Volume 56, no. 2/3, 2018



Setting Standards to Work and Live By:
A Memorial Festschrift for Valerie Bross

Claudia Horning & John J. Riemer

Guest Editors


Original Articles

The Professional Career and Life of Valerie Bross
John J. Riemer

ABSTRACT: The career path and significant professional accomplishments of librarian Valerie Bross (1954-2016) are described in this article. The awards and recognition she received are recounted and the influence of outside activities on her career is assessed. An attempt is made to capture what she was like as a professional, as well as what her unique characteristics were. A bibliography of her writings and a photograph are included.

KEYWORDS: Serials cataloging, CONSER, continuing resources, Valerie Bross

The Evolution of the Serial Work, the FRBR Conceptual Model, and RDA
Edgar Jones

At head of article: "The RDA Steering Committee (RSC) agreed at its November 2016 meeting to adopt the draft IFLA Library Reference Model (LRM) as a conceptual model for the development of RDA: Resource Description and Access, replacing the Functional Requirements family of models (FRBR, FRAD, and FRSAD) that are superseded by the LRM."
-Implementation of the LRM in RDA 1

Glocalization and Other Challenges to Cataloging Chinese Continuing Resources
Hong Chen

Glocalization describes the adaptation of international products around the particularities of a local culture, and extends to areas beyond political campaigns and cultural communication. Chinese continuing resources are effectively influenced by glocalization, which reflects the changing society in China and Chinese overseas communities, as well as the changing practice in Chinese studies all over the world. Glocalization brings unexpected challenges to a library's cataloging service, and a number of issues need to reach our awareness and be solved. We have to face squarely its influence, and look for an appropriate solution in handling Chinese continuing resources under glocalization.

KEYWORDS: Glocalization, Chinese continuing resources, cataloging research, irregular journals, version varies

Cataloging Digitized Continuing Resources in a Shared Record Environment
Myung-Ja K. Han, Jamie Carlstone & Patrick Harrington

ABSTRACT: Cataloging digitized continuing resources is a challenging task for many libraries because of their complex cataloging rules and characteristics of format. As libraries provide their digitized content and catalog records in shared environments, like HathiTrust, and use them as an access point, libraries also have to work with holdings and item records created by each contributing institution's local practice. This article discusses common challenges imposed on libraries when creating and providing access to digitized continuing resources available in a shared environment, stresses the importance of having shareable holdings and items records, and suggests possible ways to work with those challenges.

KEYWORDS: Cataloging digitized continuing resources, Bibliographic data - Interoperability, cataloging policy, HathiTrust, shareable holdings and item records

Cataloging for Consortial Collections: A Survey
Shi Deng, Aislinn Sotelo & Rebecca Culbertson

ABSTRACT: Libraries face many challenges in making electronic resources accessible and discoverable. In particular, the exponentially incre-asing number of licensed and open access electronic resources and the dynamic nature of consortial collections (platform changes, title transference between packages, and package overlap) present challenges for cataloging and discovery. From March 21 to April 10, 2017, the authors performed a selected review of library literature and conducted a survey of library consortia worldwide to ascertain the cataloging models, strategies, and advanced technological tools used to ensure discovery of consortial collections. The findings from the literature review and survey are summarized in this article.

KEYWORDS: Electronic resources, consortial cataloging, cooperative cataloging, centralized cataloging, vendor records, MARC record service (MRS), batch cataloging

One for Nine Ten: Cataloging for Consortia Collections, a UC model
Renee Chin, Rebecca Culbertson, Shi Deng, Kathleen Garvey-Clasby, Bie-hwa Ma, Donal O'Sullivan & Annie Ross

ABSTRACT: In January 2000, the University of California created the Shared Cataloging Program (SCP). Based at the University of California, San Diego, the SCP is a "centralized cataloging model" for the California Digital Library consortium collections. This article will take an evolutionary look at the perpetual challenges of sustaining a consortial cataloging model and highlight the efforts of the SCP in the ongoing quest to eliminate the redundancy of efforts by centralizing the optimization of cataloging efficiency.

KEYWORDS: Shared Cataloging Program (SCP), California Digital Library (CDL), consortial cataloging, centralized cataloging, batch cataloging, file distribution, Chinese e-resources cataloging, URL maintenance

From Vision to Action: One Campus's Experience with the UC CONSER Funnel
Xiaoli Li & Michael Colby

ABSTRACT: In 2006, the University of California launched a Cooperative Online Serials Program (CONSER) Funnel. It paved the way for serials catalogers across UC libraries to work with CONSER records in the OCLC WorldCat database. The first funnel dealing with bibliographic records in a decentralized approach in the Program for Cooperative Cataloging's history, it has had significant impact locally and nationally. The UC Davis Library was one of the early participants. Valerie Bross was instrumental in its establishment and implementation. This article presents the view from a participating library's standpoint and complements Valerie's article which was published here in 2010.

KEYWORDS: CONSER program, Program for Cooperative Cataloging, UC CONSER Funnel, University of California Davis, serials cataloging, Cooperative Cataloging, catalogers

From MARC to BIBFRAME 2.0: Crosswalks
Amanda Xu, Kirk Hess & Laura Akerman

ABSTRACT: One of the big challenges facing academic libraries today is to increase the relevance of the libraries to their user communities. If the libraries can increase the visibility of their resources on the open web, it will increase the chances of the libraries to reach to their user communities via the user's first search experience. BIBFRAME and library Linked Data will enable libraries to publish their resources in a way that the Web understands, consume Linked Data to enrich their resources relevant to the libraries' user communities, and visualize networks across collections. However, one of the important steps for transitioning to BIBFRAME and library Linked Data involves crosswalks, mapping MARC fields and subfields across data models and performing necessary data reformatting to be in compliance with the specifications of the new model, which is currently BIBFRAME 2.0. This article looks into how the Library of Congress has mapped library bibliographic data from the MARC format to the BIBFRAME 2.0 model and vocabulary published and updated since April 2016, available from http://www.loc.gov/bibframe/docs/index.html based on the recently released conversion specifications and converter, developed by the Library of Congress with input from many community members. The BIBFRAME 2.0 standard and conversion tools will enable libraries to transform bibliographic data from MARC into BIBFRAME 2.0, which introduces a Linked Data model as the improved method of bibliographic control for the future, and make bibliographic information more useful within and beyond library communities.

KEYWORDS: Metadata crosswalks, MARC standards, BIBFRAME 2.0, conversion specifications, converter

Linked Serial Data: Mapping the CONSER Standard Record to BIBFRAME
Kevin Balster, Robert Rendall & Tina Shrader

ABSTRACT: The CONSER BIBFRAME mapping project began in December 2015, and completed a mapping between the elements of the CONSER Standard Record and BIBFRAME 1.0. Subsequently, the group has converted that mapping to BIBFRAME 2.0, developed sample RDF serializations for each element, and is developing recommendations for PCC best practices.

This article summarizes CONSER BIBFRAME mapping outcomes, describes Valerie Bross' contributions to the project, and presents topics for further consideration within the PCC: BIBFRAME development, and serials cataloging communities, including: changes to the description, literal vs. machine actionable data, enumeration and chronology information, modeling issues, and relationships.

KEYWORDS: Linked data, uniform resource identifiers, resource description framework, serials, cataloging

Preparing for the Future: National Library of Medicine's® Project to Add MeSH® RDF URIs to its Bibliographic and Authority Records
Diane L. Boehr & B. Bushman

ABSTRACT: Although it is not yet known for certain what will replace MARC, eventually bibliographic data will need to be transformed to move into a linked data environment. This article discusses why the National Library of Medicine chose to add Uniform Resource Identifiers for Medical Subject Headings as our starting point and details the process by which they were added to the MeSH MARC authority records, the legacy bibliographic records, and the records for newly cataloged items. The article outlines the various enhancement methods available, decisions made, and the rationale for the selected method.

KEYWORDS: Linked data, Uniform Resource Identifiers, MARC 21 formats, Resource Description Framework, Medical Subject Headings

Metadata Schema to Facilitate Linked Data for 3D Digital Models of Cultural Heritage Collections: A University of South Florida Libraries Case Study
Xiying Mi & Bonita M. Pollock

ABSTRACT: The University of South Florida Libraries house and provide access to a collection of cultural heritage and 3D digital models. In an effort to provide greater access to these collections, a linked data project has been implemented. A metadata schema for the 3D cultural heritage objects which uses linked data is an excellent way to share these collections with other repositories, thus gaining global exposure and access to these valuable resources. This article will share the process of building the 3D cultural heritage metadata model as well as an assessment of the model and recommendations for future linked data projects.

KEYWORDS: Linked open data, cultural heritage collections, metadata, Europeana Data Model, 3D digital models, Dublin Core


1 Implementation of the LRM in RDA [4 February 2017] http://www.rda-rsc.org/ImplementationLRMinRDA

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Setting Standards to Work and Live By: A Memorial Festschrift for Valerie Bross

Claudia Horning and John J. Riemer
Cataloging & Metadata Center, UCLA, Los Angeles, California

This issue is intended to honor the life and career of Valerie Bross, a UCLA Library continuing resources cataloger who was well-respected both locally and nationally for her contributions. As John J. Riemer notes in the first article about her life and career, Bross is remembered by her colleagues for her passion for issues related to continuing resources cataloging, e-resource management, cooperative cataloging, and newer developments such as linked data. Those topics are discussed in detail in the following articles.

The first group of articles focuses on the many challenges and complexities involved in describing continuing resources. In his article, Edgar Jones describes this as the "problem" that serials pose for the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR), which he discusses in relation to the IFLA Library Reference Model (LRM) as an attempt to solve that problem. This forward-looking article situates this discussion squarely within the historical context of the evolution of the conceptual model for serial works within the Anglo-American cataloging tradition.

Hong Cheng looks at the same issue from an international standpoint in his article discussing glocalization (the adaptation of international products to local cultures) and the related challenges of describing Chinese continuing resources. He describes the characteristics of Chinese serial publishing for both print and online works, and offers his thoughts on how catalogers can use these challenges as an opportunity to improve library practices.

The last article in this group, by Myung-Ja K. Han, Jamie Carlstone, and Patrick Harrington, covers the issues that arise when cataloging digitized continuing resources in a shared record environment, such as HathiTrust, especially when dealing with holdings and item records that are still governed by local institutional practices. After a thorough literature review, the authors discuss display and other issues that arise when different institutions with varying local practices contribute titles to the same repository, and the challenges of handling these complex issues with limited staff resources.

The second group of articles tackles cooperative cataloging. Shi Deng, Aislinn Sotelo, and Rebecca Culbertson start with a literature review and survey of library consortia to explore the models, strategies, and tools libraries are using to promote discovery and manage the constantly changing nature of consortial collections, both licensed and open access. Based on their review of the results of their survey, the authors identify five current trends in consortial cataloging, such as that consortia are much more likely to provide MARC records for licensed resources over open access resources. The authors recommend further studies, and note the need for a set of best practices for both providers and recipients of vendor records.

In their next related article, Renee Chin, Rebecca Culbertson, Shi Deng, Kathleen Garvey-Clasby, Bie-hwa Ma, Donal O'Sullivan, and Annie Ross examine the consortial model of the University of California's Shared Cataloging Program (SCP). In existence since 2000, the SCP provides UC campuses with records for certain categories of UC-licensed and open access resources. They discuss the organizational structure, funding models, and the factors that have contributed to the program's longevity in spite of significant changes in staffing and technology.

Next, Xiaoli Li and Michael Colby discuss a different type of cooperative cataloging venture, the experience of the UC Davis Library's participation in the University of California CONSER Funnel. Within the context of the PCC, funnels are a means by which a group of libraries can work collaboratively, submitting records for review by a funnel leader. For CONSER funnels, the training and review process enables more catalogers to do their work at the network level, where the entire community can benefit. Valerie Bross was key to its establishment and implementation, and served as the General Coordinator of the Funnel from 2006 to 2016. The authors discuss the significant, lasting impact that Funnel participation had at the UC Davis Library, as well as nationally.

The next grouping of articles discusses BIBFRAME (the Bibliographic Framework Initiative), the data model for bibliographic description designed to replace the MARC standards using linked data principles, as well as linked data applications more generally. Amanda Xu, Kirk Hess, and Laura Akerman evaluate the Library of Congress mapping of bibliographic data from MARC to the BIBFRAME 2.0 model and vocabulary, and whether or not it (and the related conversion tool) produces valid BIBFRAME RDF that transforms MARC data in a way that is useful and usable. The authors also provide suggestions for services that the Library of Congress could support for the benefit of communities of metadata users and providers.

Kevin Balster, Robert Rendall, and Tina Shrader look specifically at the issue of linked serial data produced by mapping the CONSER Standard Record (CSR) guidelines to BIBFRAME. This effort was part of the charge of the CONSER BIBFRAME Task Group; Valerie Bross was one of the key forces behind the formation of this group, and the article lists some of her most significant contributions to the project. In addition, the authors discuss how best to take advantage of the potential of linked data, even if doing so might cause changes to longstanding serial cataloging practices.

In the next article, Diane L. Boehr and Barbara Bushman look to the future, and describe a project to support the eventual transformation of bibliographic data to linked data by adding Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) RDF URIs to bibliographic and authority records at the National Library of Medicine (NLM). The authors detail the methods they used to update their legacy records, some of the technical and other issues that they encountered, as well as the automated method they developed to add RDF URIs to new or changed records. These records will be distributed to OCLC and elsewhere and will constitute a valuable data set for libraries and other stakeholders to examine and experiment with.

In the final article, Xiying Mi and Bonita M. Pollock describe their process for building a metadata model using linked data for a collection of cultural heritage resources and 3D digital models at the University of South Florida. The article discusses the workflows they developed, their research into existing cultural heritage models, as well as their eventual decision to create a local metadata schema to allow for locally-desired data elements such as crowd-sourced keywords and hashtags. They also detail the lessons they learned from structuring their data following the Europeana Data Model (EDM) for deposit into Europeana, which will also facilitate their eventual deposit into the Digital Public Library of America.

We would like to offer our respect and gratitude to the many authors who contributed to this special issue in honor of Valerie Bross. We also extend our thanks to Sandy K. Roe (CCQ editor) for the opportunity to publish this issue. The articles in this issue offer perspectives both theoretical and practical, general and specialized, and we believe there is valuable content here for readers in the library and information science community who are interested in issues related to description and the broadest possible discovery of resources residing in libraries and cultural heritage institutions. The editors of this special issue were fortunate to work with Valerie Bross for many years, and we trust and believe that this issue is a fitting memorial to her spirit of intellectual curiosity, her enthusiasm for tackling new challenges, and the daily inspiration she brought to her colleagues at the UCLA Library and so many other institutions.

About the editors

Claudia Horning, MLIS, is the Director of the Metadata Services Team, which is part of the Cataloging & Metadata Center at the UCLA Library. She serves as the Library's principal metadata librarian, plays a leadership role in the provision of metadata for digital projects, acts as a liaison both within and outside the Library on questions relating to digital initiatives, and serves as a departmental contact for metadata consultations by UCLA faculty and staff, as well as with partners on grant-funded projects. She currently chairs the Library's cross-unit Digitization Team, and in the recent past co-chaired the UC-wide Metadata Policy Project Team, which drafted the University of California Libraries Metadata Sharing Policy.

John J. Riemer, MLS, is the head of the Cataloging & Metadata Center at the UCLA Library. Since 2009, he has served in a number of capacities within the Program for Cooperative Cataloging, including PCC Chair in 2010/2011. During this time he has led an effort to expand the PCC's scope to include both traditional MARC cataloging and digital library project metadata/new metadata roles. Most recently he has chaired the PCC Task Group on Identity Management in NACO. He represents UCLA on and recently chaired ALA's Technical Services Directors of Large Research Libraries Interest Group ("Big Heads"). He is a member of the OCLC Research Library Partners Metadata Managers Focus Group, a member of the Cataloging & Classification Quarterly Editorial Board, and writes guest columns for Technicalities.

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