Volume 56, no. 4 2018


Book Reviews

A Practical Guide to Library of Congress Classification
by Karen Snow. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2017. ix, 161 p. ISBN 978-1-5381-0067-7. $29.00.
Reviewed by Bobby Bothmann


Cataloging News, Violet B. Fox, Editor

Original Articles

Assessing the Benefits of Content Notes Enhancements for Digital Audio Resources

Laura N. Kirkland & Jean Wald

ABSTRACT: Our library has previously investigated the potential impact the addition of contents notes on circulation. In a subsequent study, we found contents notes were the second metadata element most heavily linked to circulation (title was first). Since there has been a marked decline in the use of print resources at our library and a corresponding increase in digital resources, we wanted to know if the addition of contents notes to records for online streaming audio files would result in a similar increase in usage. After enhancing the records, we tracked usage for a period of three months.

KEYWORDS: Bibliographic data - interoperability, contents notes, electronic resources, sound recordings, use studies

Conceptualizations of Catalogers' Judgment through Content Analysis: A Preliminary Investigation

Junli Diao

ABSTRACT: This article explores the topic of fiction classification. The first section attempts to define the field, discussing fiction classification, its schemes, objectivity, aboutness, and shelf classification. The second section suggests three new ideas building upon the foundation of the first: a faceted multi-warrant classification, controlled term affective dimension searching, and the design of a user-oriented recommendation-based system.

KEYWORDS: Catalogers' judgment, cataloger, cataloging, conceptualization, content analysis

Reviewing, Rebutting, and Reimagining Fiction Classification

Mark Ward & Jarmo Saarti

ABSTRACT: Catalogers' judgment has been frequently mentioned, but rarely has been researched in formal studies. The purpose of this article is to investigate catalogers' judgment through an exploration of the texts collected in the database of Library and Information Science Source. Verbs, adjectives, and nouns intimately associated with catalogers' judgment were extracted, analyzed, and grouped into 16 categories, which lead to 5 conceptual descriptions. The results of this study provide cataloging professionals with an overall picture on aspects of catalogers' judgment, which may help library school students and graduates and novice catalogers to become independent and confident decision makers relating to cataloging work.

KEYWORDS: Fiction classification, affective dimension searching, connotative book indexes, book recommendation systems, shelf classification, indexing objectivity, aboutness

Music Literature Indexing: Comparing Users' Free-Text Queries and Controlled Vocabularies

Shuheng Wu & Yun Fan

ABSTRACT: This study examined the characteristics of users' free-text queries submitted to RILM Abstracts of Music Literature (a music literature database), and compared those queries with the controlled vocabularies used by RILM. Search-log analysis identified 11 categories of user-created search terms, and mapped each user-created search term to RILM's index terms, assessing whether it was a perfect match, a partial match, or no match. Only 30.04% of the user-created search terms did not match RILM's index terms. Most of the partial-matching and non-matching user-created search terms were personal names, work titles, and topical terms. Suggestions are offered to enhance RILM's controlled vocabularies.

KEYWORDS: Music literature indexing, controlled vocabulary, thesaurus, user queries, RILM Abstracts of Music Literature, search-log analysis, authority file

Name and Title Authorities in the Music Domain: Alignment of UNIMARC Authorities Format with RDA

Maria Aslanidi, Ioannis Papadakis & Michalis Stefanidakis

ABSTRACT: This article discusses and highlights alignment issues that arise between UNIMARC Authorities Format and Resource Description and Access (RDA) regarding the creation of name and title authorities for musical works and creators. More specifically, RDA, as an implementation of the FRAD model, is compared with the UNIMARC Authorities Format (Updates 2012 and 2016) in an effort to highlight various cases where the discovery of equivalent fields between the two standards is not obvious. The study is envisioned as a first step in an ongoing process of working with the UNIMARC community throughout RDA's advancement and progression regarding the entities [musical] Work and Names.

KEYWORDS: UNIMARC Authorities, RDA, FRAD, name authority records, musical works, authority control, PFC entities

Recent Research and Developments in Information Organization in Iran: A Historical Review

Rahmatollah Fattahi & Fatemeh Pazooki

ABSTRACT: This article discusses and highlights alignment issues that arise between UNIMARC Authorities Format and Resource Description and Access (RDA) regarding the creation of name and title authorities for musical works and creators. More specifically, RDA, as an implementation of the FRAD model, is compared with the UNIMARC Authorities Format (Updates 2012 and 2016) in an effort to highlight various cases where the discovery of equivalent fields between the two standards is not obvious. The study is envisioned as a first step in an ongoing process of working with the UNIMARC community throughout RDA's advancement and progression regarding the entities [musical] Work and Names.

KEYWORDS: Information organization, knowledge organization, FRBR, RDA, iran

Cataloging News

News Editor

Welcome to the news column. Its purpose is to disseminate information on any aspect of cataloging and classification that may be of interest to the cataloging community. This column is not just intended for news items, but serves to document discussions of interest as well as news concerning you, your research efforts, and your organization. Please send any pertinent materials, notes, minutes, or reports to: Violet Fox via email at violetbfox@gmail.com, phone: 312-996-3040. News columns will typically be available prior to publication in print from the CCQ website at http://catalogingandclassificationquarterly.com/.

We would appreciate receiving items having to do with:

Research and Opinion

  • Abstracts or reports of on-going or unpublished research
  • Bibliographies of materials available on specific subjects
  • Analysis or description of new technologies
  • Call for papers
  • Comments or opinions on the art of cataloging


  • Notes, minutes, or summaries of meetings, etc. of interest to catalogers
  • Publication announcements
  • Description of grants
  • Description of projects


  • Announcements of changes in personnel
  • Announcements of honors, offices, and so on


IFLA Library Reference Model

The RDA Steering Committee (RSC) welcomes the publication of the IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) Library Reference Model (LRM) as an IFLA standard. The LRM was endorsed by the IFLA Professional Committee in August 2017; the final version is available at: https://www.ifla.org/publications/node/11412. There are no significant changes to the LRM from the draft version used for the RDA Toolkit Restructure and Redesign (3R) Project by the RSC and its working groups. The project includes development of RDA as an implementation of the new model, which consolidates the separate IFLA Functional Requirements models on which RDA is based. The RSC recommends RDA Toolkit users to familiarize themselves with the LRM in preparation for the release of the new Toolkit in 2018.

IFLA 2017 Subject Analysis and Access Section Open Session, Wrocław, Poland, August 21, 2017

The IFLA Subject Analysis and Access Section held its open session on August 21 at the 2017 World Library and Information Congress (WLIC) in Wrocław, Poland. The program, which was co-sponsored and organized with the Bibliography Section, was entitled "Challenging Society and Naming Identity: Subject Access and Bibliography in a Multicultural World." The program included four presentations: "Knowing Nearby Others: Approaches to Precise Terminology in New Slavic Vocabularies" by Jean Dickinson (University of California, Berkeley), "Sami Bibliography" by Kari Mathisen and Siri Gaski (both of the National Library of Norway), "Genre Theory Applied: Genre and Form Terms in the National Library of Poland Catalogue" by Kamil Pawlicki (National Library of Poland), and "Retrieving Oregon Indians from Obscurity: A Project to Enhance Access to Resources on Tribal History and Culture" by Richard Sapon-White (Oregon State University). Presentations from the session are available online at the IFLA Library at: http://library.ifla.org.

ISMN (International Standard Music Number) Annual General Meeting, Ottawa, Ontario, Library and Archives Canada, September 13, 2017

Report submitted by Hartmut Walravens, ISMN Chairman
The 2017 AGM took place at Ottawa, Canada, on Sept. 13, 2017, by kind invitation of Library and Archives Canada. It followed directly the ISBN AGM, by now almost a tradition; as it turned out that in many cases ISBN and ISMN staff are often the same people or work in close proximity this is a very sensible arrangement. The meeting was perfectly organized by LAC staff whose hospitality was appreciated by the participants.

Among the news is the completion of the long-awaited ISMN Manager, a project by Wolfram Krajewski (Hürth, Germany). This is an ISMN administration system for agencies with the special option of easy data export into the International Database for Printed Music & Musical Products (IDNV), a kind of music in print developed and maintained by the German ISMN agency. Many ISMN agencies are relatively small, and therefore a PC-based flexible system fills their needs. Besides, there is no cost involved as the German agency offers the system to other agencies as a courtesy free of charge.

Paul Jessop, who is now responsible for DOI (for many years in charge of the International Standard Recording Code), enriched the meeting by a paper advocating the use of DOI (Digital Object Identifier); this is not a new application—the DOI system was designed in a way to accommodate existing ISO identifiers such as the ISMN. As DOI may be used to identify almost any object, not only electronic ones, the DOI ISMN application might open the door to other uses, e.g., the identification of parts or excerpts and links to various contexts.

Already at previous ISMN meetings, Paul broke a lance for linking notated music with other works. Again, this a not a new idea: it was already discussed as a desirable option when the standard was developed. But Paul, with his immense practical experience with several ISO identifiers has chosen the right time to remind the community of these options and their added value. Now ISMN and some of the identifiers have come of age, and many manifestations, products, and works are numbered, so there is the necessary critical mass for actually experimenting with the practical options. While there has always been some overlap with ISBN, added value could be gained by linking with ISRC (for recordings) as most items identified by ISRC are based on notated music (ISMN), or with ISWC (for musical works, as creations); the latter could link, e.g. all the different ISMNs for the many scores of Beethoven's 9th Symphony. In the case of copyrighted publications, the further link with ISNI (Name Identifier, i.e., for public identities) would be ideal for use by collecting societies. Immediate action may be difficult as both ISRC and ISWC are currently undergoing revision but this may be an opportunity of paying attention to such linking ideas during the revision process.

Joseph Trivers, music librarian of Library & Archives Canada, gave an interesting account of the Canadian music sector, including the ISMN. He got in contact with people from the music publishing sector and asked them about ISMN. While quite a number of publishers have ISMNs and use them for their publications it is not surprising that some of them do not see much benefit in their existence. There is truth in that view as the music world is still without a comprehensive worldwide music in print directory (or database) (IDNV may perhaps fill this need) which might serve as the basis for national and international ordering, distribution and bibliographic information. On the other hand, the ISMN is applicable internationally, in contrast to former proprietary systems, and in its barcoded form may save quite some time and effort in internal rationalization and ordering and distribution as well. For example, Amazon seems by now persuaded that the ISMN is a real and valid ISO identifier and covered by GS1's GTIN guide; therefore, ISMNs may be used for ordering and distribution with Amazon (who have become, in some countries, the largest notated music retailer).

Canada has been a real ISMN pioneer; its early start as an ISMN member was probably triggered by its traditional links with the UK market; on the other hand, the U.S. only adopted ISMN a few years ago, and it is to the farsightedness of the Library of Congress that ISMN is now easily available there, and even free of charge. But this also means that it will take some more time until the North American continent will have the necessary critical mass of numbered items to realize several of the identifier's benefits.

The 2018 ISMN AGM is scheduled for September 26—the venue will be Malta, by kind invitation of the National Book Council.

Publication of "The Future of Cataloging in Egypt"

On November 18. 2017, Cybrarians (The Arabic Portal for Librarianship & Information) launched the final document of "The Future of Cataloguing in Egypt" project. "The Future of Cataloguing in Egypt" is a research project conducted by Cybrarians and the collaborative result of twenty Egyptian experts in cataloging. The project aims at taking an action in the Egyptian library community to be able to face the new challenges and changes in the field of cataloging.

The project's final product was a document entitled "The Future of Cataloguing in Egypt: an action plan." The document includes nine proposals for core projects related to cataloging field on the national level. The projects cover all aspects needed for the Egyptian libraries community and other countries as well. Herein the list of proposals included in the document:

  1. Arabisation and Propagation of the RDA Standard
  2. Egyptian National Cataloguing Policy
  3. National Cloud Catalogue
  4. A National Authority File for Names and Corporate Bodies
  5. Cataloguing Curricula
  6. Training Program on RDA Rules
  7. Union Catalogue for Public Libraries
  8. Union Catalogue for School Libraries
  9. Functional and Technical Specifications of Automated Systems

The document is available in both printed and electronic formats in Arabic and English. For those interested in the project, further detail is available in the following resources:

Save the date: RDA conference to be held on August 23, 2018 and hosted by the National Library of Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur

Join us for a full-day event focused on RDA, organized by the RDA Board and held at the National Library of Malaysia. The event will look particularly at the ways in which RDA is evolving to accommodate the needs of cataloging communities around the world.

There will be RDA experts presenting on topics such as the restructure and redesign of the RDA Toolkit, how RDA governance has changed to ensure dialogue with all regions and language communities of the globe, case studies of RDA implementation in different geographical regions, and optimizing cataloging data for the linked data environment.

There will be formal presentations and opportunities to talk with those who have already implemented RDA. It is a good opportunity to hear about the latest developments as well as consult with colleagues about RDA implementation.Who should attend?

  • Anyone from libraries that have not yet adopted RDA as their cataloging standard—you will hear case studies from those who have—what worked and what didn't?
  • Existing, new, and prospective users of the RDA Toolkit will receive a live demonstration of the new Toolkit after the 3R Project
  • Library decision-makers who want to know how RDA is evolving to accommodate international users, from practical issues of facilitating translation to complex issues of different descriptive practices
  • National libraries who want to be involved at the national, regional, and international level in the governance of RDA
  • Library professionals interested in innovative ways of reusing cataloging data in a linked data environment
  • Library skills trainers interested in delivering RDA training

Bibliotheca Alexandrina launches the online version of MARC 21 Format for Classification Data in Arabic

The Bibliotheca Alexandrina launches the fifth and final online version of MARC 21 Formats; namely MARC 21 Format for Classification Data in Arabic . MARC 21 Format for Classification Data carries classification information, with a special focus on classification schemes that are enhanced to best serve Arab libraries and classify their collections.

The Arabic online version is accessible from the Arabic Library Standards website (https://www.bibalex.org/als). It is a free version that provides Arab cataloguers with a selection of the core MARC 21 Format for Classification Data fields, and adopts a tailored field description structure. The online versions cover until Update 19, featuring the complete Format Summary of the formats.

The online version of MARC 21 Format for Classification Data in Arabic introduces the release of the full print edition of the mentioned format, that will be in one volume. Intended to be available for acquisition, the print edition is a complete Arabization of the original MARC 21 Format for Classification Data as published by the Library of Congress.

MARC 21 Format for Classification Data in Arabic serves classifiers who work with different classification schemes, even local ones. Moreover, it is very useful in maintaining and developing classification schedules systems, Online Public Access Catalogues (OPACs) and retrieval systems.

It is worth mentioning that MARC 21 , with its five formats, is a standard by which bibliographic, authority, holdings and classification data, and community information is documented in a machine-readable form, and one of the most important systems in data creation and sharing between libraries. It is also the most widely supported encoding standard by integrated library systems, meeting the needs of both libraries and patrons, equally.

For further details about the Arabic edition of MARC 21 Formats , please visit:

Classification update schedule revised

Starting in 2017, the NLM (National Library of Medicine) Classification, available online at https://www.nlm.nih.gov/class, has moved from an annual spring update to twice-yearly updates. The 2018 winter edition has been issued as of January 31, 2018.

For the winter edition, the 2018 MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) vocabulary was evaluated for inclusion in the Classification index. Several additions and changes were made to the Index and Schedules based on this review. All main index headings are now linked to the 2018 vocabulary in the MeSH Browser. Additional minor updates were made to the Index and Schedules.

Summary statistics for the 2018 Winter Edition

  • 93 index main headings added (86 from 2018 MeSH)
  • 114 index entries modified
  • 2 index headings deleted
  • 8 class numbers added
  • 1 new schedule range header modified
  • 11 class number captions or notes modified
  • No class numbers canceled

The 2018 summer version will be published in mid-to-late August 2018. It will encompass the ongoing systematic review of selected classification schedules and other miscellaneous updates. The PDF version will be updated with all 2018 classification data in the fall. Contact NLM for further information, questions, or comments.

Genre terms for tabletop games now available

A list of genre terms for tabletop games is now available. The new source code "gttg" has been added to the Genre/Form Code and Term Sources code list for usage in appropriate fields and elements. The document of genre terms for cataloging table top games was developed by librarians at the University of North Texas Libraries Media Library and is available at: https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc826647/.


John Donald Byrum (1940–2018)
prepared for CCQ by Glenn E. Patton (based on a text by Judy Mansfield)

John Donald Byrum (1940–2018) was a quiet and thoughtful man, known for his ability to lead people to action and for loyalty, both given and received. Those who reported to him readily acknowledged and expressed appreciation for his mentoring and for challenging them to excel in ways they had not imagined. He will also be remembered for these same characteristics by a host of colleagues and friends around the world.

Mr. Byrum graduated Magna Cum Laude from Harvard University in 1962 and received a master's degree from the Graduate School of Library Service, Rutgers—The State University of New Jersey in 1966. He began his library career as a cataloger at Princeton University Library, where he was promoted to head cataloger in 1968. In 1976, he joined the Library of Congress where he served as a chief of various divisions, while overseeing several international cooperative cataloging efforts. As a forceful manager during his tenure at LC, he made an indelible mark on the Library's bibliographic control operations that had national and international impact. Among these were leadership roles in incorporating support for non-Latin scripts into LC cataloging, the development of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging and its expansion outside the United States. He retired in 2006.

Active in both national and international professional associations, Mr. Byrum was a substantial contributor to the theory of bibliographic control, for which he gained national and international renown. He was particularly active in the development of the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) and its incorporation into national cataloging codes in the Anglo-American cataloging community as well as around the world. While at Princeton and later at the Library of Congress, he was the first representative of the American Library Association (ALA) to the Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR ( Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules ) and, simultaneously, the chair of the ALA Resources and Technical Services Division Catalog Code Revision Committee.

He was a founding member of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) Study Group on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records, which resulted in the publication, Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records . As chair of IFLA's International Standard for Bibliographic Description (ISBD) Review Group, Mr. Byrum led the continuing revision and maintenance of the family of ISBDs for the full range of materials in library collections. Additionally, Mr. Byrum published and spoke widely on topics related to bibliographic control.

Mr. Byrum received many honors for his contributions to librarianship. In 1975, he was awarded the ALA Esther J. Piercy Award, given to an outstanding librarian with not more than ten years of professional experience. He received the ALA Margaret Mann Citation for outstanding professional achievement in cataloging in 1998. For his work both nationally and internationally, he received ALA's prestigious Melvil Dewey Medal and Citation in 2006 for creative professional achievement in library management, training, cataloging, and classification, and the tools and techniques of librarianship. He was a member of Beta Phi Mu.

Jean Weihs named a Member of the Order of Canada

Jean Weihs was among the 125 new appointments to the Order of Canada that were recognized for their achievements on December 29, 2017 in Toronto, Ontario. Created in 1967, the Order of Canada recognizes outstanding achievement, dedication to the community and service to the nation. Appointments are made by the governor general on the recommendation of the Advisory Council for the Order of Canada.

Jean Weihs was recognized as a Member of the Order of Canada "[f]or her national and international contributions to library sciences, notably to the standardization of the non-book cataloging system." Weihs has a long and storied career dedicated to teaching and improving cataloging practice, including working as director of the Library Techniques Program at Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology and teaching at UCLA and Simmons College. She was a member of the Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR for nine years, serving five years as chair. Her many publications include Nonbook Materials: The Organization of Integrated Collections (1970, 1973, 1979, and 1989), Accessible Storage of Nonbook Materials (l984), The Integrated Library (1991), and The Principles and Future of AACR: Proceedings of the International Conference on the Principles and Future Development of AACR (1998), and Standard Cataloging for School and Public Libraries. Prior to receiving this honor, Weihs received many illustrious awards, including the Margaret Mann Citation Award, the 60th Anniversary Award of the University of Toronto Faculty of Library and Information Science, the Queen's Jubilee Medal, OLAC's Nancy B. Olson Lifetime Achievement Award, and the Canadian Association of College and University Libraries' Blackwell's Award for Distinguished Academic Librarian.



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