiving promotion to Professor in 2002.


 

 


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